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  • 1. Cao, x
    et al.
    Yuan, Y
    Xiang, B
    Sun, L
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Numerical investigation on optimal number of longitudinal fins in horizontal annular phase change unit at different wall temperatures2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 158, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Chen, X.
    et al.
    Su, Y.
    Aydin, D.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ding, Y.
    Reay, D.
    Law, R.
    Riffat, S.
    Experimental investigations of polymer hollow fibre integrated evaporative cooling system with the fibre bundles in a spindle shape2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 154, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the advantages of light weight, corrosion resistant and low cost, hollow fibres have been studied as the substitute for metallic materials. A novel hollow fibre integrated evaporative cooling system, in which the hollow fibre module constitutes as the humidifier and the evaporative cooler, is proposed. This novel hollow fibre integrated evaporative cooling system will provide a comfortable indoor environment for hot and dry area. Moreover, the water vapour can permeate through the hollow fibre effectively, and the liquid water droplets will be prevented from mixing with the processed air. In order to avoid the flow channelling or shielding of adjacent fibres, the fibres inside each bundle were made into a spindle shape to allow maximum contact between the air stream and the fibre. The cooling performances of the proposed novel polymer hollow fibre integrated evaporative cooling system were experimentally investigated under the incoming air temperature in the range of 26 °C to 32 °C and relative humidity of 25%–35%. The effects of air velocities on the cooling effectiveness, heat and mass transfer coefficients, specific water consumption and pressure drop across the polymer hollow fibre module were analysed. Two sets of experimentally derived non-dimensional heat and mass transfer correlations were summarized, which could be favourable for the future design of polymer hollow fibre integrated evaporative cooling system.

  • 3. Dermentzis, G.
    et al.
    Ochs, F.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Calabrese, T.
    Siegele, D.
    Feist, W.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    A comprehensive evaluation of a monthly-based energy auditing tool through dynamic simulations, and monitoring in a renovation case study2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 183, p. 713-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy auditing tool (PHPP) was evaluated against a dynamic simulation tool (TRNSYS) and used for the assessment of energy conservation measures in a demo case study. The comprehensive comparison of useful heating and cooling demands and loads included three building types (single-, multi-family house, and office), three building energy levels (before renovation and after renovation with a heating demand of 45 and 25 kWh/(m²·a)) and seven European climates. Dynamic simulation results proved PHPP (monthly energy balance) to be able to calculate heating demand and energy savings with good precision and cooling demand with acceptable precision compared to detailed numerical models (TRNSYS). The average deviation between the tools was 8% for heating and 15% for cooling (considering climates with a relevant cooling load only). The higher the thermal envelope quality was, i.e. in case of good energy standards and in cold climates, the better was the agreement. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PHPP slightly overestimates the heating and cooling loads by intention for system design. The renovation design of a real multi-family house was executed using PHPP as energy auditing tool. Several calculation stages were performed for (a) baseline, (b) design phase, and (c) verification with monitoring in order to calculate the corresponding heating demand. The PHPP model was calibrated twice, before and after the renovation. The necessity for tool calibration, especially for the baseline, was highlighted increasing the confidence with respect to a number of boundary conditions. In this study, PHPP was tested as an energy auditing tool aiming to be a versatile and less error-prone alternative to more complex simulation tools, which require much more expert knowledge and training. 

  • 4. Dipasquale, Chiara
    et al.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Ochs, Fabian
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Database of energy, environmental and economic indicators of renovation packages for European residential buildings2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 203, article id 109427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the energy efficiency with a vast impact in the residential building stock requires retrofit solutions that can be exploited with respect to a wide range of different building typologies and climates. Several tools and methodologies are nowadays available both for the assessment of building demands and for the individuation of optimum retrofit solutions. However, they are usually either too complex to be adopted by professionals or, on the contrary, oversimplified to account for the full complexity of a deep envelope and HVAC system retrofit. In this context, this paper describes a methodology developed to generate reliable information on retrofit solutions for typical buildings in different climatic conditions. Detailed numerical models are used to simulate a number of combinations of envelope and HVAC systems retrofit measures and renewable energy integration. Energy performance results are gathered in a database that allows comparing solutions, spanning over a range of more than 250,000 combinations of building types, age of construction, climates, envelope performance levels and HVAC systems configurations. Economic feasibility is also derived for each of the combinations. In this way, the accurateness of a detailed and validated calculation is made available to assist during the decision making process, with minimum computational effort being required by professionals: the variety and density of evaluated combinations allows to easily assess the performance of a specific case by interpolating among instances previously assessed. The applicability of the results to different climates and similar building typologies is verified by a comparison of the database results with a specific case dynamic simulation.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Energy performance comparison of three innovative HVAC systems for renovation through dynamic simulation2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, p. 512-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic simulation was used to compare the energy performance of three innovativeHVAC systems: (A) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and micro heat pump, (B) exhaustventilation with exhaust air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, and (C) exhaust ventilationwith air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, to a reference system: (D) exhaust ventilation withair-to-water heat pump and panel radiators. System A was modelled in MATLAB Simulink and systems Band C in TRNSYS 17. The reference system was modelled in both tools, for comparison between the two.All systems were tested with a model of a renovated single family house for varying U-values, climates,infiltration and ventilation rates.It was found that A was the best system for lower heating demand, while for higher heating demandsystem B would be preferable. System C was better than the reference system, but not as good as A or B.The difference in energy consumption of the reference system was less than 2 kWh/(m2a) betweenSimulink and TRNSYS. This could be explained by the different ways of handling solar gains, but also bythe fact that the TRNSYS systems supplied slightly more than the ideal heating demand.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bellini, A.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, F.
    Sié, M.
    Holmberg, S.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the buildings in Europe are old and in need of renovation, both in terms of functional repairs and energy efficiency. While many studies have addressed energy renovation of buildings, they rarely combine economic and environmental life cycle analyses, particularly for office buildings. The present paper investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. The renovation packages, including windows, envelope insulation, heating, cooling and ventilation systems and solar photovoltaics (PV), were evaluated in terms of life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) through dynamic simulation for different European climates. Compared to a purely functional renovation, the studied renovation packages resulted in up to 77% lower energy costs, 19% lower total annualized costs, 79% lower climate change impact, 89% lower non-renewable energy use, 66% lower particulate matter formation and 76% lower freshwater eutrophication impact over a period of 30 years. The lowest total costs and environmental impact, in all of the studied climates, were seen for the buildings with the lowest heating demand. Solar PV panels covering part of the electricity demand could further reduce the environmental impact and, at least in southern Europe, even reduce the total costs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    How the electric meter configuration affect the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity from PV systems: case study in Sweden2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 138, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates how the principal function of bi-directional electric meters affects the monitored amount of self-consumed and produced excess electricity for dwelling buildings connected to the grid by three phases. The electric meters momentarily record the sum of the phases or the phases individually and then summarize the recorded values to a suitable time period and is then collected by the grid owner. In Sweden, both electric meter configurations fulfill laws and regulations.

    The meter configuration affects the monitored distribution of self-consumed and produced excess electricity significantly for the investigated single-family house but is negligible for the investigated multi-dwelling buildings. The monitored self-consumed electricity produced by the PV installation for the single-family house varies between 24% and 55% depending on the configuration and how the inverter is installed for the investigated year. The difference in economic value for the produced electricity varies between 79.3 to 142 Euros.

    Due to the electric meter configuration, the profitability of PV systems will be different for identical single-family houses with identical conditions. This should be corrected for a well-functioning market. It is also important to decide how the configuration should be designed to ensure that different incentives and enablers results in desired effects.

  • 8.
    Haller, Michel Yves
    et al.
    SPF Institut für Solartechnik, Hochschule für Technik.
    Haberl, Robert
    SPF Institut für Solartechnik, Hochschule für Technik.
    Persson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Kovacs, Peter
    Technical Research Institutue of Sweden.
    Chèze, David
    CEA, INES.
    Papillon, Philippe
    CEA, INES.
    Dynamic whole system testing of combined renewable heating systems: the current state of the art2013In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 66, p. 667-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: For the evaluation of the energetic performance of combined renewable heating systems that supply space heat and domestic hot water for single family houses, dynamic behaviour, component interactions, and control of the system play a crucial role and should be included in test methods.

    Methods: New dynamic whole system test methods were developed based on “hardware in the loop” concepts. Three similar approaches are described and their differences are discussed. The methods were applied for testing solar thermal systems in combination with fossil fuel boilers (heating oil and natural gas), biomass boilers, and/or heat pumps.

    Results: All three methods were able to show the performance of combined heating systems under transient operating conditions. The methods often detected unexpected behaviour of the tested system that cannot be detected based on steady state performance tests that are usually applied to single components.

    Conclusion: Further work will be needed to harmonize the different test methods in order to reach comparable results between the different laboratories.

    Practice implications: A harmonized approach for whole system tests may lead to new test standards and improve the accuracy of performance prediction as well as reduce the need for field tests.

  • 9. He, Wei
    et al.
    Hong, Xiaoqiang
    Zhao, Xudong
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Hull.
    Shen, Jinchun
    Ji, Jie
    Theoretical investigation of the thermal performance of a novel solar loop-heat-pipe facade-based heat pump water heating system2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 77, p. 180-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper was to present a dedicated theoretical investigation into the thermal performance of a novel solar loop-heat-pipe façade based heat pump water heating system. This involved thermo-fluid analyses, computer numerical model development, the model running up, modelling result analyses and conclusion. An energy balance network was established on each part and the whole range of the system to address the associated energy conversion and transfer processes. On basis of this, a computer numerical model was developed and run up to predict the thermal performance of such a system at different system configurations, layouts and operational conditions. It was suggested that the loop heat pipes could be filled with either water, R134a, R22 or R600a; of which R600a is the favourite working fluid owing to its relatively larger heat transfer capacity and positive pressure in operation. Variations in the system configuration, i.e., glazing covers, heat exchangers, would lead to identifiable differences in the thermal performance of the system, represented by the thermal efficiency and COP. Furthermore, impact of the external operational parameters, i.e., solar radiation and ambient air temperature, to the system's thermal performance was also investigated. The research was based on an innovative loop-heat-pipe façade and came up with useful results reflecting the thermal performance of the combined system between the façade and heat pump. This would help promote development and market penetration of such an innovative solar heating technology, and thus contribute to achieving the global targets in energy saving and carbon emission reduction.

  • 10.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Huang, Gongsheng
    Augenbroe, Godfried
    Li, Shan
    Optimal configuration of multiple-chiller plants under cooling load uncertainty for different climate effects and building types2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 158, p. 684-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Configuring the number and size of chillers in a multiple-chiller plant properly is an efficient way to improve the plant energy efficiency. At the design stage, the optimal configuration can be achieved through matching the capacity to load as closely as possible across the full-load profile. However, in spite of the fact that current literature offers practical recommendations, a systematic method to optimize the configuration of multiple-chiller plants is lacking. Due to the lack of accurate information at the design stage and only limited knowledge of the eventual realization it is hard to predict the building’s cooling load. Moreover, there is no operational data to predict the system performance. Both explain the existence of uncertainty in the HVAC plant design process. This paper, therefore, proposes a strategy to optimize the configuration of multiple-chiller plants, which takes account of the load side uncertainty as well as the COP uncertainty and selects the optimal configuration through a life-cycle analysis. Both the load side uncertainty and the COP uncertainty are quantified using statistical distributions. To facilitate applications, the distributions of the cooling load profile of different types of buildings under different weather conditions are investigated and are classified into four categories, and the optimal configuration schemes under each type of cooling load distribution are analyzed and summarized in a tabulated form.

  • 11.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Huang, Gongsheng
    Wang, Yu
    HVAC system design under peak load prediction uncertainty using multiple-criterion decision making technique2015In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 91, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are widely equipped in modern buildings to provide indoor thermal comfort and guarantee indoor air quality. In a conventional design, the components of an HVAC system are sized according to a deterministic peak load, predicted according to typical weather condition, building physics and internal load. It has been shown by many studies that this prediction is associated with uncertainties since building physical parameters cannot be accurately set and the weather and the internal load used in the design may be different from the real situation after use. Therefore, uncertainty cannot be neglected in order to properly size a HVAC system. In this paper, a prototype of HVAC system design under uncertainty is proposed, which is able to take uncertainty directly in the design, and most importantly it can assess the performance of a design at the design stage in term of multiple performance indices and the customers’ requirements and preferences, i.e. the new design method falls in the framework of multiple criteria decision making. Case studies are used to illustrate the design procedure, and the result is compared with that of a conventional design method.

  • 12.
    Huang, Pei
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. City University of Hong Kong.
    Xu, T.
    Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, PR China.
    Sun, Y.
    City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong; City University of Hong Kong Shenzhen Research Institute, Shenzhen, PR China.
    A genetic algorithm based dynamic pricing for improving bi-directional interactions with reduced power imbalance2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 199, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Svedung, Harald
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Energy efficient surfaces on building sandwich panels: a dynamic simulation model2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 3736-3736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of building envelope is critical for the energy performance of buildings. The major part of the energy used by a building during its lifetime is used for maintaining a suitable interior thermal climate under varying exterior conditions. Although exterior heat radiation properties (i.e. total solar reflectivity and long wave thermal emissivity) have been well accepted to have a large impact on the need for active cooling in warmer climate, the effect of a reduced thermal emissivity on interior surfaces on the building thermal energy flux is rarely studied. This paper addresses the sensitivity of the thermal energy flux through a sandwich panel, by systematically varying the surface thermal emissivity (both interior and exterior) and total solar reflectance of exterior surface, for three geographical locations: southern, middle and northern Europe. A model is introduced for calculating the effect of both interior and exterior optical properties of a horizontal roof panel in terms of net energy flux per unit area. The results indicate potential energy saving by the smart choice of optical properties of interior and exterior surfaces.

  • 14.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Department of Fluid and Climate Technology, School of Technology and Health, KTH, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, SE-14152 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Department of Fluid and Climate Technology, School of Technology and Health, KTH, Alfred Nobels Allé 10, SE-14152 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Design considerations with ventilation-radiators: Comparisons to traditional two-panel radiators2009In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 92-100Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Persson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Nordlander, Svante
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Electrical savings by use of wood pellet stoves and solar heating systems in electrically heated single-family houses2005In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 920-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how electrically heated single-family houses can be converted to wood pellets- and solar heating using pellet stoves and solar heating systems. Four different system concepts are presented and system simulations in TRNSYS evaluate the thermal performance and the electrical savings possible for two different electrically heated single-family houses. Simulations show that the electricity savings using a wood pellet stove are greatly affected by the level of comfort, the house plan, the system choice and if the internal doors are open or closed. Installing a stove with a water-jacket connected to a radiator system and a hot water store has the advantage that heat can be transferred to domestic hot water and be distributed to other rooms. Such systems leads to that more electricity can be replaced, especially in houses having a traditional plan. Though it is unnecessary to have too many radiators connected to a stove with a low fraction of energy heating the water jacket. Today’s most common control strategy for stoves, (the on/off-control) results in unnecessarily high emissions. A more advanced control varying the heating rate from maximum to minimum to keep a constant room temperature reduces the number of starts and stops and thereby the emissions.

  • 16. Sun, Yongjun
    et al.
    Huang, Pei
    City University of Hong Kong.
    Huang, Gongsheng
    A multi-criteria system design optimization for net zero energy buildings under uncertainties2015In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 97, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Net zero energy buildings (NZEBs) have been widely considered to be an effective solution to the increasing energy and environmental problems. Most conventional design methods for NZEB systems are based on deterministic data/information and have not systematically considered the significant uncertainty impacts. Consequently, the conventional design methods lead to popular oversized problems in practice. Meanwhile, NZEB system design methods need to consider customers’ actual performance preferences but few existing methods can take account of them. Therefore, this study proposes a multi-criteria system design optimization for NZEBs under uncertainties. In the study, three performance criteria are used to evaluate the overall NZEB system performance based on user-defined weighted factors. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  • 17.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Primary energy use in buildings in a Swedish perspective2016In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 130, p. 202-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector accounts for a large part of the energy use in Europe and is a sector where the energy efficiency needs to improve in order to reach the EU energy and climate goals. The energy efficiency goal is set in terms of primary energy even though there are different opinions on how to calculate primary energy. When determining the primary energy use in a building several assumptions are made regarding allocation and the value of different energy sources. In order to analyze the difference in primary energy when different methods are used, this study use 16 combinations of different assumptions to calculate the primary energy use for three simulated heating and ventilations systems in a building. The system with the lowest primary energy use differs depending on the method used. Comparing a system with district heating and mechanical exhaust ventilation with a system with district heating, mechanical exhaust ventilation and exhaust air heat pump, the former has a 40% higher primary energy use in one scenario while the other has a 320% higher in another scenario. This illustrates the difficulty in determining which system makes the largest contribution to fulfilling the EU energy and climate goals.

  • 18. Udomsri, Seksan
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    Martin, Viktoria
    Decentralised cooling in district heating network: Monitoring results and calibration of simulation model2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 3311-3321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the monitoring results of a thermally driven chiller (TDC) driven by district heat from a network supplied by a centralised combined heat and power (CHP) fired with municipal waste. The main objective of this article is to analyse the monitoring results obtained from the demonstration and calibrate a system model that is later used for parametric studies in order to find improved system design and control. The calibration of the system model was made in three stages and all the energy performance figures were within 4% of the measured values. Results show that the TDC system is capable of providing maximum thermal and electrical COP's of 0.50 and 4.6 respectively during the hottest period. For the complete monitoring period during the summer of 2008, the figures were 0.41 and 2.1. The lower figures were due to continuous pump operation inside the TDC even during periods of no cold production and a period when no cold was produced. However the internal pumps inside the TDC have been removed in the new version TDC to increase the electrical COP. System simulation and parametric studies will be employed to further determine how the electrical COP can be improved.

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