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  • 1.
    Blomberg, J
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Persson, B
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Blomberg, A
    Effects of semi-isostatic densification of wood on the variation in strength properties with density2005In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 339-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variation in strength properties with density was compared between semi-isostatically densified and non-densified wood. Strength properties were compared with published data from earlier studies using other methods for densification. Small clear specimens of eight species were analysed for compression strength in axial, radial and tangential direction, three-point bending and Brinell hardness. After densification, all tested strength properties increased with density, but especially strength perpendicular to grain became lower than expected from the density of non-densified wood. Strength of densified wood relative to what could be expected for non-densified wood of similar density was denoted as `strength potential index'. For axial compression strength and bending strength, strength potential index of individual wood species varied between 0.7 and 1.0, i.e. densified wood is slightly weaker than what could be expected from its density. Strength potential index was lower for properties much determined by strength perpendicular to grain. In radial direction, densified wood was rubbery with low modulus of elasticity and nearly no proportional limit or modulus of rupture. Generally, wood was apparently weakened in proportion to the degree of compression in respective direction. Strength potential index also increased with increasing original density of the species.

  • 2. Blomberg, J.
    et al.
    Persson, B.
    Blomberg, A.
    Variation in strength properties with density of semi-isostatically densified wood2005In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 39, p. 339-350Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Persson, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Swelling pressure of semi-isostatically densified wood under different mechanical restraints2007In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 401-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-isostatically densified and native wood samples of Scots pine and European birch were soaked in water. The swelling coefficients as well as the swelling pressure, that arose when the specimens were restrained in some way prior to the swelling, were measured using a universal testing machine equipped with a high resolution load-cell and an external extensometer. As densified wood swells, the native structure is almost restored and the swelling pressure became twice as high as for native wood in the most compressed directions (radial for pine and birch). That cell-shape recovery increases the swelling pressure can explain the problems with imbalance in laminated constructions where densified wood is used. The possibility to predict the swelling pressure from basic material properties was evaluated. The correlations between swelling pressure and material properties were strong enough to yield good predictive models.

  • 4. Boonstra, M. J.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Semi-isostatic densification of heat-treated radiata pine2007In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 607-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-isostatic densification is a useful method to increase the density and to improve the mechanical properties of fast-grown softwood species like radiata pine. A major disadvantage of this method is the almost complete recovery of the original dimensions when densified wood is exposed to moisture. Heat treatment improves the dimensional stability of wood and might be a useful method to prevent this shape-recovery after densification. However, no or only a limited effect on the shape-recovery was found when densified radiata pine was exposed to moisture.

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