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  • 1. Carlsson, Axel C
    et al.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Sundström, Johan
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Feldreich, Tobias
    Stenemo, Markus
    Larsson, Anders
    Lind, Lars
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Use of proteomics to investigate kidney function decline over 5 years2017In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1226-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Using a discovery/replication approach, we investigated associations between a multiplex panel of 80 circulating proteins associated with cardiovascular pathology or inflammation, and eGFR decline per year and CKD incidence.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used two cohorts, the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors Study (PIVUS; n=687, mean age of 70 years, 51% women) and the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM; n=360 men, mean age of 78 years), with 5-year follow-up data on eGFR. There were 231 and 206 incident cases of CKD during follow-up in the PIVUS and ULSAM studies, respectively. Proteomic profiling of 80 proteins was assessed by a multiplex assay (proximity extension assay). The assay uses two antibodies for each protein and a PCR step to achieve a high-specific binding and the possibility to measure multiple proteins in parallel, but gives no absolute concentrations.

    RESULTS: In the discovery cohort from the PIVUS Study, 28 plasma proteins were significantly associated with eGFR decline per year, taking into account the multiple testing. Twenty of these proteins were significantly associated with eGFR decline per year in the replication cohort from the ULSAM Study after adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (in order of significance: TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2*, CD40L receptor, TNF receptor 1*, placenta growth factor*, thrombomodulin*, urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor*, growth/differentiation factor 15*, macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1, fatty acid-binding protein*, cathepsin D, resistin, kallikrein 11*, C-C motif chemokine 3, proteinase-activated receptor 1*, cathepsin L, chitinase 3-like protein 1, TNF receptor 2*, fibroblast growth factor 23*, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and kallikrein 6). Moreover, 11 of the proteins predicted CKD incidence (marked with * above). No protein consistently predicted eGFR decline per year independently of baseline eGFR in both cohorts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Several circulating proteins involved in phosphate homeostasis, inflammation, apoptosis, extracellular matrix remodeling, angiogenesis, and endothelial dysfunction were associated with worsening kidney function. Multiplex proteomics appears to be a promising way of discovering novel aspects of kidney disease pathology.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Axel C
    et al.
    Centre for Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tobias E
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Division of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundström, Johan
    Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in elderly men2014In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1393-1401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been suggested as a clinically relevant highly specific biomarker of acute kidney tubular damage. However, community-based data on the association between urinary levels of KIM-1 and the risk for cardiovascular mortality are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the association between urinary KIM-1 and cardiovascular mortality.DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This was a prospective study, using the community-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (N=590; mean age 77 years; baseline period, 1997-2001; median follow-up 8.1 years; end of follow-up, 2008).RESULTS: During follow-up, 89 participants died of cardiovascular causes (incidence rate, 2.07 per 100 person-years at risk). Models were adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (age, systolic BP, diabetes, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, antihypertensive treatment, lipid-lowering treatment, aspirin treatment, and history of cardiovascular disease) and for markers of kidney dysfunction and damage (cystatin C-based eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio). Higher urinary KIM-1/creatinine (from 24-hour urine collections) was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio per SD increase, 1.27; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 1.54; P=0.01). Participants with a combination of high KIM-1/creatinine (upper quintile, ≥175 ng/mmol), low eGFR (≤60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and microalbuminuria/macroalbuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio≥3 g/mol) had a >8-fold increased risk compared with participants with low KIM-1/creatinine (<175 ng/mmol), normal eGFR (>60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), and normoalbuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio<3 g/mol) (hazard ratio, 8.56; 95% CI, 4.17 to 17.56; P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that higher urinary KIM-1 may predispose to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality independently of established cardiovascular risk factors, eGFR, and albuminuria. Additional studies are needed to further assess the utility of measuring KIM-1 in the clinical setting.

  • 3. Xiong, Zibo
    et al.
    Xu, Hong
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Sjogren, Per
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Riserus, Ulf
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Nonesterified fatty acids and cardiovascular mortality in elderly men with CKD2015In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives Although nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are essential as energy substrate for the myocardium, an excess of circulating NEFAs can be harmful. This study aimed to assess plausible relationships between serum NEFA and mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in individuals with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was a prospective cohort study from the third examination cycle of the Uppsala LongitudinaL Study of Adult Men, a population-based survey of 1221 elderly men aged 70-71 years residing in Uppsala, Sweden. Data collection took place during 1991-1995. All participants had measures of kidney function; this study investigated 623 (51.7%) of these patients with manifest CKD (defined as either eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or urine albumin excretion rate >= 20 mu g/min). Follow-up for mortality was done from examination date until death or December 31, 2007. After a median follow-up of 14 years (nterquartile range, 8-16.8), associations of NEFAs with mortality (related to all causes, CVD, ischemic heart disease [IHD], or acute myocardial infarction) were ascertained. Results The median serum NEFA was 14.1 mg/dl (interquartile range, 11.3-17.8). No association was found with measures of kidney function. Diabetes and serum triglycerides were the only multivariate correlates of NEFA. During follow-up, 453 participants died, of which 209 deaths were due to CVD, including 88 IHD deaths, with 41 attributed to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In fully adjusted covariates, serum NEFA was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per log(2) increase, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00 to 1.48) and CVD-related death (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.99), including both IHD (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.32) and AMI mortality (HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.98). Conclusions Elevated serum NEFA associated with CVD mortality, and particularly with mortality due to AMI, in a homogeneous population of older men with moderate CKD.

  • 4. Xu, Hong
    et al.
    Gasparini, Alessandro
    Ishigami, Junichi
    Mzayen, Khaled
    Su, Guobin
    Barany, Peter
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Elinder, Carl Gustaf
    Carrero, Juan Jesús
    eGFR and the risk of community-acquired infections2017In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 12, no 9, p. 1399-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired infections are common, contributing to adverse outcomes and increased health care costs. We hypothesized that, with lower eGFR, the incidence of community-acquired infections increases, whereas the pattern of site-specific infections varies.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Among 1,139,470 health care users (mean age =52±18 years old, 53% women) from the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements Project, we quantified the associations of eGFR with the risk of infections, overall and major types, over 12 months.

    RESULTS: A total of 106,807 counts of infections were recorded throughout 1,128,313 person-years. The incidence rate of all infections increased with lower eGFR from 74/1000 person-years for individuals with eGFR=90-104 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) to 419/1000 person-years for individuals with eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Compared with eGFR of 90-104 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), the adjusted incidence rate ratios of community-acquired infections were 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.14) for eGFR of 30-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.39 to 1.69) for eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The relative proportions of lower respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and sepsis became increasingly higher along with lower eGFR strata (e.g., low respiratory tract infection accounting for 25% versus 15% of community-acquired infections in eGFR<30 versus 90-104 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively). Differences in incidence associated with eGFR were in general consistent for most infection types, except for nervous system and upper respiratory tract infections, for which no association was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: This region-representative health care study finds an excess community-acquired infections incidence in individuals with mild to severe CKD. Lower respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and sepsis are major infections in CKD.

  • 5. Xu, Hong
    et al.
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Risérus, Ulf
    Krishnamurthy, Vidya M
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Sjögren, Per
    Carrero, Juan Jesús
    Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk2014In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 2104-2110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70-71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991-1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years.

    RESULTS: Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.98) than in those without (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.76 to 2.22; P value for interaction, P=0.04), and were mainly explained by a lower incidence of cancer-related deaths (0.25; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.65) in individuals with kidney dysfunction versus individuals with an eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.61; 95% CI, 0.69 to 3.74; P value for interaction, P=0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: High dietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also associated with lower (cancer) mortality risk, especially in individuals with kidney dysfunction.

  • 6.
    Xu, Hong
    et al.
    Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;Department of Nephrology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China;.
    Huang, Xiaoyan
    Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Nephrology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Peking University, Shenzhen, China;.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Geriatrics, and Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;.
    Stenvinkel, Peter
    Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Bengt
    Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;.
    Carrero, Juan Jesús
    Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Divisions of Renal Medicine and Baxter Novum, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;.
    Clinical correlates of insulin sensitivity and its association with mortality among men with CKD stages 3 and 42014In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 690-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance participates in the pathogenesis of multiple metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. CKD patients have impaired insulin sensitivity, but the clinical correlates and outcome associations of impaired insulin sensitivity in this vulnerable population are not well defined.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The prospective cohort study was from the third examination cycle of the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, a population-based survey of elderly men ages 70-71 years; insulin sensitivity was assessed by glucose disposal rate as measured with euglycemic clamps. Inclusion criterion was eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (n=543). Exclusion criteria were incomplete data on euglycemic clamp and diabetes (n=97), leaving 446 men with CKD stages 3 and 4 (eGFR median=51.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2); range=20.2-59.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)).

    RESULTS: The mean of glucose disposal rate was 5.4 ± 1.9 mg/kg per minute. In multivariable analysis, the independent clinical correlates of glucose disposal rate were eGFR (slope, 0.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.04), hypertension (-0.48; 95% confidence interval, -0.86 to -0.11), hyperlipidemia (-0.51; 95% confidence interval, -0.84 to -0.18), and body mass index (-0.32; 95% confidence interval, -0.37 to -0.27). During follow-up (median=10.0 years; interquartile range=8.7-11.0 years), 149 participants died. In Cox regression models, glucose disposal rate was not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Multiplicative interactions (P<0.05) were observed between glucose disposal rate and physical activity or smoking in total mortality association. After subsequent stratification, glucose disposal rate was an independent correlate of all-cause mortality in smokers (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.96 per 1 mg/kg per minute glucose disposal rate increase) and physically inactive individuals (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.97) but not their counterparts.

    CONCLUSION: eGFR, together with various components of the metabolic syndrome, contributed to explain the variance of insulin sensitivity in men with CKD stages 3 and 4. Insulin sensitivity was associated with a lower mortality risk in individuals who smoked and individuals who were physically inactive.

  • 7.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Sect Geriatr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Sundström, Johan
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Larsson, Anders
    Lind, Lars
    Larsson, Tobias E.
    Serum FGF23 and risk of cardiovascular events in relation to mineral metabolism and cardiovascular pathology2013In: American Society of Nephrology. Clinical Journal, ISSN 1555-9041, E-ISSN 1555-905X, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 781-786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives Circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in CKD and non-CKD individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study tested whether this association is independent of mineral metabolism and indices of subclinical cardiovascular pathology. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The prospective association between fibroblast growth factor-23 and major cardiovascular events (a composite of hospital-treated myocardial infarction, hospital-treated stroke, or all-cause mortality) was investigated in the community-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (n=973; mean age=70 years, 50% women) using multivariate logistic regression. Subjects were recruited between January of 2001 and June of 2004. Results During follow-up (median=5.1 years), 112 participants suffered a major cardiovascular event. In logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and estimated GFR, higher fibroblast growth factor-23 was associated with increased risk for major cardiovascular events (odds ratio for tertiles 2 and 3 versus tertile 1=1.92, 95% confidence interval=1.19-3.09, P<0.01). After additional adjustments in the model, adding established cardiovascular risk factors, confounders of mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and 25 (OH)-vitamin D), and indices of subclinical pathology (flow-mediated vasodilation, endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilation, arterial stiffness, and atherosclerosis and left ventricular mass) attenuated this relationship, but it remained significant (odds ratio for tertiles 2 and 3 versus tertile 1=1.69, 95% confidence interval=1.01-2.82, P<0.05). Conclusions Fibroblast growth factor-23 is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in the community, even after accounting for mineral metabolism abnormalities and subclinical cardiovascular damage. Circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 may reflect novel and important aspects of cardiovascular risk yet to be unraveled. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 8: 781-786, 2013. doi: 10.2215/CJN.09570912

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