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  • 1.
    Blackman, Corey
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Techno-economic evaluation of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems with sorption module integrated solar collectors2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 70, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently the use of solar energy for heating and cooling isn't widespread. In order to reduce primary energy consumption in the built environment along with improving the thermal performance of the current building stock, retrofit solutions are required to utilise renewable energy. Using solar energy to reduce primary energy consumption is seen as a possible solution. With the precipitous fall in the prices of crystalline solar photovoltaic modules, utilising this technology to reduce electrical energy consumption for cooling is an attractive solution. Recently, a sorption module integrated collector has been developed in order to improve cost-effectiveness and simplify solar thermal heating and cooling systems. A techno-economic analysis has been performed to evaluate solar photovoltaic cooling and solar thermal cooling systems for residential renewable energy retrofit. The analysis is based on potential energy and cost savings according to simulated heating and cooling loads under climatic conditions of Madrid, Spain. Simplified models were used to determine heating and cooling demands and the solar energy contribution to heating and cooling loads. Additionally, given the sorption collector's unique capacity to store solar energy thermally and provide cooling at night an analysis has been carried out to identify the combined benefit of solar-assisted heating and cooling via photovoltaics during the day and solar sorption at night. For system sizes between 5m(2) and 20m(2) solar fractions between 16% and 64% could be achieved which translated to annual energy cost savings between (sic)153 to (sic)615. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2. Freitas, Iuri
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Green building rating systems in Swedish market: A comparative analysis between LEED, BREEAM SE, GreenBuilding and Miljöbyggnad2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 153, p. 402-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are four most commonly used green building rating systems, which are LEED, BREEAM SE, GreenBuilding and Miljöbyggnad. In this study, each of them is analyzed under the aspects of certification process, implementation cost, educational needs and the variety of categories. SWOT method is further applied to extract the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of each of the rating system in a direct and indirect manner, making it clearer to choose among various options when considering the individual needs of each project in practice. 

  • 3. Joly, M.
    et al.
    Ruiz, G.
    Mauthner, F.
    Bourdoukan, P.
    Emery, M.
    Andersen, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    A methodology to integrate solar thermal energy in district heating networks confronted with a Swedish real case study2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 122, p. 865-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among other solutions, the integration of solar energy in district heating networks can contribute significantly to the increase of the renewable energy fraction in an urban area. This article describes the methodology developed in the framework of IEA Task 52 to help stakeholders during early phases of new or refurbishments projects. This methodology integrates a tool which is capable to assess the main solar indicators of the project with only two inputs: the solar installation area and the building heated area. The tool outputs are compared to the measured values of a Swedish case study.

  • 4. Lei, S.
    et al.
    Shi, Y.
    Yan, Y.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Numerical study on inertial effects on liquid-vapor flow using lattice Boltzmann method2019In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 160, p. 428-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid-vapor flow in porous media is studied in this article. To fulfill this goal, a double-distribution-function lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed based on the separate-phase governing equations at the representative elementary volume (REV) scale. Importantly, besides the Darcy force and capillary force, which were commonly included in previous studies, the LB model in this article also considers the inertial force characterized by the Forchheimer term. This feature enables the model to offer an effective description of liquid-vapor flow in porous media at low, intermediate and even high flow rates. We validated the LB model by simulating a single-phase flow in porous media driven by a pressure difference and found its results are in good agreement with the available analytical solutions. We then applied the model to study water-vapor flow in a semi-infinite porous region bounded by an impermeable and heated wall. The numerical simulation reveals the flow and mass transfer characteristics under the compounding effects of inertial, Darcy and capillary forces. Through a comparison with the results given by the generalized Darcy's law, our numerical results directly evidence that the inertial force is a dominating factor when a fluid passes through porous media at an intermediate or high flow rate.

  • 5.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Umeå universitet.
    Trygg, L.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m2 was not the one which saved the most PE. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 6. Luo, H.
    et al.
    Liang, X.
    Lu, J.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Applicability analysis of insulation in different climate zones of China2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1835-1841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluated the applicability of the widely-used passive design strategy i.e., insulation, in three typical climate zones of China. Software IES VE was used for modelling and simulation of performance of insulation in a residential house. The practical behavior patterns of Chinese family from survey were utilized for analyzing the thermal characteristics of the house. Four parameters of the results were selected for analyzing the performance of insulation in three cities of China. The conditions varying in time periods and locations were compared on the basis of the simulation.

  • 7. Pan, S.
    et al.
    Wang, H.
    Pei, F.
    Yang, L.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    An investigation on energy consumption of air conditioning system in Beijing subway stations2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 2568-2573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper initially depicted on the energy consumption of air conditioning systems in Beijing subway stations. An investigation was conducted among ten underground subway stations to the examination of practical operation conditions of their cooling units. The overall field testing included information such as air conditioning system formation, equipment types, system operation parameters, energy consumption and system operation efficiency. The results showed that the COP value of refrigerators in the tested subway stations were generally high at about 4.4 in average. Nevertheless, the mean EER and SCOP values were nearly 27% and 48% lower than the average COP value due to the large amount of energy consumption in water pumps, cooling towers and fans. There was a big difference among each station in terms of the instantaneous power consumption of air conditioning systems. The most energy consuming station was nearly seven times higher than the least one. It was observed that there was a lack of maintenance and system operation strategy for these underground air condition systems. A promising potential for energy saving was found out within the air conditioning systems in Beijing subway stations.

  • 8. Pan, Song
    et al.
    Wang, Xingru
    Wei, Shen
    Xu, Chuanqi
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Xie, Jingchao
    Tindall, Jess
    de Wilde, Pieter
    Energy waste in buildings due to occupant behaviour2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2233-2238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupants’ behaviour has a significant impact on the energy performance of buildings. A good understanding of how occupants use a building provides a possibility of promoting the building's energy efficiency through changing occupant behaviour. Building simulation has been adopted as a useful method by building engineers for quantifying the effects of changing occupant behaviour on the building's energy consumption and indoor environment. However, due to the lack of real measured data with respect to how occupants use the building, such simulation work has relied on assumed behavioural patterns, which significantly reduces the reliability of the predicted results. This paper describes a longitudinal study monitoring occupants’ heating, window opening and cooling behaviour in an office building throughout summer, transitional and winter periods. These behavioural data were then used to drive dynamic building performance simulation to predict the energy saving potential of changing behaviour. Comparison with predicted results by assumed behavioural patterns reflected that improperly assumed behavioural patterns may either overestimate or underestimate the energy saving potential of changing behaviour, especially for unextreme behaviours.

  • 9.
    Perers, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Anderssen, E.
    Nordman, R.
    Kovacs, P.
    A simplified heat pump model for use in solar plus heat pump system simulation studies2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 30, p. 664-667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the heat pump. By plotting heat pump test data in different ways including power input and output form and not only as COP, a simplified relation could be seen. By using the same methodology as in the EN 12975 QDT part in the collector test standard it could be shown that a very simple model could describe the heat pump test data very accurately, by identifying 4 parameters in the correlation equation found. © 2012 The Authors.

  • 10.
    Perers, Bengt
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Kovacs, P.
    Olsson, M.
    Persson, M.
    Pettersson, U.
    A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 30, p. 1354-1364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations in Europe. The collector parameters used as input in the tool are compiled from tests according to EN12975, without any intermediate conversions. The main target group for this tool is test institutes and certification bodies that are intended to use it for conversion of collector model parameters (derived from performance tests) into a more user friendly quantity: the annual energy output. The energy output presented in the tool is expressed as kWh per collector module. A simplified treatment of performance for PVT collectors is added based on the assumption that the thermal part of the PVT collector can be tested and modeled as a thermal collector, when the PV electric part is active with an MPP tracker in operation. The thermal collector parameters from this operation mode are used for the PVT calculations. © 2012 The Authors.

  • 11. Petrovic, B.
    et al.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Wallhagen, M.
    Eriksson, O.
    Life cycle assessment of building materials for a single-family house in Sweden2019In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 158, p. 3547-3552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries have shown great interest in using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the building sector compared to the past years. Sweden has set up an objective to be carbon neutral (no greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere) by 2045. This paper presents a case study of a single-family house “Dalarnas Villa” in the region Dalarna, Sweden within a 100-year perspective. The assessment is implemented using a new software based on hard data agreed by Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). It focuses on building materials, transport distances of the materials, and replacement of essential construction materials. The LCA in this study demonstrates the environmental impact related to building materials from production and construction phase including transport, replacement and deconstruction phase. The study does not cover energy use and water consumption. The results show that the building slab made by concrete is the part of the construction most contributing to CO2e, while the wood frame and cellulose insulation have low environmental impact. Replacement of materials takes nearly half of total environmental impact over 100 years. Having a large share of wood-based products, make greenhouse gas emissions remains low.

  • 12.
    Poppi, Stefano
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Department of Energy Technology, KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Influence of hydraulics and control of thermal storage in solar assisted heat pump combisystems2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 48, p. 946-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the influence of hydraulics and control of thermal storage in systems combined with solar thermal and heat pump for the production of warm water and space heating in dwellings. A reference air source heat pump system with flat plate collectors connected to a combistore was defined and modeled together with the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38 (T44A38) “Solar and Heat Pump Systems” boundary conditions of Strasbourg climate and SFH45 building. Three and four pipe connections as well as use of internal and external heat exchangers for DHW preparation were investigated as well as sensor height for charging of the DHW zone in the store. The temperature in this zone was varied to ensure the same DHW comfort was achieved in all cases. The results show that the four pipe connection results in 9% improvement in SPF compared to three pipe and that the external heat exchanger for DHW preparation leads to a 2% improvement compared to the reference case. Additionally the sensor height for charging the DHW zone of the store should not be too low, otherwise system performance is adversely affected

  • 13. Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Shinohara, Hiroyuki
    Wu, Yupeng
    Wang, Hong
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Experimental study of a compact unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for energy-efficient buildings2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 104, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a real-time experimental measurement of a novel compact unglazed solar thermal facade (STF) system at outdoor environment in Shanghai, China for about a whole summer week. It demonstrates the daily average solar thermal efficiency fluctuated from 40% to 45.5%. The overall result indicates the advantages of the STF with simple structure, low cost and high feasibility in architectural design for energy-efficient building application, especially at future district or city levels.

  • 14.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Shinohara, Hiroyuki
    Wu, Yupeng
    Wang, Hong
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Optimizing the configuration of a compact thermal facade module for solar renovation concept in buildings2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 104, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar concepts show potentially an improved cost-performance (energy) ratio when applied as the integrated parts of building renovations. This paper reported a compact solar thermal facade (STF) module with the internally extruded flow channel suiting for solar renovation concept in buildings. A few of impact factors were considered for the parametric study in order to optimize the STF's configuration for various applications through the validated simulation model. The overall research results are expected to be useful for further improvement in the thermal performance of solar renovation measures.

  • 15.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Jin, Ruoyu
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xue, Peng
    Conceptual development of a compact unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for building integration2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to develop an initiative modular unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) concept initially for hot water generation to facilitate the integration of solar energy with buildings. The new STF concept is simple structure, low cost, and aesthetically appealing with easy installation but is expected to achieve the equivalent thermal efficiency as the conventional STFs. It delivered alternative design in terms of material, colour, texture, shape, size, architectural design, installation method, array connection, hypothetical system application, and solar coverage. Two common design variants i.e. (a) the STF cladding system and (b) the prefabricated STF wall system were described respectively for existing and new low-rise building typologies. Interaction of inclination, orientation, and insolation were discussed for the optimum STF position on the building. Four currently available methods for installation of such STF with buildings were summarized and three typical array connection methods were identified. The decentralized connection was recommended for different types of STF hot water systems. It is customary to design for a solar coverage of 50 to 60 percent for water heating in detached houses; in apartment buildings 30 to 40 percent are more commonly assumed. The concept design in this paper hereby illustrates the precedence for the hypothetical function by the creation of new ideas and also forms up the physical structure or operating principle for the investigations in near future.

  • 16.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Design strategy of a compact unglazed solar thermal facade (STF) for building integration based on BIM concept2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the specific design strategy of a novel compact unglazed Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for building performance research in architectural practice. It identifies the basic role of such STF in the building performance simulation and analysis. A dedicated design strategy based on the BIM (building information modelling) concept for application of the proposed STF is then developed in details. This research work clarifies the necessary steps in ensuring that the environmental/economic factors and energy-efficiency strategies of the STF are integrated with the building design and analysis process at the early stage.

  • 17.
    Shen, Jingchun
    et al.
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xue, Peng
    The early design stage of a novel Solar Thermal Facade (STF) for building integration: Energy performance simulation and socio-economic analysis2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 96, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a feasibility study of a new solar thermal façade (STF) concept for building integration from both technical and economic aspects in Shanghai area of China. The whole set of technical evaluation and economic analysis was investigated through simulation of a reference DOE residential building model in IES-VE software and a dedicated dynamic business model consisting of several critical financial indexes. In order to figure out the cost effectiveness of the STF concept, research work consisted of: (1) exploring the overall feasibility, i.e. energy load, energy savings, operational cost and environmental benefits, and (2) investigating the financial outputs for investment decisions within three different purchase methods. This paper presents a multidisciplinary research method that is expected to be beneficial and supportive for the strategic decision at the early design stage and it also offers a different angle to assess the economic performance of the STF application.

  • 18.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Mälardalen University.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Mapping of heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1434-1439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic electricity system faces many challenges with an increased share of intermittent power from renewable sources. One such challenge is to have enough capacity installed to cover the peak demands. In Sweden these peaks appear during the winter since a lot of electricity is used for heating. In this paper a mapping of the heat and electricity consumption in a medium size municipality in Sweden is presented. The paper analyze the potential for a larger market share of district heating (DH) and how it can affect the electrical power balance in the case study. The current heat market (HM) and electricity consumption is presented and divided into different user categories. Heating in detached houses not connected to DH covers 25 % of the HM, and 30 % of the electricity consumption during the peak hours. Converting the detached houses not connected to DH in densely populated areas to DH could reduce the annual electricity consumption by 10 %, and the electricity consumption during the peak hours by 20 %.

  • 19. Turk, Suheyla
    et al.
    Quintana, Samer
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Life-cycle analysis as an indicator for impact assessment in sustainable building certification system: the case of Swedish building market2018In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 153, p. 414-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the prevailing sustainable building certification systems in Sweden, based on a critical analysis of their characterization for human and environmental impacts through the integration of life-cycle analysis. The aim of this study is to compare sustainable building certifications systems in terms of their assessment categories. In the Swedish market, BREEAM SE, LEED, Green Buildings and Miljobyggnad are the most used building certifications. Therefore, their guidelines are reviewed to evaluate which of them has comprehensively included human health indicators. This research presents useful information for transforming existing and developing future sustainable building certification systems.

  • 20. Xu, Peng
    et al.
    Shen, Jingchun
    University of Nottingham, Ningbo.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Hull; University of Nottingham .
    He, Wei
    Zhao, Xudong
    Design, fabrication and experimental study of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade water heating system2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 566-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigated a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade heat-pump system for hot water from concept design, prototype fabrication and experimental test. Given the specific testing conditions, the solar thermal efficiency of the facade module achieved nearly 0.71 in average and the mean system's COP was about 5.0. It is expected that such novel LHP based solar thermal facade technology would further contributed to the development of the renewable (solar) driven heating/hot water service and therefore lead to significant environmental benefits.

  • 21. Xu, Peng
    et al.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Zhang, Xingxing
    University of Hull; University of Nottingham.
    Zhao, Xudong
    Qian, Yingchu
    Case study of smart meter and in-home display for residential behavior change in Shanghai, China2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2694-2699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart meters and in-home displays (IHD) have been recently adopted to help give residential consumers more control over energy consumption, and to help meet environmental and security of supply objectives. The paper aims to identify the effectiveness of smart meters and real-time IHDs in reducing Shanghai household energy consumption through a pilot investigation. The research results demonstrate the improved awareness, understanding, and attitudes towards the energy saving by smart meters and IHDs.

  • 22.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    et al.
    University of Nottingham.
    Shen, Jingchun
    Yang, Tong
    Tang, Llewellyn
    Wu, Yupeng
    Pan, Song
    Wu, Jinshun
    Xu, Peng
    Assessment of the effectiveness of investment strategy in solar photovoltaic (PV) energy sector: a case study2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2977-2982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy is now promising to offer potential solutions for sustainable development, especially in China. A representative Chinese solar PV manufacturer - Shunfeng International Clean Energy Limited (SFCE) - is therefore assessed in this paper, including (1) investment strategies in China’s recent macroeconomic exposure; (2) the market exposure and vulnerability. The macroeconomic challenges in case of China’s continuous GDP growth would have significant implications for SFCE’s investment strategy. Although SFCE’s vulnerability is high, it has mediated its macro exposure and protect itself by advanced non-pricing competition, product/service differentiation, vertical and horizontal integration, and high-profit diversification etc. The research result is expected to offer useful indications for solar PV companies to adapt and succeed in the future energy industry and simultaneously help the world to mitigate climate change.

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