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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway.
    Malm, Christer
    Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Prediction of race performance of elite cross-country skiers by lean mass2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1040-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between race performance and lean mass (LM) variables, as well as to examine sex differences in body composition in elite-standard cross-country skiers. 

    Methods: Thirty-four elite cross-country skiers (18 men and 16 women) underwent a dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry body composition test to determine LM, fat mass, and bone mineral content. For both sexes, performance data were collected from a sprint prologue and a distance race. 

    Results: The absolute expression of LM variables [whole body (LMWB), upper body (LMUB), and lower body (LMLB)] was significantly correlated with finishing time in the sprint prologue independent of sex. Distance-race performance was significantly related to LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB in women; however, no correlation was found in men. Men had a significantly higher LM and lower fat mass, independent of expression (absolute or relative), for the whole body, arms, trunk, and legs, except for the absolute fat mass in the trunk. 

    Conclusions: The absolute expressions of LMWB, LMUB, and LMLB were significant predictors of sprint-prologue performance in both sexes, as well as of distance-race performance in women only. Compared with women, male skiers have a higher LM in the body segments that are major contributors to propelling forces. These results suggest that muscle mass in the lower and upper body is equally important for race performance; thus, more focus of elite skiers’ training should be directed to increasing whole-body muscle mass to improve their competitive performance capability.

  • 2.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Malm, Christer
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Time trials predict the competitive performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers2014In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study investigated whether there is a correlation between time-trial performance and competitive performance capacity of male and female junior cross-country skiers and sought to explain sex-specific competitive performance capacity through multiple-regression modeling.

    Methods: The International Ski Federation's (FIS) junior ranking points for distance (FISdist) and sprint (FISsprint) competitions were used as performance parameters. A total of 38 elite junior (age 18.5 +/- 1.0 y) cross-country skiers (24 men and 14 women) completed 3 time-trial tests: a 3-km level-running time trial (TTRun), a 2-km moderate uphill (1.2 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique (TTDP), and a 2-km uphill (2.8 slope) roller-skiing time trial using the diagonal-stride technique (TTDiag). The correlations were investigated using Pearson correlation analysis, and regression models were created using multiple-linear-regression analysis. Results: For men, FISsprint and FISdist were correlated with the times for TTRun, TTDP, and TTDiag (all P < .001). For women, FISsprint was correlated with the times for TTRun (P < .05), TTDP (P < .01), and TTDiag (P < .01), whereas FISdist was correlated only with the times for TTDP (P < .01) and TTDiag (P < .05). The models developed for FISdist and FISsprint explained 73.9-82.3% of the variance in the performance capacity of male junior cross-country skiers. No statistically valid regression model was found for the women.

    Conclusions: Running and roller-skiing time trials are useful tests for accurately predicting the performance capacity of junior cross-country skiers.

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Johnny
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Rosdahl, Hans
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Contribution of leg muscle forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal effort flat-water paddling2016In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted—the knee joints “locked.” Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers’ paddling performance.

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