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  • 1.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Light quality and intensity of light-emitting diodes during pre-cultivation of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings - impact on growth performance, seedling quality and energy consumption2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different LED lamps with continuous spectra were compared against commonly used fluorescent lights. The lamps were characterized by light output, energy consumption and spectral quality for plant growth. The biological effects of light quality were compared by pre-cultivating seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. under each spectrum for 35 days in a growth chamber with controlled temperature, humidity and photoperiod. The seedlings were then transplanted and cultivated for one vegetation period at the nursery, then planted outdoors on a forest field trial and followed for three years. The seedlings showed similar growth performance for all spectra tested. LED lamps have several advantages to fluorescent light such as energy consumption, longer life span and adjustable light intensity. Regarding light intensity the effects on growth performance were studied for both species using the most promising LED spectra. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was maintained at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Unlike energy consumption, seedling development did not display a linear relationship to light intensity. Instead, the results show an optimum light level between 100 and 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the shade tolerant Picea abies seedlings and a level of around 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the more shade intolerant Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

  • 2. Hogberg, Karl-Anders
    et al.
    Persson, Bengt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hallingback, Henrik R.
    Jansson, Gunnar
    Relationships between early assessments of stem and branch properties and sawn timber traits in a Pinus sylvestris progeny trial2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 421-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sample of 162 trees was harvested from a 36-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) progeny trial to evaluate correlations between early measurements of branch diameter, and other stem and branch traits, with sawn timber traits, and hence their potential utility for predicting wood quality. The sample trees were assigned to three genetic groups of small, medium and large branch diameter, based on parental breeding values. Bottom logs were cut and sawn, and several important traits for the visual quality of the boards were assessed. Phenotypic correlations were then estimated between these traits and measurements of the height, diameter, branch diameter, branch angle, stem crookedness, number of branches and grain angle under bark of the corresponding trees when they were 16 and 36 years old. The diameter of the coarsest knot in the board was correlated with the branch diameter at the age of 16 years (0.50), and there were significant differences in this trait among the genetic branch diameter groups. In addition, the board twist was correlated with the grain angle under bark at the age of 36 years (0.54). Thus, the field assessments of branch diameter and grain angle under bark show relevance for the visual quality of centrally sawn small timber.

  • 3.
    Jonsdottir, Rakel J.
    et al.
    Norðurlandsskógar, Krókeyri, IS-600, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
    Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, IS-311, Borgarnes, Iceland.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 43, 739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Effects of nutrient loading and fertilization at planting on growth and nutrient status of Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii) seedlings during the first growing season in Iceland2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 631-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is believed to be one of the major limiting factors of forest regeneration inIceland and frequently under Boreal conditions. Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl.) seedlings were nutrient loadedusing four fertilization regimes in the end of nursery rotation in autumn 2008 and planted in the following spring,with or without a single dose of fertilizer, on two treeless sites in N-Iceland with contrasting soil fertility.Measurements were made after one growing season. The highest loading level without additional field fertilizationincreased new needle mass by 122% and 152%, for the poor and more fertile site, respectively. The highest loadinglevel with field fertilization increased new needle mass equally, by 188% and 189%, for the poor and more fertilesite, respectively. Retranslocation of N, from old needles to current needles, increased with more loading.However, it was clear that nutrient loading could not replace field fertilization, as the seedlings generally showedan additive response to field fertilization and nutrient loading; doing both always gave the best results in seedlingperformance. As the study only covers field establishment during the first year, the long-term effect of nutrientloading of Lutz spruce cannot be predicted. However, it was concluded that loading might provide an additionalinput for faster plantation establishment during the first growing season after planting.

  • 4.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg.
    Storability measures of Norway spruce and Scots pine seedlings and assessment of post storage vitality by measuring shoot electrolyte leakage2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 29, no 8, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As indoor frozen storage is increasing in forest tree nurseries it is important to have accurate methods for assessing seedling storability in autumn and methods to determine post-storage vitality. Storability of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings can be based on determination of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots or by freezing shoots at -25 degrees C and thereafter measure electrolyte leakage (SELdiff-25). To compare these two methods we stored 1-year-old spruce and pine seedlings at different occasions during the autumn. To test if leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL) could indicate deteriorated vitality, we measured SEL at the end of storage. After storage seedling viability was determined in a three-week growth test, measuring shoot and root growth capacity (RGC). Determination of freezing tolerance (SELdiff-25) before storage had a better ability to predict the outcome of storage compared to the DMC test. Measuring SEL at the end of the frozen storage period accurately indicated seedling vitality. Seedlings with SEL of 0-5% had a high survival rate whereas SEL over 10% indicated low survival and growth capacity after storage. The SEL method has a potential to become a screening test for identifying batches of seedlings that have been damaged during storage in the nursery.

  • 5. Långström, B.
    et al.
    Annila, E.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Wood Technology.
    Varama, M.
    Niemelä, P.
    Tree mortality, needle biomass recovery and growth losses in Scots pine following defoliation by Diprion pini (L.) and subsequent attack by Tomicus piniperda (L.)2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 16, p. 342-353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dept of Forestry and Wood technology, Linneus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Wallertz, Kristina
    Asa Forest Research Station, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lammhult Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Storability and freezing tolerance of Douglas fir and Norway spruce seedlings grown in mid-Sweden2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change provides new challenges to Nordic forestry. Use of non-native species, such as Douglas fir, can be a means of mitigating the effects of climate change and meeting the growing demand for biomass. When Douglas fir is grown in Sweden, it is several degrees of latitude north of its normal range, which can affect timing of growth cessation, hardening of seedlings, and seedling storability. The objective of this study was to investigate tolerance to freezing and sub-zero storability of seven Douglas fir provenances and make comparisons with the native Norway spruce. Freezing tolerance and storability were evaluated by measuring the electrolytic leakage of shoots and roots after freezing, complemented with a three-week cultivation test after storage. All provenances of Douglas fir used in this study were able to tolerate frozen storage at −4°C for about four months. Norway spruce and the interior Douglas fir provenance, Three Valley, could be stored earlier in the autumn than the southern coastal Douglas fir provenances. Consequently, it should be possible to store Douglas fir seedlings with the same routines as for Norway spruce.

  • 7.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Radoglou, K
    Kostopoulou, P
    Bellarosa, R
    Simeone, M.C.
    Shirone, B
    Use of innovative technology for the production of high-quality forest regeneration materials2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 25, no Suppl 8, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the innovative technology created within the framework of PRE-FOREST project, funded by the European Commission under the CRAFT 6th Framework Research Programme. PRE-FOREST was an innovative research project in the field of forest planting stock material, enhancing co-operation between research foundations and small and medium-sized enterprises. Among the project's objectives were the introduction of a new technology based on precultivation (in mini-plugs) of forest regeneration material in a cost-efficient and environmental friendly production unit, not affected by outdoor climate; the development of a new, adapted to mini-plugs, grading technology and replug robot; the integration of these technologies into a functional prototype unit capable of large-scale forest regeneration material production; and the introduction of this production system at strategic locations in Europe. The system has been developed for year-round production and function in the same way, independently of climatic variations in different parts of Europe. To obtain these objectives the study focused on the interaction among production technology, mini-plug container design and rooting media, to develop cultivation protocols for forest reproductive materials of special economic and ecological importance for each participating country. One of the main benefits of the new technology was the environmentally friendly production of a large number of seedlings per square metre, leading to a cost-efficient result.

  • 8. Pettersson, Marie
    et al.
    Kännaste, Astrid
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Hellqvist, Claes
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Långström, Bo
    Borg-Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    Mini-seedlings of Picea abies are less attacked by Hylobius abietis than conventional ones: is plant chemistry the explanation?2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 299-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), is a major pest in conifer reforestation areas in the Palaearctic region. Size and chemistry of the seedlings may explain the damage rates in plantations. The performance of 10-week containerized seedlings (mini-seedlings) was compared with 1-year-old conventional seedlings of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), in a field experiment in central Sweden. After 2 years the weevil damage was lower for the mini-seedlings than for the conventional seedlings (3.5 vs 55%). After 3 years, the overall survival was 82 and 75%, respectively. Weevil damage was the main cause of mortality for conventional seedlings, whereas mini-seedlings mainly died from drought. Volatiles of the two seedling types were compared by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Unwounded mini-seedlings and conventional seedlings differed in their compositions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Mini-seedlings mainly emitted limonene, known to be repellent to the pine weevil. When wounded, green leaf volatiles were released by mini-seedlings while the pine weevil attractant -pinene was released by conventional seedlings. Volatiles may partly explain the mini-seedlings' resistance against weevil attack. Further studies are needed to clarify how long this mini-seedling effect remains.

  • 9. Rune, G.
    et al.
    Warensjö, M.
    Basal sweep and compression wood in young Scots pine trees2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, no 17, p. 529-537Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Wallin, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. SLU.
    Gräns, Daniel
    Stattin, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Verhoef, Nathalie
    Mikusiński, Grzegorz
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Evaluating methods for storability assessment and determination of vitality status of container grown Norway spruce transplants after frozen storage2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 417-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autumn sown small seedlings for later transplanting into large containers have been introduced in Swedish forest tree nurseries. Containerized transplants of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from three Swedish nurseries were frozen stored during the autumn of 2014 to find out storability and post-storage vitality. Seedling storability was determined by measuring electrolyte leakage after freezing shoots to −25°C (SELdiff−25), by measurements of dry matter content (DMC) of seedling shoots and by the commercial molecular test ColdNSure™. Vitality of seedlings after storage was determined by measuring the leakage of electrolytes from shoots (SEL), and seedlings were also tested in regrowth tests. All three methods for storability assessment gave similar predictions, except in one case where DMC showed “not storable” for successfully stored seedlings. Our results indicated that young transplants can be successfully short term stored before reaching the target levels for safe long-term storage of conventional seedlings. Early storage of young transplants resulted in low post-storage survival and vitality expressed as root growth capacity and shoot electrolyte leakage (SEL). A prolonged duration in storage generally resulted in lower survival as well as lower root growth capacity and higher levels of SEL, especially for seedlings stored at earlier dates. 

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