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  • 1.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    May, Ross
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Wang, Xinru
    Pan, Song
    Yan, Da
    Jin, Yuan
    Xu, Liguo
    A review of reinforcement learning methodologies for controlling occupant comfort in buildings2019In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 51, article id 101748Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Hesaraki, Arefeh
    et al.
    KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality and energy savings: a case study of a single-family house2015In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 19, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy savings were studied experimentally and analytically in a single-family house occupied by two adults and one infant, situated in Borlänge, Sweden. The building studied had an exhaust ventilation system with a range of air flow rate settings. In order to find appropriate ventilation rates regarding CO2, relative humidity (RH) and temperature as indicators of IAQ, four ventilation levels were considered, as follows: (I) A very low ventilation rate of 0.10 L s-1 m-2; (II) A low ventilation rate of 0.20 L s-1 m-2; (III) A normal ventilation rate of 0.35 L s-1 m-2; (IV) A high ventilation rate of 0.70 L s-1 m-2. In all cases, the sensor was positioned in the exhaust duct exiting from habitable spaces. Measurements showed that, for case I, the CO2 concentration reached over 1300 ppm, which was higher than the commonly referenced threshold for ventilation control, i.e. 1000 ppm, showing unacceptable IAQ. In case II, the CO2 level was always below 950 ppm, indicating that 0.20 L s-1 m-2 is a sufficient ventilation rate for the reference building. The case III showed that the ventilation rate of 0.35 L s-1 m-2 caused a maximum CO2 level of 725 ppm; showing the level recommended by Swedish regulations was high with respect to CO2 level. In addition, measurements showed that the RH and temperature were within acceptable ranges in all cases. An energy savings calculation showed that, in case II, the comparative savings of the combined energy requirement for ventilation fan and ventilation heating were 43% compared with case III.

  • 3. Liu, G
    et al.
    Xiao, M
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gál, Csilla V
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Chen, X
    Liu, L
    Pan, S
    Wu, J
    Tang, L
    Clements-Croome, D
    A review of air filtration technologies for sustainable and healthy building ventilation2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 32, p. 375-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization increased population density in cities and consequently leads to severe indoor air pollution. As a result of these trends, the issue of sustainable and healthy indoor environment has received increasing attention. Various air filtration techniques have been adopted to optimize indoor air quality. Air filtration technique can remove air pollutants and effectively alleviate the deterioration of indoor air quality. This paper presents a comprehensive review on the synergistic effect of different air purification technologies, air filtration theory, materials and standards. It evaluated different air filtration technologies by considering factors such as air quality improvement, filtering performance, energy and economic behaviour, thermal comfort and acoustic impact. Current research development of air filtration technologies along with their advantages, limitations and challenges are discussed. This paper aims to drive the future of air filtration technology research and development in achieving sustainable and healthy building ventilation.

  • 4. Pan, Song
    et al.
    Du, Saisai
    Wang, Xinru
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Xia, Liang
    Liu, Jiaping
    Pei, Fei
    Wei, Yixuan
    Analysis and interpretation of the particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) concentrations at the subway stations in Beijing, China2019In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 45, p. 366-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) inside urban subway stations greatly influence indoor air quality and passenger comfort. This study aims to analyze and interpret the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, measured in several subway stations from October 9th to 22nd, 2016 in Beijing, China. The overall methodology was based on the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software while General linear model (GLM) and correlation analysis were further applied to examine the sensitivities of different variables to the particle concentrations. The data analysis showed the average overall mass ratio of PM concentrations inside subway station is about 68.7%, much lower than outdoor condition (79.6%). In the areas of the station hall and platform, the real-time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations varied periodically. In working and operation offices, all rooms had much higher PM concentrations than the outdoor environment when its pollution level was level 3, in which the facility room reached the highest level, while the closed meeting room had the lowest. Correlation analysis results indicated that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were mutually correlated (average R2 = 0.854), and a strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.897) of the subway-station PM concentrations to the outdoor PM conditions, regardless of the outdoor atmospheric PM concentrations pollution level was. Nevertheless, the impact of passenger number and temperature & humidity on the station PM concentrations was less, when compared to the outdoor environment. This paper is expected to provide useful information for further research and design of effective prevention measures on PM in local subway stations, towards a more sustainable and healthier built environment in the city underground. 

  • 5. Pan, Song
    et al.
    Pei, Fei
    Wang, Hongwei
    Liu, Jiaping
    Wei, Yixuan
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Li, Guoqing
    Gu, Yaxiu
    Design and experimental study of a novel air conditioning system using evaporative condenser at a subway station in Beijing, China2018In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 43, p. 550-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air conditioning system (AC) contributes significantly to the energy consumption of underground metros. In China, most metro stations are designed with water-cooling centralized air conditioning (WC-AC) system, it has been found that several serious problems are brought by this conventional system, such as large space occupying, water leaking, cooling tower noise and low system efficiency. In order to solve these problems, a novel energy-efficient AC system incorporating an independent evaporative condenser (EC) has been proposed and installed at Futong metro station in Beijing, China. A series of pilot measurements were conducted to analyze the cooling performance and energy consumption of this novel EC-AC system. During the testing period, the average refrigeration efficiency of COP, SCOP and ACOP in A and B side is up to 3.8/3.9, 3.4/3.4 and 2.5/2.3. At the same time, some operation problems such as unbalanced working condition have been identified during measurement. The research indicates that such EC-AC system could be a feasible solution to enhance the energy efficiency and reduce the operational costs and carbon emission in metro stations.

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