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  • 1.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Geography.
    Early Holocene in Gästrikland, east central Sweden: shore displacement and pattern of isostatic recovery2012In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 263-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Gästrikland in central Sweden, deglaciation took place c. 11 000 cal. a BP. In the present study the shore displacement during the earliest ice-free period is investigated by the 14C dating of sediment from isolated lake basins. The shore displacement in Gästrikland includes an initial phase (∼500 years) of rapid regression, followed by a slowing of the relative sea level (RSL) fall to a rate similar to that of the remaining Holocene c. 9250 cal. a BP. The Ancylus Lake stage of the Baltic Sea belongs to the analysed interval. The RSL curve and glacial unloading history are used to separate and quantify elements of isostatic uplift. The postglacial uplift is ∼260 m, of which ∼45 m forms a rapid initial rise, which can be treated as qualitatively separate from the later, slower rise. There is considerable glacial unloading just prior to the deglaciation, but calculations suggest that only a small part of this relates directly to the rapid early Holocene rebound: most unloading is transferred either to uplift immediately prior to the deglaciation or to subsequent Holocene or future uplift. The isostatic rise in Gästrikland occurring between the end of the Younger Dryas stadial and the deglaciation, c. 11 500–11 000 cal. a BP, is estimated to be 100–110 m. Observations and estimations are incompatible with a Weichselian maximum ice thickness much smaller that 3000 m. The lack of glacial unloading during the Younger Dryas has a measurable impact on the Holocene isostatic rebound in Gästrikland, reducing it by an estimated 20–25 m.

  • 2.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Geography.
    Holocene shore displacement and chronology in Ångermanland, eastern Sweden, the Scandinavian glacio-isostatic uplift centre2004In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 33, p. 48-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shore displacement during the Holocene in southeastern Ångermanland, Sweden, has been investigated by means of radiocarbon-dating of isolation intervals in sediment cores from a total of nine new basins. Results from earlier investigations have been used in complement. There is a forced regression in the area from c. 9300 BP (c. 10500 cal. yr BP) until c. 8000 BP (c. 9000 cal. yr BP), on averagec. 8 m/100 years, after which there is a gradually slowing regression of c. 2.5–1.0 m/100 years up to the present time. The most rapid regression occurs during the later phase of the Ancylus Lake stage, 9500–9000 cal. yr BP. There is no evidence of halts in the regression. Crustal uplift in the area since deglaciation is c. 310 m. The deglaciation of southeastern Ångermanland took place c. 9300 BP (c. 10500 cal. yr BP); this is c. 900 years earlier than the age given by clay varve dating. The shore displacement curve provides a means of estimating the difference between the clay varve time scale and calibrated radiocarbon dates, by comparison with varve-dated altitudes of alluvial deltas of the River Ångermanalven. From c. 2500 to c. 8000 cal. BP there is a deficit in clay varves of some 300 years; further back in time this discrepancy increases significantly. The main explanation for the discrepancy is most likely lacking varves in the time-span 8500–10200 cal. yr BP, located along the upper reaches of River Ångermanalven below the highest shore level.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Education and Humanities, Geography.
    Time-transgressive early Holocene vegetational succession following shore displacement: a case study from central Sweden2008In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 87-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deglaciation took place in eastern Jämtland and Ångermanland in central Sweden c. 10 500–10 200 cal. yr BP. In the present study, vegetation development and shore displacement during the earliest ice-free period are investigated by 14C dating of sediment from six isolated lake basins and by pollen analysis. A brief but distinct peak in Hippophaë occurs in all pollen diagrams coincident with basin isolation, followed by up to 500 years (varying locally) by an Alnus rise. The Alnus curve does not display a synchronous rise in the area. Its expansion below the highest shore level is time-transgressive and controlled mainly by the timing of basin isolation. The relationship between regional Alnus expansion and changes in hydrology and climate is discussed. The pollen diagrams show Pinus predominance with Corylus to the east (more coastal areas) and Betula predominance (though less pronounced) to the west during the period 10 200–9000 cal. yr BP. However, comparisons between sites suggest marked variability in the forest development. Shore displacement in easternmost Jämtland c. 10 300–9000 cal. yr BP is equal to or slightly more rapid than that of SE Ångermanland, contrary to the present pattern of isostatic recovery. A rapid shore level regression c. 10 300–10 000 cal. yr BP may be related to drainage of the Ancylus Lake.

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