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  • 1. Farahani, Sara
    et al.
    Worrell, Ernst
    Bryntse, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Graphic/Arts Technology.
    CO2-free paper?2004In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 42, p. 317-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor gasification–combined cycle (BLGCC) is a new technology that has the potential to increase electricity production of a chemical pulping mill. Increased electricity generation in combination with the potential to use biomass (e.g. bark, hog fuel) more efficiently can result in increased power output compared to the conventional Tomlinson-boiler. Because the BLGCC enables an integrated pulp and paper mill to produce excess power, it can offset electricity produced by power plants. This may lead to reduction of the net-CO2 emissions. The impact of BLGCC to offset CO2 emissions from the pulp and paper industry is studied. We focus on two different plant designs and compare the situation in Sweden and the US. The CO2 emissions are studied as function of the share of recycled fibre used to make the paper. The study shows that under specific conditions the production of “CO2-free paper” is possible. First, energy efficiency in pulp and paper mills needs to be improved to allow the export of sufficient power to offset emissions from fossil fuels used in boilers and other equipment. Secondly, the net-CO2 emission per ton of paper depends strongly on the emission reduction credits for electricity export, and hence on the country or grid to which the paper mill is connected. Thirdly, supplemental use of biomass to replace fossil fuel inputs is important to reduce the overall emissions of the pulp and paper industry.

  • 2.
    Mattsson Petersen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    Berg, Per E O
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Environmental Engineering.
    The Development of Systems for Property Close Collection of Recyclables: Experiences from Sweden and England2003In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a multiple case study of systems for collection of recyclables from domestic properties. A model for describing the development process is presented together with six examples from Sweden and one from the UK. Six Swedish systems that have been in operation since 1994, when the Ordinance on Producers' Responsibility was enforced, are presented. They are considered in the light of the driving forces behind their development: co-operation between municipality and producers, collection efficiency through vehicle development, quality of recyclables, Agenda 21 and environmental concerns, service to users and recycling as a marketable product, respectively. The Swedish systems are compared to a recently introduced collection program in Northamptonshire, UK. The results from an evaluation of the Swedish systems shows that what differentiates them is not technical details but how, where, by and for whom they were developed. The conclusion drawn is that a collection system should be adapted to local conditions, both in technical design and social factors. At present the lessons from Sweden are being used to design new recycling strategies in Northamptonshire, demonstrating the importance of international comparisons to develop 'best practice'.

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