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  • 1. Gardulf, Ann
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet.
    Lepp, Margret
    Lindholm, Christina
    Nordström, Gun
    Theander, Kersti
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Johansson, Eva
    The Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) scale: self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 36, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: International organisations, e.g. WHO, stress the importance of competent registered nurses (RN) for the safety and quality of healthcare systems. Low competence among RNs has been shown to increase the morbidity and mortality of inpatients.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation (NSPGs), using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale, and to relate the findings to background factors.

    METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The NPC Scale consists of 88 items within eight competence areas (CAs) and two overarching themes. Questions about socio-economic background and perceived overall quality of the degree programme were added. In total, 1086 NSPGs (mean age, 28.1 [20-56]years, 87.3% women) from 11 universities/university colleges participated.

    RESULTS: NSPGs reported significantly higher scores for Theme I "Patient-Related Nursing" than for Theme II "Organisation and Development of Nursing Care". Younger NSPGs (20-27years) reported significantly higher scores for the CAs "Medical and Technical Care" and "Documentation and Information Technology". Female NSPGs scored significantly higher for "Value-Based Nursing". Those who had taken the nursing care programme at upper secondary school before the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme scored significantly higher on "Nursing Care", "Medical and Technical Care", "Teaching/Learning and Support", "Legislation in Nursing and Safety Planning" and on Theme I. Working extra paid hours in healthcare alongside the BSN programme contributed to significantly higher self-reported scores for four CAs and both themes. Clinical courses within the BSN programme contributed to perceived competence to a significantly higher degree than theoretical courses (93.2% vs 87.5% of NSPGs).

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Mean scores reported by NSPGs were highest for the four CAs connected with patient-related nursing and lowest for CAs relating to organisation and development of nursing care. We conclude that the NPC Scale can be used to identify and measure aspects of self-reported competence among NSPGs.

  • 2.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Mälardalens University; Karolinska Institute.
    Holmström, Inger K
    Skoglund, Karin
    Meranius, Martina Summer
    Sundler, Annelie J
    The care of and communication with older people from the perspective of student nurses. A mixed method study2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 52, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Undergraduate nurse education needs to prepare student nurses to meet the demands and to have the necessary communication skills for caring for an increasing older population. The challenges involve how best to support and empower student nurses to learn the communication skills needed to care for older people.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate student nurses' views on the care of and communication with older people.

    DESIGN: A descriptive study with a mixed-method approach was conducted.

    METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a questionnaire completed by third-year Swedish student nurses in 2015.

    RESULTS: The student nurses reported positive attitudes to the care of and communication with older people. The findings focus on the central aspects related to relationship building, techniques for communication and external prerequisites.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite positive attitudes, student nurses had a limited view of communication with older people. Educators need to increase student nurses' capacity to communicate effectively with older people. Educational interventions to improve and evaluate the communication competency of nurses and student nurses are needed.

  • 3. Nilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Engström, Maria
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Carlsson, Marianne
    A short version of the nurse professional competence scale for measuring nurses' self-reported competence2018In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 71, p. 233-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale with 88-items has been used to measure self-reported competence among nursing students and registered nurses in many national and international nursing research projects. However, a shorter version of the scale with maintained quality has been requested to further enhance its usability.

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of a shorter version of the NPC Scale.

    DESIGN: A developmental and methodological design.

    PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: The study was based on a sample of 1810 nursing students at the point of graduation from 12 universities in Sweden.

    METHODS: The number of items in the original NPC Scale was reduced using several established research steps and then evaluated for data quality and construct validity using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was measured as internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha.

    RESULTS: The extensive process of reducing the number of items resulted in a version with 35 items. Principal component analysis resulted in six factors explaining 53.6% of the variance: "Nursing Care", "Value-based Nursing Care", "Medical and Technical Care", "Care Pedagogics", "Documentation and Administration of Nursing Care", and "Development, Leadership, and Organization of Nursing Care". All factors showed Cronbach's alpha values of >0.70. The confirmative factor analysis goodness-of-fit indexes were for root mean square error of approximation 0.05 and for comparative fit index 0.89.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NPC Scale Short Form (NPC Scale-SF) 35-items revealed promising results with a six-factor structure explaining 53.6% of the total variance. This 35-item scale can be an asset when used alone and together with other instruments it can provide the possibility of more complex analyses of self-reported competence among nursing students and registered nurses.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Egmar, Ann-Charlotte
    Röda korsets högskola.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lepp, Margret
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmets högskola.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstads universitet.
    Theander, Kersti
    Karlstads universitet.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Karolinska institutet.
    Development and validation of a new tool measuring nurses self-reported professional competence: the nurse professional competence (NPC) scale2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To develop and validate a new tool intended for measuring self-reported professional competenceamong both nurse students prior to graduation and among practicing nurses. The new tool is based on formalcompetence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHOguidelines.

    Design: A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometricproperties.Participants and settings: 1086 newly graduated nurse students from 11 universities/university colleges.

    Results: The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (Nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering eight factors: “Nursing care”, “Value-based nursing care”, “Medical/technical care”, “Teaching/learning and support”, “Documentation and information technology”, “Legislation in nursing and safetyplanning”, “Leadership in and development of nursing care” and “Education and supervision of staff/students”. All factors achieved Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted intwo main themes: “Patient-related nursing” and “Nursing care organisation and development”. In addition,evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained.

    Conclusions: The NPC Scale, which is based on national and international professional competence requirements for nurses, was comprehensively tested and showed satisfactory psychometrical properties. It can e.g. be used to evaluate the outcomes of nursing education programmes, to assess nurses' professional competences in relation to the needs in healthcare organisations, and to tailor introduction programmes for newly employed nurses

  • 5.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    IMPAD-22: a checklist for authors of qualitative nursing research manuscripts2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1295-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to develop a checklist for authors preparing qualitative nursing research manuscripts, specifically focusing on the method section.

    DESIGN: Literature review.

    DATA SOURCES: 15 articles were purposefully selected from three different nursing journals.

    REVIEW METHODS: Evans' four step process was used to synthesize the method sections of the included articles.

    RESULTS: Four main categories were identified 1) Ingress and Methodology, 2) Participants, 3) Approval, and 4) Data: Collection and Management. Based on the categories and sub-categories, a 22-item checklist was developed.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Earlier guidelines for formal reporting were developed for qualitative research in general. The main advantage and contribution of IMPAD is that it provides a 22-item checklist specifically aimed towards the method section, and furthermore, it was developed specifically for authors within the field of nursing research.

  • 6. Skoglund, Karin
    et al.
    Holmström, Inger K.
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Previous work experience and age do not affect final semester nursing student self-efficacy in communication skills2018In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 68, p. 182-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    With the continuing increase in the older population, being able to communicate with the elderly is one of the many important skills in caring for older people. Therefore, student nurses need support during education to be prepared with the necessary communication skills to meet these demands.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of communication skills during nursing education.

    Design

    A quantitative descriptive and comparative study.

    Settings

    The nursing programme at a university in an urban area of Sweden.

    Participants

    Student nurses in the first and third year in a nursing programme in Sweden in 2015.

    Methods

    Data were collected with a self-efficacy questionnaire and analysed with descriptive and comparative statistics.

    Results

    The student nurses in the final semester had a higher self-rated ability to communicate with older people than students in the second semester of the education year. There was also a difference in self efficacy between students with or without former experience of health care work or work in care with older persons in the second semester. However, these differences were not seen in the final semester. The age of the students did not affect the self-efficacy rate in either semester.

    Conclusions

    Student nurses in the present study scored themselves relatively highly, while student nurses in previous studies expressed a need for more communication skills training. Further studies with observations of student nurses' actual communicative skills in clinical and simulations settings are needed, to pinpoint weak spots and targets for such an education.

  • 7. Theander, Kersti
    et al.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Gardulf, Ann
    Johansson, Eva
    Lindholm, Christina
    Nordström, Gun
    Nilsson, Jan
    Adjusting to future demands in healthcare: curriculum changes and nursing students' self-reported professional competence2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 37, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nursing competence is of significant importance for patient care. Newly graduated nursing students rate their competence as high. However, the impact of different designs of nursing curricula on nursing students' self-reported nursing competence areas is seldom reported.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare newly graduated nursing students' self-reported professional competence before and after the implementation of a new nursing curriculum. The study had a descriptive comparative design. Nursing students, who graduated in 2011, having studied according to an older curriculum, were compared with those who graduated in 2014, after a new nursing curriculum with more focus on person-centered nursing had been implemented.

    SETTING: A higher education nursing program at a Swedish university.

    PARTICIPANTS: In total, 119 (2011 n=69, 2014 n=50) nursing students responded.

    METHODS: Nursing students' self-reported professional competencies were assessed with the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) scale.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups of nursing students, who graduated in 2011 and 2014, respectively, with regard to age, sex, education, or work experience. Both groups rated their competencies as very high. Competence in value-based nursing was perceived to be significantly higher after the change in curriculum. The lowest competence, both in 2011 and 2014, was reported in education and supervision of staff and students.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that newly graduated nursing students - both those following the old curriculum and the first batch of students following the new one - perceive that their professional competence is high. Competence in value-based nursing, measured with the NPC scale, was reported higher after the implementation of a new curriculum, reflecting curriculum changes with more focus on person-centered nursing.

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