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  • 1.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Aveln, Pernilla
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Säflund, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wredling, Regina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Siblings’ farewell to a stillborn sister or brother and parents’ support to their older children: a questionnaire study from the parents’ perspective2010In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to capture parental descriptions of how siblings take leave of and mourn a stillborn brother or sister and how their parents support them. Data were collected by questionnaires from 16 parents of siblings to a stillborn child one year after the stillbirth. Data were analysed numerically for the multiple-choice questions and content analysis was used for parental comments and descriptions. The results describe siblings’ farewell to a stillborn brother or sister and how their parents in the midst of their own grief were involved in supporting siblings’ wellbeing, and observed their mourning reactions. Although the findings need to be interpreted with caution, they may provide insight that enables staff to become more sensitive to the whole family experience in the practice of their profession. Further research into siblings’ grief and parental support after stillbirth is crucial so that further light may be shed on their situation.

  • 2.
    Forsner, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nilsson, S
    Finnström, B
    Mörelius, E
    Expectation prior to human papilloma virus vaccination: 11 to 12-year-old girls' written narratives2016In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 365-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expectations prior to needle-related procedures can influence individuals’ decision making and compliance with immunization programmes. To protect from human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical cancer, the immunization needs to be given before sexual debut raising interest for this study’s aim to investigate how 11 to 12-year-old girls narrate about their expectations prior to HPV vaccination. A total of 27 girls aged 11 to 12 years participated in this qualitative narrative study by writing short narratives describing their expectations. The requirement for inclusion was to have accepted HPV vaccination. Data were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Findings showed the following expectations: going to hurt, going to be scared and going to turn out fine. The expectations were based on the girls’ previous experiences, knowledge and self-image. The latent content revealed that the girls tried to transform uneasiness to confidence. The conclusion drawn from this study is that most girls of this age seem confident about their ability to cope with possible unpleasantness related to vaccinations. However, nurses need to find strategies to help those children who feel uneasy about needle-related procedures.

  • 3.
    Forsner, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University.
    Nordyke, Katrina
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University.
    Lindh, Viveca
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University.
    Relaxation and guided imagery used with 12-year-olds during venipuncture in a school-based screening study2014In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Needle-related procedures are reported to be problematic for children. In a school-based celiac disease screening, 12-year-olds’ experiences with relaxation and guided imagery (R-GI) during venipuncture were investigated. One group tried nurse-led R-GI (n = 60) and another group received standard care (SC; n = 49). A mixed method design was applied using short written narratives, facial affective scale (FAS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain intensity. Qualitative content analysis highlighted that diversity and contradictions when facing blood tests. FAS scores were significantly lower in the SC group before (p = 0.01), during (p = 0.01), and after (p = 0.01) venipuncture. VAS scores did not differ between the groups. The blood test was mostly experienced as unproblematic, and GI during venipuncture did not decrease pain or affect. However, the fact that a number of children scored high FAS indicates a need for effective methods to help children cope with needle-related school-based procedures.

  • 4.
    Mattsson, Janet Yvonne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Arman, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Castren, Maaret
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Meaning of caring in pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents: A qualitative study2014In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When children are critically ill, parents still strive to be present and participate in the care of their child. Pediatric intensive care differs from other realms of pediatric care as the nature of care is technically advanced and rather obstructing than encouraging parental involvement or closeness, either physically or emotionally, with the critically ill child. The aim of this study was to elucidate the meaning of caring in the pediatric intensive care unit from the perspective of parents. The design of this study followed Benner's interpretive phenomenological method. Eleven parents of seven children participated in observations and interviews. The following aspects of caring were illustrated in the themes arising from the findings: being a bridge to the child on the edge, building a sheltered atmosphere, meeting the child's needs, and adapting the environment for family life. The overall impression is that the phenomenon of caring is experienced exclusively when it is directed toward the exposed child. The conclusion drawn is that caring is present when providing expert physical care combined with fulfilling emotional needs and supporting continuing daily parental care for the child in an inviting environment.

  • 5. Mattsson, Janet Yvonne
    et al.
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Arman, Maria
    Uncovering pain in critically ill non-verbal children: nurses' clinical experiences in the paediatric intensive care unit2011In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 187-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critically ill paediatric patients are frequently exposed to pain that is required to be assessed and treated effectively. The most reliable resource for assessing pain is the child itself, but children in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are commonly unable to communicate their needs, requiring professional caregivers to uncover and interpret pain. However, nurses and paediatricians do not have sufficient knowledge of how critical illness affects childrens' signs of pain. The aim of this study was to illuminate clinical experiences of pain in the PICU; describing nurses' perceptions of expressions of pain in non-verbal, critically ill 2-6 year old children. The participants were 17 experienced PICU nurses. Data were analysed according to the phenomenographic method and three qualitatively different main categories, gained from clinical experience, emerged: changes in the measurable parameters; perceived muscular tension; and, altered behaviour. Furthermore, contrasting the categories revealed two diverse perspectives to focus pain: measure-oriented and patient-oriented. Subtle expressions of pain were recognised when focus was patient-oriented. These findings support the necessity of actively looking for pain deriving from various perspectives and considering diverse caring needs when doing so. Acknowledging pain makes pain visible.

  • 6. Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Hanberger, Lena
    Olinder, Anna Lindholm
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Umeå universitet.
    The Faces Emotional Coping Scale as a self-reporting instrument for coping with needle-related procedures: An initial validation study with children treated for type 1 diabetes2017In: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 392-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the concurrent and content validity, sensitivity and inter-rater reliability of the Faces Emotional Coping Scale (FECS) to evaluate the children's anticipation of the level of emotional coping in conjunction with a venepuncture. A total of 153 children with type 1 diabetes and 86 of their parents participated in the study. The age of the children, 76 of whom were boys, ranged from 7 to 18 years. The child and his or her parent reported the child's coping ability, and the child reported the pain intensity and unpleasantness of a venepuncture. The child also wrote a short narrative about his or her experience of the needle procedure. The FECS correlated negatively with the Coloured Analogue Scale and the Facial Affective Scale and positively with the FECS by proxy. The narratives of 90 children correlated negatively with the FECS. Younger children reported significantly lower scores than older children did regarding their ability to cope with a venepuncture. The children's scores on the FECS showed good agreement with the parents' scores. In this study, the FECS was deemed valid for measuring children's ability to cope with their emotions when undergoing needle-related procedures like venepuncture.

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