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  • 1.
    Berger, Robert
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Stavlid, N.
    Grehk, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    The influence of alkali-degreasing on the chemical composition of hot-dip galvanized steel surfaces2006In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1130-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of dipping temperature and time on the surface chemistry of hot-dipped galvanized steel sheets during the alkaline degreasing process is investigated. The surface chemistry was monitored with scanning Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS). The results show high Al concentrations on the untreated surfaces, which are significantly reduced during alkaline degreasing. The same conclusions could be drawn for the carbon compounds that accumulate on the surface during storage. The measurements reveal a gradual reduction in surface Al as the alkali solution temperature and/or degreasing time are increased. When degreasing was conducted at 70 °C for 30 s the surface was practically free from Al, which was present only in small islands. Furthermore, the experiments showed that the thickness of the oxide film covering the surfaces before and after alkaline degreasing is approximately 20 Å. The main constituents of the film varied from ZnAl hydroxide/oxide to Zn hydroxide/oxide, before and after degreasing, respectively. 

  • 2.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Grehk, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Gelius, Ulrik
    XPS and AES Characterisation of hydrolysed ?- Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane deposited on Al, Zn and Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si alloy coated steel2004In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, no 36, p. 624-631Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Characterisation of a Non-Organofunctional Silane Film Deposited on Al, Zn and Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si Alloy Coated Steel, Part II. Interfacial Characterization by ToF-SIMS and AES2001In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used to analyse the interface between a non-organofunctional silane and three different metal substrates (aluminium, zinc and an aluminium-zinc alloy). Ion etching using Ga+ ions was used to expose the interfacial region. Ion fragments from the samples were examined carefully where supposed metal-oxygen-silicon ion fragments should appear in the mass spectra. From high mass resolution spectra it was concluded that there exists an AlOSi+ ion fragment at nominal mass m/z = 71 amu on the aluminium and aluminium-zinc alloy substrates and a ZnOSi+ ion fragment at nominal mass m/z = 108 amu on the zinc and aluminium-zinc alloy substrates. These results are further enhanced by the fact that the characteristic ion pattern of ZnOSi+-type ion fragments, composed of different naturally stable zinc and silicon isotopes, in the mass range m/z = 108-112 amu showed the expected relative peak height relations. The presence of these metal-oxygen-silicon ion fragments is a strong indication that chemical interaction between the silane and the metal substrates exists and that the nature of this interaction is due to the formation of a covalent bond between the silane and the metal substrate. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Characterisation of a Non-Organofunctional Silane Film Deposited on Al, Zn and Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si Alloy-Coated Steel, Part I. Surface Characterization by ToF-SIMS2001In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 212-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to develop new environmentally friendly pretreatments in the surface engineering of metal substrates has become more and more important.This is mainly due to the toxic and carcinogenic properties of the chromium-based surface pretreatments frequently used in the industry. During the last decade, simple solution-dip silane-based pretreatments have emerged as promising candidates for the replacement of currently used pretreatments of metals. Recent investigations have shown that the performance of these newly developed pretreatments is strongly dependent on the chemical composition and structure of the silane film and consequently a lot of work, based on advanced surface analytical techniques, is needed in order to characterize these properties. In the present study, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used to characterize the structure of thin films of the non-organofunctional silane 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) deposited on three different metal substrates, i.e. Al, Zn and Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si (AlZn) alloy-coated steel. Of special interest was an evaluation of the influence of substrate material on the structure and composition of the silane films. The results show that the BTSE silane forms a thin, evenly distributed film over the substrate surfaces and that the molecular structure of the silane film is independent of the type of metal substrate. Analysis of the molecular ions in the positive mode shows that the surface structure of the BTSE silane is very complex and that the BTSE condensates via one to three SiOSi bridges. Also, the results show that the BTSE silane is not fully hydrolysed using a hydrolysing time of 1 h. Finally, if an alcohol is used as a solvent for the BTSE there is a clear chemical interaction between the alcohol and the silane, resulting in an exchange of alkoxy groups between the alcohol and the silane. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5.
    Bexell, Ulf
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science.
    Time-of-Flight SIMS Characterization of Hydrolysed Organofunctional and Non-Organofunctional Silanes Deposited on Al, Zn and Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si Alloy-Coated Steel2003In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 880-887Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Engkvist, Josefin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Material Science. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Israelsson, Niklas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    The initial effect of KCl deposit on alumina scales characterized by ToF-SIMS and AES2013In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 445-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A FeCrAl alloy was preoxidized to form a protective alumina scale, and the effect of KCl deposits on the alumina scale was investigated while exposed during 1 and 24 h at 600 °C. However, impurity concentrations in the alumina scale change the ion conductivity and hence affect its protective properties. Therefore, Auger electron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry were used to characterize the alumina scales and detect traces of K and Cl. The results showed that K and Cl existed as large sharp-edged crystals surrounded by a dendritic network after 1 h. However, after 24 h, those were dissolved, and K together with Cl was detected only in the outer layer of the duplex alumina scale, which was formed during preoxidation.

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