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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Axel C
    et al.
    Centre for Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden ; Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Calamia, Michael
    Landstinget Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences/Section of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Helmersson-Karlqvist, Johanna
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 is associated with insulin resistance: results from two community-based studies of elderly individuals2014In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 103, no 3, p. 516-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Insulin resistance has been shown to be closely associated with glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, even prior to the development of diabetes. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a novel, highly specific marker of kidney tubular damage. The role of insulin resistance in the development of kidney tubular damage is not previously reported. Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations between insulin sensitivity (assessed by HOMA) and urinary KIM-1.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Two community-based cohorts of elderly individuals were investigated: Prospective Investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS, n=701; mean age 75 years, 52% women); and Uppsala Longitudinal Study of adult men (ULSAM, n=533; mean age 78 years).

    RESULTS: Lower insulin sensitivity was associated with higher urinary KIM-1 in both cohorts after adjustments for age, BMI, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (PIVUS: regression coefficient for 1-SD higher HOMA-IR 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.20, p=0.009, and ULSAM: 0.13, 95% CI 0.04-0.22, p=0.007). Results were similar in individuals without diabetes, with normal kidney function and normo-albuminuria.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in elderly individuals support the notion that the interplay between an impaired glucose metabolism and renal tubular damage is evident even prior to the development of diabetes and overt kidney disease.

  • 2.
    Granström, Therese
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet.
    Forsman, Henrietta
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lindholm Olinder, Anna
    Gkretsis, Dimitrios
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Granstam, Elisabet
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala universitet.
    Patient-reported outcomes and visual acuity after 12 months of anti-VEGF-treatment for sight-threatening diabetic macular edema in a real world setting2016In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 121, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To examine objective visual acuity measured with ETDRS, retinal thickness (OCT), patient reported outcome and describe levels of glycated hemoglobin and its association with the effects on visual acuity in patients treated with anti-VEGF for visual impairment due to diabetic macular edema (DME) during 12 months in a real world setting.

    Methods

    In this cross-sectional study, 58 patients (29 females and 29 males; mean age, 68 years) with type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosed with DME were included. Medical data and two questionnaires were collected; an eye-specific (NEI VFQ-25) and a generic health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) were used.

    Results

    The total patient group had significantly improved visual acuity and reduced retinal thickness at 4 months and remains at 12 months follow up. Thirty patients had significantly improved visual acuity, and 27 patients had no improved visual acuity at 12 months. The patients with improved visual acuity had significantly improved scores for NEI VFQ-25 subscales including general health, general vision, near activities, distance activities, and composite score, but no significant changes in scores were found in the group without improvements in visual acuity.

    Conclusions

    Our study revealed that anti-VEGF treatment improved visual acuity and central retinal thickness as well as patient-reported outcome in real world 12 months after treatment start.

  • 3.
    Leksell, Janeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Wikblad, Karin
    Sandberg, Gun
    Sense of coherence and power among people with blindness caused by diabetes2005In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 124-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to analyze whether strong sense of coherence (SOC) or power or the combination of strong SOC and power was related to blind diabetic patients’ self-perceived health, burden of diabetes, glycaemic control and self-care among blind people. In some variables we wanted to compare subjects with diabetes-related blindness with people who were blind for other reasons than diabetes. The present descriptive study included 39 blind subjects from three ophthalmic outpatient clinics who agreed to participate; 23 were blind due to diabetes and 16 were blind for other reasons. Power was explored during semi-structured interviews, SOC was measured with the SOC-scale and burden of diabetes with semantic differential in diabetes (SDD) questionnaires. A single Likert scale (EVGFP) was used to measure self-perceived health. Participants with the combination of strong SOC and power perceived better health, experienced less burden of diabetes and had better glycaemic control than those with the combination of weak SOC and non-power. Nearly all participants with diabetes experienced problems with self-care, especially with the insulin treatment. The results highlight the importance of education that increases SOC and power as well as developing visual aids that assist blind people with diabetes in different self-care situations.

  • 4. Petersson, H
    et al.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    Zethelius, B
    Risérus, U
    Serum fatty acid composition and insulin resistance are independently associated with liver fat markers in elderly men2010In: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, ISSN 0168-8227, E-ISSN 1872-8227, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 379-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the relationships of serum fatty acid (FA) composition and estimated desaturase activities with the liver fat marker alanine aminotransferase (ALT). 

    Methods: 546 Swedish elderly men of a population-based cohort participated in this cross-sectional study. FA composition was assessed in serum cholesterol esters to determine dietary fat quality (e.g. linoleic) and desaturation products (e.g. dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid). Desaturase indices, including stearoyl coenzymeA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), were calculated by FA product-to-precursor ratios. 

    Results: In linear regression analyses adjusting for lifestyle, abdominal obesity and insulin sensitivity, the dietary biomarker linoleic acid (n-6), but not n-3 FAs, was inversely related to ALT. Desaturation products including palmitoleic, oleic, gamma-linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids, and Delta 6-desaturase and SCD-1 indices were directly related to ALT (all p < 0.05). After further adjustment for factors previously linked to fatty liver (i.e. serum lipids, adiponectin concentrations), SCD-1 index (p = 0.004) and insulin resistance (p <0.0001) were independent determinants of ALT activity, whereas waist circumference, triglycerides, non-esterified FA and adiponectin were not. 

    Conclusion: A low dietary intake of linoleic acid and elevated SCD-1 index may contribute to higher ALT activity in elderly men, even independently of obesity and insulin resistance.

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