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  • 1. Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Change in body weight from age 20 years is a powerful determinant of the metabolic syndrome2017In: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, ISSN 1540-4196, E-ISSN 1557-8518, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 112-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Higher body weight is a well-known determinant of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. It is however less well studied how the change in weight from age 20 years to middle age or old age affects MetS development.

    METHODS: In the community-based EpiHealth (n = 19,000, age range 45 to 75 years, 56% females) and PIVUS (n = 1000, all aged 70 years, 50% females) studies, the participants were asked about their body weight at age 20 years. Data were collected to determine MetS prevalence (NCEP ATP III criteria).

    RESULTS: In EpiHealth, the probability of having MetS increased fairly linearly with increasing weight from age 20 in the obese [odds ratios (OR) 1.04 per kg change in weight, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.05, P < 0.0001], as well as in the overweight (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.14-1.17, P < 0.0001) and normal-weight (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.14-1.21, P < 0.0001), subjects after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) at age 20, alcohol intake, smoking, education, and exercise habits. Also in the PIVUS study, the change in weight over 50 years was related to prevalent MetS (OR 1.08 per kg change in weight, 95% CI 1.06-1.10, P < 0.0001). In both studies, self-reported BMI at age 20 was related to prevalent MetS.

    CONCLUSION: Self-reported weight gain from age 20 was strongly and independently associated with prevalent MetS both in middle age or old age. Interestingly, this relationship was not restricted only to obese subjects. Our data provide additional support for the importance of maintaining a stable weight throughout life.

  • 2. Lind, Lars
    et al.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Sundström, Johan
    Zethelius, Björn
    Reaven, Gerald M
    Can the Plasma Concentration Ratio of Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Identify Individuals at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease During 40-Year Follow-Up?2018In: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, ISSN 1540-4196, E-ISSN 1557-8518, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 433-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a simple way to estimate insulin resistance. We aimed to evaluate the TG/HDL-C ratio as a simple clinical way to identify apparently healthy individuals with insulin resistance and enhanced risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD).

    METHODS: One thousand seven hundred twenty men, aged 50 years, free from diabetes and CVD when evaluated at baseline in 1970-1974 were followed for 40 years regarding incident CVD (myocardial infarction and/or ischemic stroke, n = 576).

    RESULTS: Participants with a high TG/HDL-C ratio (highest quartile >1.8) at baseline were more insulin resistant, with a significantly more adverse cardiometabolic risk profile (P < 0.001) at baseline, compared with those with a lower ratio. This group also showed an increased risk of CVD [hazard ratio, HR 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.26-1.93) P < 0.001]. Fourteen percent of subjects with metabolic syndrome, in whom insulin resistance is increased, were also at enhanced CVD risk [HR 1.75 (1.42-2.16) P < 0.001].

    CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-five percent of apparently healthy 50-year-old men with the highest TG/HDL-C plasma concentration ratio had a significantly more adverse cardiometabolic profile at baseline, and developed more CVD over the next 40 years, compared with those not meeting this cut point. Determining the TG/HDL-C ratio in middle-aged men provided a simple and potentially clinically useful way to identify increased risk of developing CVD in persons free of diabetes or manifest CVD.

  • 3. Roos, Vendela
    et al.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Sundström, Johan
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Lind, Lars
    Alterations in multiple lifestyle factors in subjects with the metabolic syndrome independently of obesity2017In: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, ISSN 1540-4196, E-ISSN 1557-8518, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 118-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Many lifestyle factors have been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, most of these studies have not considered the potential impact of obesity and have often only investigated one lifestyle factor at the time. We aimed to investigate the interplay between body mass index (BMI) and MetS with respect to multiple lifestyle factors.

    METHODS: BMI and MetS [National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria] were assessed in a sample of 18,880 subjects aged 45-75 years from the population-based EpiHealth study. Participants were categorized into six groups according to BMI category (normal weight/BMI <25 kg/m(2), overweight/BMI 25-30 kg/m(2), and obesity/BMI >30 kg/m(2)) and MetS status (+/-, NCEP criteria). A wide range of lifestyle factors related to physical activity, smoking, alcohol, sleep quality, working conditions, quality of life and stress, and eating patterns were assessed using a questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Prevalent MetS (23% in the sample) was associated with less physical activity (P < 0.0001), more TV watching (P < 0.0001), more years of smoking (P < 0.0001), lower education level (P = 0.007), and experiencing a poor general quality of life (P < 0.0001). These lifestyle factors were all associated with MetS, independently of each other and independently of BMI. Similar results were generated when number of MetS components and presence/absence of individual MetS components were used as outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study identified alterations in a number of lifestyle factors associated with MetS independently of each other and independently of BMI. Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess causal and temporal relationships between lifestyle factors and MetS development.

  • 4. Roos, Vendela
    et al.
    Elmståhl, Sölve
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Sundström, Johan
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Lind, Lars
    Metabolic syndrome development during aging with special reference to obesity without the metabolic syndrome2017In: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, ISSN 1540-4196, E-ISSN 1557-8518, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and its associated metabolic complications continue to increase worldwide. We investigated the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) during aging in relation to body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits. We assigned special emphasis to the metabolic stability in individuals with obesity, but without MetS, a condition often referred to as metabolically healthy obesity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was carried out in a sample of 19,129 men and women aged 45-75 years from the EpiHealth study. In addition, longitudinal analyses were carried out in the ULSAM study (2322 men at baseline followed from age 50 to age 77) and in the PIVUS study (1016 men and women at baseline followed from age 70 to age 80). Participants were categorized into six groups according to BMI category (normal weight/BMI <25 kg/m(2), overweight/BMI 25-30 kg/m(2), and obesity/BMI >30 kg/m(2)) and MetS status (+/-, National Cholesterol Education Program criteria).

    RESULTS: MetS prevalence and number of MetS components increased with age in all three samples. The PIVUS study showed that high baseline BMI, low baseline physical activity, and increasing BMI during follow-up were related to increasing MetS prevalence and increasing numbers of MetS components during follow-up. One-third to half of individuals initially belonging to the obesity without MetS category acquired MetS during aging.

    CONCLUSIONS: MetS prevalence increased during aging, especially in individuals with high BMI, low level of physical activity, and weight gain. Obesity without MetS was not a stable condition over time as many of those individuals gained metabolic disturbances during aging.

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