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  • 1.
    Andersson, Åsa C
    et al.
    Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Lindemalm, Synnöve
    Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Onatli, Dilba
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Chowdhury, Samia
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Eksborg, Staffan
    Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Förberg, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    'Working outside the box'-an interview study regarding manipulation of medicines with registered nurses and pharmacists at a Swedish paediatric hospital2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 12, p. 2551-2559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Studies on frequencies of manipulated medicines in paediatric care are common, but there is little knowledge of experiences of pharmacists and registered nurses in this area. The aim of this study was to explore registered nurses' and pharmacists' reasoning in the manipulation of medicines to paediatric inpatients.

    METHODS: Semistructured interviews with twelve registered nurses and seven pharmacists were performed at a Swedish paediatric university hospital. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis.

    RESULTS: Four major categories emerged from the analysis of the interviews: medicines management, knowledge, consulting others and organisation. Medicines management involved the process of drug handling, which is prescribing, reconstitution or manipulation and administration. Knowledge concerned both the knowledge base and how healthcare personnel seek information. Consulting others involved colleagues, registered nurses and pharmacists, between registered nurses, pharmacists and physicians and between registered nurses, pharmacists and caregivers. Organisation covered documentation, time and working environment.

    CONCLUSION: Both pharmacists and registered nurses stated that manipulation of medicines to paediatric patients was often necessary but felt unsafe due to lack of supporting guidelines. Pharmacists were natural members of the ward team, contributing with specific knowledge about medicines and formulations.

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  • 2. Ayala, Ana
    et al.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Christensson, Eva
    Cavada, Gabriel
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Sexual Reproductive Perinatal Health. Karolinska Institutet.
    Velandia, Marianne
    Newborn infants who received skin-to-skin contact with fathers after Caesarean sections showed stable physiological patterns.2021In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, no 5, p. 1461-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Separating infants and their parents after a Caesarean section is still the routine care worldwide. This study investigated three caregiving models on the wakefulness and physiological parameters of full-term infants after an elective Caesarean section.

    METHODS: Newborn infants born in a Chilean public hospital in 2009-12 were randomised to three groups: cot, fathers' arms or skin-to-skin contact with their father. They were assessed at 15-minute intervals, from 45 to 120 minutes after the Caesarean section. Their physiological parameters were measured, and their wakefulness was assessed using the Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale.

    RESULTS: We studied 95 infant (53% girls) born at a mean gestational age of 38.9 ± 0.9 weeks. Heart rates were significantly higher in the skin-to-skin than cot or fathers' arms groups and showed greater stability over time. Wakefulness was initially higher in the skin-to-skin group, but there were no significant differences by the end of the observation. There were no differences between the groups in peripheral oxygen saturation. Skin-to-skin contact had no negative impact on the infants.

    CONCLUSION: The skin-to-skin group showed some advantages over the cot and fathers' arms groups when it came to establishing stable physiological parameters and wakefulness. This approach should be supported during mother-infant separation.

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  • 3. Björkman, Frida
    et al.
    Eggers, Andrea
    Stenman, Adam
    Bohman, Tony
    Karolinska institutet.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Sex and maturity status affected the validity of a submaximal cycle test in adolescents2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study assessed the validity and reliability of the Ekblom-Bak (EB) submaximal cycle test in adolescents and identified any sex- or maturity-related factors for prediction errors.

    METHODS: We recruited 50 healthy subjects through a public announcement in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2016. The 27 boys and 23 girls were aged 10-15 years and in Tanner stages I-IV. They performed an EB test and incremental treadmill running test for direct measurement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max).

    RESULTS: The estimation error of VO2 max was 0.09 L/min. The correlation (r) was 0.86, and the standard error of the estimate (SEE) was 0.29 L/min. The largest overestimation was seen in prepubertal boys (0.49 L/min). The best precision of the EB test was achieved when boys in Tanner stages I and II were re-calculated using the prediction equation developed for adult women. This yielded a mean difference of -0.05 L/min, r = 0.92 and SEE 0.23 L/min, in the entire sample. The prediction error was lowered in boys, but not girls, with increasing pubertal maturity.

    CONCLUSION: The EB test was reasonably valid in adolescents, seemed to be related to sex and maturity status, and our findings support its use.

  • 4.
    Borneskog, Catrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Lampic, C
    Sydsjö, G
    Bladh, M
    Skoog Svanberg, A
    How do lesbian couples compare with heterosexual in vitro fertilization and spontaneously pregnant couples when it comes to parenting stress?2014In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 103, no 5, p. 537-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To study parenting stress in lesbian parents and to compare that stress with heterosexual parents following in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or spontaneous pregnancies.

    METHODS: This survey took place during 2005-2008 and was part of the Swedish multicentre study on gamete donation. It comprised 131 lesbian parents, 83 heterosexual IVF parents, who used their own gametes, and 118 spontaneous pregnancy parents. The participants responded to the questionnaire when the child was between 12 and 36-months-old and parenting stress was measured by the Swedish Parenting Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ).

    RESULTS: Lesbian parents experienced less parenting stress than heterosexual IVF parents when it came to the General Parenting Stress measure (p = 0.001) and the subareas of Incompetence (p < 0.001), Social Isolation (p = 0.033) and Role Restriction (p = 0.004). They also experienced less parenting stress than heterosexual spontaneous pregnancy couples, according to the Social Isolation subarea (p = 0.003). Birth mothers experienced higher stress than co-mothers and fathers, according to the Role Restriction measure (p = 0.041).

    CONCLUSION: These are reassuring findings, considering the known challenges that lesbian families face in establishing their parental roles and, in particular, the challenges related to the lack of recognition of the co-mother.

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  • 5.
    Dillner, Pernilla
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Unbeck, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing. Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Norman, Mikael
    Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Nydert, Per
    Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Stockholm.
    Härenstam, Karin Pukk
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Stockholm .
    Lindemalm, Synnöve
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Karolinska University Hospital, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Stockholm .
    Wackernagel, Dirk
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.
    Förberg, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Identifying neonatal adverse events in preterm and term infants using a Paediatric Trigger Tool2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 8, p. 1670-1682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To explore the incidence and characteristics of inpatient neonatal adverse events in a Swedish setting.

    METHODS: A retrospective record review, using a trigger tool, performed by registered nurses and a neonatologist, at a University Hospital. The identified adverse events were categorised by, for example, preventability, severity and time of occurrence.

    RESULTS: A random selection of 150 admissions representing 3531 patient days were reviewed (mean [SD] birthweight 2620 [1120]g). Three hundred sixty adverse events were identified in 78(52.0%) infants and 305(84.7%) of these were assessed as being preventable. The overall adverse event rate was 240 per 100 admissions and 102.0 per 1000 patient days. Preterm infants had a higher rate than term infants (353 versus 79 per 100 admissions, p=0.001), however with regard to the length of stay, the rates were similar. Most adverse events were temporary and less severe (n=338/360, 93.9%) and the most common type involved harm to skin, tissue or blood vessels (n=163/360, 45.3%). Forty percent (n=145) of adverse events occurred within the first week of admission.

    CONCLUSION: Adverse events were common in neonatal care and many occurred during the first days of treatment. Characterisation of adverse events may provide focus areas for improvements in patient safety.

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  • 6.
    Dykes, Fiona
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. University of Central Lancashire, UK..
    Thomson, G
    Gardner, C
    Hall Moran, V
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Perceptions of European medical staff on the facilitators and barriers to physical closeness between parents and infants in neonatal units2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 9, p. 1039-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Studies have provided insights into factors that may facilitate or inhibit parent-infant closeness in neonatal units, but none have specifically focused on the perspectives of senior neonatal staff. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of consultant neonatologists and senior nurses in five European countries with regard to these issues.

    METHODS: Six small group discussions and three one-to-one interviews were conducted with 16 consultant neonatologists and senior nurses representing nine neonatal units from Estonia, Finland, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The interviews explored facilitators and barriers to parent-infant closeness and implications for policy and practice and thematic analysis was undertaken.

    RESULTS: Participants highlighted how a humanising care agenda that enabled parent-infant closeness was an aspiration, but pointed out that neonatal units were at different stages in achieving this. The facilitators and barriers to physical closeness included socio-economic factors, cultural norms, the designs of neonatal units, resource issues, leadership, staff attitudes and practices and relationships between staff and parents.

    CONCLUSION: Various factors affected parent-infant closeness in neonatal units in European countries. There needs to be the political motivation, appropriate policy planning, legislation and resource allocation to increase measures that support closeness agendas in neonatal units. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • 7.
    Ericson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun; Department of Paediatrics, Falu Hospital.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Hoddinott, Pat
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge: a randomised controlled trial2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 791-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants after discharge from neonatal intensive care units (NICU).

    METHODS: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a randomised controlled trial was conducted at six NICUs across Sweden. At each NICU, a breastfeeding support team recruited, randomised and delivered the support to participating mothers. The intervention group received a daily proactive telephone call up to 14 days after discharge from the support team. The control group could initiate telephone contact themselves. Primary outcome was exclusive breastfeeding eight weeks after discharge. Secondary outcomes were maternal satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment, quality of life and parental stress.

    RESULTS: In total, 493 mothers were randomised, 231 to intervention group and 262 to control group. There were no differences between the groups for exclusive breastfeeding, odds ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.66-1.38, nor for maternal satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment or quality of life. The intervention group reported significantly less parental stress than the controls, t=2.44, 95% CI 0.03-0.23, effect size d=0.26.

    CONCLUSION: In this trial, proactive telephone support was not associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding prevalence eight weeks following discharge. However, intervention group mothers showed significantly lower parental stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • 8.
    Flacking, Renée
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Breili C, C
    Eriksson, M
    Facilities for presence and provision of support to parents and significant others in neonatal units2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 12, p. 2186-2191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To describe parental facilities for staying in neonatal units, visiting policies, and access to emotional support during hospitalization.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used in which a survey was presented to all neonatal units in Sweden; 34 out of 38 units participated (89%).

    RESULTS: The findings showed that in 50% of the units, parents could stay 24/7 for the infant's entire hospital stay. In 32% of the units, siblings could stay the night with their parents. Units had policies on restrictions for visits by siblings (80%), grandparents (59%), friends and relatives (71%). All units offered counselling to parents, and some units offered peer-to-peer groups (24%), diaries (35%), relaxation techniques (6%) or internet parental forums (6%). All units enabled parents to be at home with their infant and to visit the unit for check-ups (35%) or to have staff visits at home (65%).

    CONCLUSION: Facilities for parents to stay with their infant during hospitalization and to have significant others visit are good, but there is room for improvement. During the transitional phase to being at home, parents are facilitated in being at home before the infant is discharged and are supported by the unit, which must be considered beneficial for parents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • 9.
    Flacking, Renée
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Wallin, Lars
    Perinatal and socioeconomic determinants of breastfeeding duration in very preterm infants2007In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 96, no 8, p. 1126-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe the impact of prematurity, size at birth, neonatal disorders and the families' socioeconomic status (SES) on breastfeeding duration in mothers of very preterm infants.

    Methods: Prospective population-based cohort study. Data on breastfeeding, registered in databases in two Swedish counties in 1993–2001, were matched with data from two national registries: the Medical Birth Registry and Statistics Sweden. Mothers of 225 very preterm singleton infants were identified and included.

    Results: Seventy-nine percent of the mothers breastfed at 2 months, 62% at 4 months, 45% at 6 months, 22% at 9 months and 12% at 12 months. Prematurity, size at birth and neonatal disorders did not show an effect on breastfeeding duration. Being adversely exposed to any of the SES factors (maternal education, unemployment benefit, social welfare and equivalent disposable income in the household) was significantly associated with earlier weaning up to 6 months of infants' postnatal age.

    Conclusions: This study shows new and noteworthy results concerning breastfeeding duration in mothers of very preterm infants, which was not influenced by degree of prematurity, size at birth or neonatal disorders but was affected by SES. This highlights the need for improved support of socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers, during and after the hospital stay.

  • 10.
    Flacking, Renée
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lehtonen, Liisa
    Thomson, Gill
    Axelin, Anna
    Ahlqvist, Sari
    Hall Moran, Victoria
    Ewald, Uwe
    Dykes, Fiona
    Closeness and separation in neonatal intensive care2012In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 10, p. 1032-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we highlight the need for acknowledging the importance and impact of both physical and emotional closeness between the preterm infant and parent in the neonatal intensive care unit. Physical closeness refers to being spatially close and emotional closeness to parental feelings of being emotionally connected to the infant (experiencing feelings of love, warmth and affection). Through consideration of the literature in this area, we outline some of the reasons why physical closeness and emotional closeness are crucial to the physical, emotional and social well-being of both the infant and the parent. These include positive effects on infant brain development, parent psychological well-being and on the parent–infant relationship. The influence of the neonatal unit environment and culture on physical and emotional closeness is also discussed.

    Conclusions:  Culturally sensitive care practices, procedures and the physical environment need to be considered to facilitate parent–infant closeness, such as through early and prolonged skin-to-skin contact, family-centred care, increased visiting hours, family rooms and optimization of the space on the units. Further research is required to explore factors that facilitate both physical and emotional closeness to ensure that parent–infant closeness is a priority within neonatal care.

  • 11. Hellstrom, Anna
    et al.
    Eriksson, Karin
    Österlund Efraimsson, Eva
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Svedmyr, Jan
    Borres, Magnus B.
    Assessment of self-administered epinephrine during a training session2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 7, p. e34-e35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Jonsdottir, R. B.
    et al.
    Jonsdottir, H.
    Orlygsdottir, B.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    A shorter breastfeeding duration in late preterm infants than term infants during the first year2021In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 110, no 4, p. 1209-1217Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 13.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke Högskola; Ctr Clin Res Dalarna.
    Sveen, Josefin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Telling the truth to dying children — end-of-life communication with families2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 11, p. 2111-2112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communicating a terminal prognosis is challenging for patients, families and healthcare professionals. However, positive effects have been reported when children are told about their diagnosis and prognosis, including fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression and enhanced adherence to treatment (1). When research about prognostic communication was first published in the 1950s and 1960s, it recommended protecting children from bad news. By the late 1960s, a more open approach was recommended and by the late 1980s the advice was to always tell children. There has been a growing awareness of the complexity of prognostic disclosure and the need to balance often competing factors, such as hope and patient and family considerations, on a case-to-case basis (2).

  • 14.
    Lövgren, Malin
    et al.
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Social Work. Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola; Center for Clinical Research Dalarna- Uppsala University.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Is the Family Talk Intervention feasible in paediatric oncology? An evaluation of a family-based psychosocial intervention2022In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 684-692Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Eriksson, Leif
    Wallin, Lars
    Karolinska Instituet.
    Hoa, Dinh Phuong
    Persson, Lars Åke
    Ethnic inequity in neonatal survival: a case-referent study in northern Vietnam2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 340-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: In this study from Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam (sub-study of the trial Neonatal Health - Knowledge into Practice, NeoKIP, ISRCTN 44599712), we investigated determinants of neonatal mortality through a case-referent design, with special emphasis on socio-economic factors and health system utilization.

    METHODS: From July 2008 until December 2009, we included 183 neonatal mortality cases and 599 referents and their mothers were interviewed.

    RESULTS: Ethnicity was the main socio-economic determinant for neonatal mortality (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.39-3.10, adjusted for mothers' education and household economic status). Health system utilization before and at delivery could partly explain the risk elevation, with an increased risk of neonatal mortality for mothers who did not attend antenatal care and who delivered at home (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.98-7.71). However, even if mothers of an ethnic minority attended antenatal care or delivered at a health facility, the increased risk for this group was sustained.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates inequity in neonatal survival that is related to ethnicity rather than family economy or education level of the mother and highlights the need to include the ethnic dimension in the efforts to reduce neonatal mortality.

  • 16. Nga, Nguyen T
    et al.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Eriksson, Leif
    Hoa, Dinh P
    Johansson, Annika
    Wallin, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Ewald, Uwe
    Perinatal services and outcomes in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2010In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 99, no 10, p. 1478-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We report baseline results of a community-based randomized trial for improved neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam (NeoKIP; ISRCTN44599712). The NeoKIP trial seeks to evaluate a method of knowledge implementation called facilitation through group meetings at local health centres with health staff and community key persons. Facilitation is a participatory enabling approach that, if successful, is well suited for scaling up within health systems. The aim of this baseline report is to describe perinatal services provided and neonatal outcomes.

    METHODS: Survey of all health facility registers of service utilization, maternal deaths, stillbirths and neonatal deaths during 2005 in the province. Systematic group interviews of village health workers from all communes. A Geographic Information System database was also established.

    RESULTS: Three quarters of pregnant women had ≥3 visits to antenatal care. Two hundred and five health facilities, including 18 hospitals, provided delivery care, ranging from 1 to 3258 deliveries/year. Totally there were 17 519 births and 284 neonatal deaths in the province. Neonatal mortality rate was 16/1000 live births, ranging from 10 to 44/1000 in the different districts, with highest rates in the mountainous parts of the province. Only 8% had home deliveries without skilled attendance, but those deliveries resulted in one-fifth of the neonatal deaths.

    CONCLUSION: A relatively good coverage of perinatal care was found in a Vietnamese province, but neonatal mortality varied markedly with geography and level of care. A remaining small proportion of home deliveries generated a substantial part of mortality.

  • 17. Nilsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Finnström, Berit
    Mörelius, Evalotte
    Relaxation and guided imagery do not reduce stress, pain and unpleasantness for 11- to 12-year-old girls during vaccinations2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 7, p. 724-729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Relaxation and guided imagery is a distraction technique known to reduce discomfort during paediatric medical procedures. We examined whether its use decreased the stress experienced by 11- to 12-year-old girls receiving the human papilloma virus vaccination, as well as the intensity and unpleasantness of any pain.

    Methods: A randomised crossover trial was conducted with 37 girls. During the first vaccination, each girl was randomised to receive either relaxation and guided imagery or standard care. They then received the other form of care during the second vaccination. Salivary cortisol was measured before each vaccination, and 30 minutes after it was administered. The girls reported pain intensity and pain unpleasantness before and directly after each vaccination and stress after each vaccination.

    Results: On a group level, relaxation and guided imagery did not decrease cortisol levels, self-reported stress, pain intensity and pain unpleasantness. Salivary cortisol levels decreased significantly in both groups during the second vaccination.

    Conclusion: Relaxation and guided imagery did not prove beneficial during the vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old girls and is not recommended as a regular nursing intervention. However, further research is needed into effective techniques to help children who experience pain unpleasantness in connection with needle procedures.

  • 18.
    Osman, Fatumo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Schön, Ulla-Karin
    Qualitative study showed that a culturally tailored parenting programme improved the confidence and skills of Somali immigrants2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 8, p. 1482-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Parenting programmes tailored to immigrant parents have been reported to improve the mental health of the children and parents, as well as parents' sense of competence in parenting. However, research on parents' experiences of programmes tailored to their needs is scarce. This qualitative study aimed to describe Somali parents' experiences of how a culturally sensitive programme affected their parenting.

    METHODS: The study was conducted in a middle-sized city in Sweden in 2015. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 50 participants two months after they took part in a parenting support programme. Inductive and deductive qualitative content analyses were used.

    RESULTS: A light has been shed was a metaphor that emerged from the analysis and that captured the knowledge the parents gained from the parenting system in Sweden. Parents gained confidence in their parenting role and became emotionally aware of their child's social and emotional needs and how to respond to them. Holding the sessions in the participant's native language was important for the parents' participation and acceptance of the programme.

    CONCLUSION: Parenting programmes should be tailored to the specific needs of the participants and cultural sensitivity should be factored into programmes to attract immigrant parents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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  • 19.
    Persson, Christine
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Care Sciences. Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Ericson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Eriksson, Mats H.
    Örebro University, Örebro.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    NICU parents' mental health: A comparative study with parents of term and healthy infants2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 5, p. 954-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare mental health in parents of preterm/ill infants and parents of term and healthy infants before birth and 1 month after hospital discharge.

    METHODS: A comparative cohort design was used. In total 439 parents from six neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and 484 parents from four maternity units (MUs) in Sweden answered a survey 1 month after discharge.

    RESULTS: Parents in neonatal units experienced significantly more psychologically traumatic births and rated their health and the health of their infants less favourably the first week after delivery than parents in MUs. In the neonatal units, both parents had better possibilities to stay together with the infant during hospital stay. There was no difference between the NICU and MU groups in postpartum depressive symptoms 1 month after discharge. Experiencing a traumatic birth was not related to an increased risk of perinatal depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale ≥13) for mothers in NICUs. In contrast, the risk of depression increased for mothers in MUs.

    CONCLUSION: Family togetherness, parent-infant closeness and emotional support at NICUs may contribute to the positive outcome. Further studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of how family togetherness and closeness influence families long-term.

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  • 20.
    Schmöker, Annika
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science. Uppsala University.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Udo, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden / Ersta Sköndal University College.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Ericson, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden / Department of Paediatrics, County of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Longitudinal cohort study reveals different patterns of stress in parents of preterm infants during the first year after birth.2020In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 109, p. 1778-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To compare experiences of stress in mothers and fathers of preterm infants during the first year of life, assess changes in parental stress and explore potential predictors of parental stress.

    METHODS: Between 2013 and 2015, data on parental stress were collected at 8 weeks after discharge and at 6 and 12 months postpartum from 493 mothers and 329 fathers of 547 preterm infants in Sweden. The Swedish Parenting Stress Questionnaire was used as a secondary outcome in a randomised clinical trial of breastfeeding support.

    RESULTS: At the three time points, mothers perceived more role restriction and fathers more social isolation (p<0.001). Stress decreased in mothers during the first year (p=0.018), whereas stress increased in fathers between 6 and 12 months (p=0.048). Mothers of very preterm infants (p=0.024), parents of twins (p=0.038) and parents with lower perceived general health (p=0.003) reported higher levels of stress during the first year after birth.

    CONCLUSION: This study identified several factors that influenced parental stress. Mothers and fathers showed different patterns of stress levels during the first year after birth. This finding indicates different needs for mothers and fathers regarding the time at which parental support after discharge might be most beneficial.

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  • 21. Tandberg, Bente Silnes
    et al.
    Frøslie, Kathrine Frey
    Markestad, Trond
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Grundt, Hege
    Moen, Atle
    Single-family room design in the neonatal intensive care unit did not improve growth2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 1028-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim was to compare growth in very premature infants cared for in a single-family room and an open-bay unit. We recorded duration of parental presence and skin-to-skin contact as proxies for parental involvement in care of their infants.

    METHODS: We consecutively included infants with gestational ages 28+0 through 32+0 weeks at two hospitals in Norway, one single-family room unit (n=35) and one open-bay unit (n=42). Weight, length, and head circumference were followed from birth to four months after term date. Both units adhered to the same nutritional protocol and methods of recording events.

    RESULTS: The single-family room mothers spent a mean (standard deviation) of 111 (38) hours and the open bay mothers 33 (13) hours with their infants during the first week and 21 (5) versus 7 (3) hours per day later. The respective duration of skin-to-skin care was 21 (10) versus 12 (8) hours during the first week and 4.2 (2) versus 3.0 (2) hours per day later. The differences were similar, but less pronounced for the fathers. The growth trajectories did not differ between the groups.

    CONCLUSION: Single-family room care was associated with more parental involvement, but not with better growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Tandberg, Bente Silnes
    et al.
    Drammen Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Norway; Lovisenberg Diaconal University College, Norway.
    Grundt, Hege
    Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
    Moen, Atle
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Niela-Vilén, Hannakaisa
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Flacking, Renée
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Welfare, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Prospective longitudinal comparative study showed that breastfeeding outcomes were comparable in preterm twins and singleton infants2023In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 112, no 8, p. 1689-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: We compared milk volumes, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding by the mothers of very preterm twins and singleton infants born at 28-32 weeks of gestation.

    METHODS: This Norwegian longitudinal prospective comparative study was carried out in two neonatal intensive care units: one with single family rooms and one open bay unit. It comprised 49 singleton infants, 28 twins and their mothers. The mothers' milk volume and direct breastfeeding were recorded from birth until four months' of corrected age. They also answered the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale and skin-to-skin contact was recorded.

    RESULTS: The mothers of preterm twins produced doubled the volume of expressed milk at day 14, compared to the mothers of singletons (mean 816±430 ml versus 482±372 ml, p<0.05) and this difference was still sustained at 34+0 weeks/days (p<0.02). Mothers of twins had their first breastfeeding attempt later than mothers of singletons (median of 133 hours compared to 56 (<0.002). Preterm twins received less daily skin-to-skin contact (mean 157 ±66 minutes each versus 244±109) (<0.001). There were no differences in receiving mother's own milk, exclusively direct breastfeeding or perceived breastfeeding self-efficacy.

    CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was initiated as successfully in preterm twins as singletons as the mothers' milk production doubled.

  • 23.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Hawke, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The way that physical education aims to provide the recommended dose of physical activity in school children is multifaceted2017In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Udo, Camilla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Axelsson, Bertil
    Björk, Olle
    Lövgren, Malin
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke högskola.
    Physicians working in oncology identified challenges and factors that facilitated communication with families when children could not be cured2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 12, p. 2285-2291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We explored physicians’ experiences of communicating with families when their child had cancer and a cure was no longer an option, by focusing on barriers and facilitating factors.

    Methods: Physicians from the six cancer centres in Sweden took part in focus group discussions from December 2017 and May 2018 and the data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Focus groups enabled us to gather individual and shared perspectives.

    Results: The 35 physicians (20 male) had a mean age of 47 (range 31-74) and a mean of 11 years’ experience in oncology, ranging from under one year to 43 years. They reported communication challenges when a cure was not possible, namely: emotional and mental drain, lack of mutual understanding and uncertainty about communication skills. They also reported facilitating factors: flexibility in complex conversations, the child’s position in the conversations, continuity and trusting relationships, support from colleagues and having discussed the potentially life-threatening nature of cancer from the very start of treatment.

    Conclusion: Physicians working in paediatric oncology perceived challenges and facilitating factors in their communication with families when a cure was not an option. Training to overcome communication issues could support the early integration of palliative care and curative treatment.

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  • 25.
    Unbeck, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Förberg, Ulrika
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska Institutet.
    Ygge, Britt-Marie
    Ehrenberg, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Petzold, Max
    Johansson, Eva
    Peripheral venous catheter related complications are common among peadiatric and neonatal patients2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 6, p. 566-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aims of this study were to describe the characteristics of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs), including dwell time and reasons for removal, and explore predictors for PVC-related complications. 

    Methods: We included PVCs in 2032 children - 484 neonatal and 1548 paediatric - from 12 inpatient units. Data were retrieved from the patient record system, and predictors for complications were explored using logistic regression analyses. 

    Results: Just over one-third (35.4%) of the PVCs were removed due to complications, in particular infiltration and occlusion (51.9 and 48.4/1000 PVC days, respectively). PVC survival time was shorter in neonatal than paediatric patients (4 versus 5days), and infiltration was more frequent in neonatal patients (92.8 versus 38.7/1000 PVC days). Infiltration was associated with younger age (odds ratio 0.97) for neonatal patients and with younger age (OR 0.96), insertion in the bend of the arm (OR 1.48) or ankle (OR2.81) for paediatric patients. Occlusion was, both for neonatal and paediatric patients, associated with longer dwell time (OR 1.32 and 1.22 respectively), insertion in the ankle (OR 5.00 and 3.51) or foot (OR 3.47 and 1.99). 

    Conclusion: PVC-related complications, particularly infiltration and occlusion, were more common in hospitalised children but decreased with the child's age.

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