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  • 1.
    Byström, Kurt
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    From a traditional academic library to a modern learning environment: Dalarna University Library - expectations and results2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the ideas and vision behind Dalarna University's award-winning library in Falun. A description of the planning and construction processes and an evaluation of the final outcome are presented together with experiences and observations drawn from the project.

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  • 2.
    Byström, Kurt
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Från traditionellt akademiskt bibliotek till modern lärmiljö: Högskolan Dalarnas bibliotek – förväntningar och resultat2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs idéerna bakom Högskolan Dalarnas prisbelönta bibliotek i Falun. Planerings- och byggprocessen beskrivs och det färdiga resultatet utvärderas, samt de erfarenheter som har gjorts delas.

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  • 3.
    Casson, Andrew
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Högskolans ansvar: Principer för utveckling av den högre utbildningen2015Book (Refereed)
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  • 4. Erlandsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Measurements of the Absorption Length of the Ice at the South Pole in the Wavelength Interval 410 nm to 610 nm1995In: The XXIV International Cosmic Ray Conference, Rome 1995, 1995Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Fryklund, Björn
    et al.
    Malmö universitet.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Det politiska etablissemangets strategier gentemot högerpopulistiska partier2019In: ARKIV. Tidskrift för samhällsanalys, ISSN 2000-6225, E-ISSN 2000-6217, no 10, p. 33-70Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 6.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    All you need is love... or what?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All you need is love… or what?

    Language is essentially always present in groups of modern humans. Even in the exceptional groups that for some reason are formed without language, language will invariably emerge in short order. Examples of language emergence in recent times include deaf communities in e.g. Nicaragua and Israel. Such newly-formed languages converge within a few generations towards the same general form and features as mainstream human languages.

    Language is essentially never present in groups of non-human primates. Even in the exceptional groups that are heavily exposed to language and explicitly trained in language use, progress in language acquisition is invariably modest at best. Language never emerges spontaneously in non-human groups.

    What’s special with humans? It is sometimes argued that “all you need is merge” (e.g. Berwick 2007), that a small genetic change provided a language-ready brain and the rest is history. This saltational view of language evolution is wrong for many reasons (e.g. Tallerman 2014), but I would add here another one.

    A language-ready brain is not an all-or-nothing affair, nor is it sufficient for language emergence. The results of language training in apes are modest, but not nil. Apes do learn to connect symbols with referents and use them communicatively. One may quibble about whether to call this “language”, and it is far from full human language, notably lacking in syntax. But it does show the presence of some language-relevant abilities in apes, and it is a functional communication tool at some protolinguistic level.

    But if ape brains are protolanguage-ready, why doesn’t protolanguage emerge in the wild among apes, as it does among humans? Clearly, some extra-linguistic key factor is lacking. A language-ready brain is not all you need for language emergence. In a group of hypothetical creatures with a human language faculty (narrow sense) but otherwise ape-like in psychology and behavior, language would not emerge.

    Human prosociality and shared intentionality are likely key ingredients in language emergence (e.g. Tomasello 2010), but are not the whole story. In this talk, I will explore the minimal extra-linguistic requirements for protolanguage emergence to get off the ground in protohumans.

     

    References:

    Berwick, R C (2011) All you Need is Merge: Biology, Computation, and Language from the Bottom-up.  In di Sciullo & Boeckx The Biolinguistic Enterprise OUP.

    Tallerman M. (2014) No syntax saltation in language evolution. Language Sciences 46, 207-219.

    Tomasello, M (2010) Origins of human communication. MIT Press.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Clues to language evolution from a massive dataset with typology, phonology and vocabulary from many languages2018In: Evolution of Language. Proceedings of Evolang XII / [ed] Cuskley, et al., Singapore: Nicolaus Copernicus University , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Introduction

    A major component in the evolution of language is the evolution of the human language capacity, whatever biological endowments humans have that make us language-ready. But the language capacity is not well understood and is difficult to study directly. Clues may come from biases displayed by humans in language acquisition and language change. Even weak underlying biases can lead to strong patterns in the resulting languages (Smith, 2011). Biases can be studied at the individual level in learning experiments (e.g. Culbertson, 2012, Tamariz et al., of natural languages (e.g. Dediu & Ladd, 2007). Biases can be seen either in the synchronic patterns of language features today, or in the diachronic patterns of transition probabilities between features as languages culturally evolve (e.g. Dunn et al, 2011).

    Patterns that reveal biases may be found in any aspect of language, e.g. syntax, morphology, phonology, or lexicon, and may be subtle enough to be discernible only in large samples of languages. This work is an exploratory study across the widest possible set of languages, combining typological, phonological, lexical and phylogenetic data on a significant fraction of the languages of the world, with the goal of mapping any biases that may be present. Both synchronic and diachronic patterns are studied, with the emphasis on the latter.

    2. Data set

    The following data sources are used:

    •Phylogeny and geography: Ethnologue (Simons & Fennig 2017); ~7,500 languages.

    • Phonological inventories: PHOIBLE (Moran & McCloy & Wright 2014); ~1,800 languages.

    • Typology: WALS (Dryer & Haspelmath 2013); ~2,500 languages.

    • Lexicon (Swadesh lists): Rosetta Project Digital Language Archive (2009); ~1,300 languages.

    All four types of data are available for ~300 languages. At least three types are available for ~1,600 languages from 132 different stocks. In order to keep the data set as homogeneous as possible, each type of data has been imported from a single source only. Languages are identified between data sources by their ISO codes. 3. Methods

    The language phylogeny from Ethnologue is taken as given in the analysis. For the synchronic analysis, the phylogeny is taken into account in the character statistics by down-weighting multiple “hits” in the same family, in order to control for phylogenetic bias and lineage-specific patterns. Geographic data is also available to control for areal effects. Cross-correlations between different types of characters are analysed for possible patterns. For the diachronic analysis, the phylogeny together with modern-day character data are used to infer both ancestral character states up the language tree for phonological and typological characters, and transitional probabilities between states (including the probability of characters appearing and disappearing), in a bootstrapping process. 4. Some preliminary results

    Well-known typological patterns are reproduced. But correlations between features are observed that go beyond those normally discussed in typology, or those observed by Dunn et al (2011). Interestingly, there are also some modest cross-correlations between grammatical features and phonemes. For example, the presence of aspirated consonants and nasal vowels correlates with certain word- order features, even after controlling for phylogeny. In the diachronic analysis, there are hints of patterns beyond the obvious one that transition probabilities into common features are larger, but much work remains to be done in the interpretation of these patterns.

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  • 8.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Evolution of Language2020In: Oxford Bibliographies: Evolutionary BiologyArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do humans have language at all and how did we become language users? These are central questions in language evolution, but no general consensus exists on the answers, nor even on what methods to use to find answers. This is a complex topic that requires input from many disciplines, including, but not limited to, linguistics, evolutionary biology, palaeoanthropology, neurobiology, archaeology, cognitive science, and primatology. Nobody is an expert in all these areas, and experts in one area sometimes overlook needed input from other areas. Consensus does not even exist among linguists on what language is—opinions range from the physical speech acts themselves to language as an abstract social communication system to language as computational machinery in the individual and to language as an innate species-defining, genetically encoded capacity of humans. These different views of language imply very different evolutionary explanations. At the same time, all of these perspectives have some validity; the speech acts do occur, language use does take place in a social context, the individual language user does somehow produce and parse sentences, and human babies are born with a predisposition for language learning that ape babies lack. The disagreements are mainly a matter of emphasis, namely which aspects are regarded as of primary interest, requiring explanation. The preeminent linguist of the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure, focused on the first two perspectives with his distinction between parole (speech acts) and langue (the social system). The preeminent linguist of the late 20th century, Noam Chomsky, focuses instead on the latter two, especially the computational machinery, and he regards the first two as not worthy of a linguist’s attention. But neither focus is adequate on its own; a viable theory of language evolution must be able to explain all aspects of language, notably both the evolution of the language capacity that resides in each human brain and the evolution of the human social context in which language is used. No generally accepted theory exists today. Instead of a single accepted theory, the field of language evolution is awash with a multitude of different models, scenarios, and hypotheses about how things might have happened. To make matters worse, there is something of a paradigm split in the study of language origins. The split is largely along the line between Saussure and Chomsky mentioned above. To put it simply, those researchers who use the label “biolinguistics” try to explain the origin of Chomsky’s computational machinery (see Biolinguistics) whereas most work on language evolution is concerned with explaining the origins of Saussure’s langue, language as a social system; the latter is here called “mainstream evolutionary linguistics.” Language evolution is not, however, about the origin of individual languages (English, Chinese, etc.). Sometimes “language evolution” is used to refer to diachronic language change in recent times, as studied by historical linguists, and an evolutionary perspective can indeed be fruitful in this area. But this article does not cover that kind of language evolution, except peripherally in Cultural Evolution.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Gradually evolving limited Merge2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chomsky (e.g. 2010) and others regard unlimited Merge as the defining feature of language, that cannot evolve gradually. The neural implementation of Merge is not well understood (Rizzi 2012, Zaccarella et al 2017), but must involve something functionally equivalent to pointers in working memory. Every Merge requires two pointers, and full syntactic trees may require dozens. Other syntactic paradigms also need pointers.

    Humans do hierarchies in general better than chimpanzees. Any hierarchical thinking requires nested pointers in working memory, but they are neurologically expensive and degrade with depth (Crawford et al. 2016). Humans have larger working-memory capacity than chimpanzees, which has been proposed as key to human cognitive evolution (Read 2008, Coolidge & Wynn, 2005). Gradual evolutionary growth of pointer capacity will allow gradually increasing syntactic complexity, without saltations in the underlying computational machinery. Both depth degradation and pointer capacity naturally limit Merge even in modern humans, consistent with corpus data (e.g. Karlsson 2010).

    Chomsky, Noam. (2010). Some simple evo devo theses: how true might they be for language? In Richard K Larson, Viviane Déprez, & Hiroko Yamakido (Eds.), The Evolution of Human Language. Biolinguistic Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Coolidge, Frederick L & Wynn, Thomas (2005) Working memory, its executive functions, and the emergence of modern thinking. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 15:5-26.

    Crawford, Eric & Gingerich, Matthew & Eliasmith, Chris (2016) Biologically plausible, human-scale knowledge representation. Cognitive Science 40:782-821.

    Karlsson, Fred (2010) Syntactic recursion and iteration. In Harry van der Hulst, ed., Recursion and Human Language. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter,

    Read, Dwight W (2008) Working memory: A cognitive limit to non-human primate recursive thinking prior to hominid evolution. Evolutionary Psychology 6:676-714.

    Rizzi, Luigi (2012) Core linguistic computations: How are they expressed in the mind/brain? Journal of Neurolinguistics 25:489-499.

    Zaccarella et al (2017) Building by syntax: the neural basis of minimal linguistic structures. Cerebral Cortex 27:411-421.

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  • 10.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Language abilities in neanderthals2015In: Annual Review of Linguistics, ISSN 2333-9691, Vol. 1, p. 311-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neanderthal language abilities cannot be directly observed, but indirect evidence is available in their anatomy, archeology, and DNA. Neanderthal anatomy shows possible speech adaptations, and their archeology contains enough indicators of behavioral modernity, including symbols and ornaments, to conclude that their minds could handle symbolic communication. Neanderthal DNA, finally, indicates both that they possessed some of the language-relevant genes found in modern humans and that they could and did have children with modern humans. From the consilience of evidence from anatomy, archeology, and DNA, one can conclude that some language abilities, if not necessarily full modern syntactic language, were present in Neanderthals.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Midwives and the birth of language2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Midwives and the birth of language

    Sverker Johansson

    Dalarna University

    Sweden

     

    Language is a paradox in signal evolution theory. Cheap signals can evolve only between beings who trust each other, or who have totally aligned interests. But totally aligned interests is a utopia, and our knuckle-walking relatives generally do not trust each other? How and when did human trust evolve? This will set a baseline for language evolution – except that trust does not fossilize any more than language does.

    What fossil and archeological proxies for trust can be found? Trust is a social matter, but even proxies for sociality are not trivial to identify (Johansson 2014). Probably the best proxy for human trust was identified by Hrdy (2011), in proposing cooperative breeding as a key innovation in human evolution. Ape mothers are paranoid about their babies, for good reason, and will not let anybody assist them. But in all human cultures, family and friends will routinely cooperate and help a mother with her children, and experienced women will serve as midwives in labor. This makes a huge difference for human fertility, our reproductive rate “in the wild” is roughly double that of other apes. This provides the Darwinian payoff needed to overcome the threshold of mutual mistrust, and paves the way for cheap linguistic communication.

    Midwife assistance in labor may facilitate language evolution also in another way, as it eases obstetric constraints on brain size.

    I will review here the fossil and archeological evidence indicating the presence among our ancestors of the modern human pattern of cooperative breeding and labor assistance. The conclusion is that the first midwife most likely was a Homo erectus… and maybe some millennia later a young erectus first cried “mama”, when left in the care of an auntie.

     

    Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer (2011) Mothers and Others. The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

    Johansson, Sverker (2014) How can a social theory of language evolution be grounded in evidence? In Lewis, Jerome, Daniel Dor & Chris Knight (eds.) Social Origins of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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  • 12.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Neanderthals did speak, but FOXP2 doesn't prove it2014In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 37, no 6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ackermann et al. treat both genetic and paleoanthropological data too superficially to support their conclusions. The case of FOXP2 and Neanderthals is a prime example, which I will comment on in some detail; the issues are much more complex than they appear in Ackermann et al.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Patterns of preposition use across World Englishes2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 14.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Pointer evolution points to the gradual evolution of hierarchical complexity2020In: The Evolution of Language. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (EvoLang 13) / [ed] Ravignani et al, Evolang organizing committee , 2020, p. 189-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chomsky (e.g. 2010) and others regard unlimited Merge as the defining feature of language, that cannot evolve gradually. The neural implementation of Merge is not well understood (Rizzi 2012, Zaccarella et al 2017), but must involve something functionally equivalent to pointers in working memory. Every Merge requires two pointers, and full syntactic trees may require dozens. Other syntactic paradigms also need pointers.

    Humans do hierarchies in general better than chimpanzees. Any hierarchical thinking requires nested pointers in working memory, but they are neurologically expensive and degrade with depth (Crawford et al. 2016). Humans have larger working-memory capacity than chimpanzees, which has been proposed as key to human cognitive evolution (Read 2008, Coolidge & Wynn, 2005). Gradual evolutionary growth of pointer capacity will allow gradually increasing syntactic complexity, without saltations in the underlying computational machinery. Both depth degradation and pointer capacity naturally limit Merge even in modern humans, consistent with corpus data (e.g. Karlsson 2010).

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  • 15.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Protolanguage possibilities in a construction grammar framework2016In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference (EVOLANG XI) / [ed] S.G. Roberts, C. Cuskley, L. McCrohon, L. Barceló-Coblijn, O. Fehér & T. Verhoef, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying possible stages of protolanguage critically depends on the underlying nature of language. Theories of language differ in evolvability, and in whether they permit protolanguage stages. In this presentation, I will study the protolanguage potential and evolva­bility of Construction Grammar. Postulating that CG is a biologically real description of language, its evolvability through a sequence of intermediate protolanguages is investigated.

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  • 16.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    På spaning efter språkets ursprung2019Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur blev människan med språk? Var, när och varför bör­jade vi tala? Det är en av historiens stora gåtor. Än är vi långt ifrån en lösning, men med hjälp av så olika vetenska­per som arkeologi, neurologi, lingvistik och biologi kan vi numera dra några slutsatser, avfärda vissa äldre hypoteser och uppställa nya frågor.

    Med entusiasm och sakkunskap lotsar Sverker Johansson läsaren genom en djungel av ledtrådar och teorier. Sök­andet efter språkets ursprung börjar många miljoner år tillbaka i tiden, då dagens apor och människor gick skilda evolutionära vägar. Det slutar vid den punkt dit det går att härleda förlagorna till de språk som talas i dag, det vill säga för omkring fem tusen år sedan. Däremellan får vi stifta bekantskap med Homo erectus och neandertalare, med Darwin och Chomsky, med delfiner och näktergalar, med syntax och interjektioner.

    Men hela tiden tycks spåren leda tillbaka den omväl­vande period för omkring en och en halv miljon år sedan, då våra förfäder i Afrika ställdes inför nya situationer och alltmer började skilja sig från övriga djur och där språket av allt att döma tycks ha spelat en nyckelroll.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Separating chicken and eggs with ostensive-inferential communication2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Who did the first speaker talk with?” is a classic chicken-and-egg argument against the Darwinian evolution of language, still occasionally heard as an argument for non-communicative language origins. Various language-origins scenarios solve the problem in different ways. But I will argue that ancestral ostensive-inferential communication provides a general solution, insensitive to scenario details.

    Apes use communicative gestures intentionally and likely ostensively (Moore 2016; pace Scott-Phillips 2015), and interpret each other’s gestures accordingly. Such proto-ostensive-inferential abilities in proto-humans will handle new expressive abilities in “speakers” without requiring simultaneous changes in “listeners”, thus relaxing chicken-and-egg constraints on language evolution.

    Dendrophilia (Fitch 2014), if evolved for non-linguistic hierarchic-processing purposes, may similarly help bootstrapping the final step from proto-language to modern language.

    Chicken-and-egg is a problem for language evolution only if communication is a coding-decoding process. Ostensive-inferential communication can handle substantial mismatches between speakers and hearers, separating chicken from eggs.

     

    Fitch, W Tecumseh (2014) Toward a computational framework for cognitive biology: unifying approaches from cognitive neuroscience and comparative cognition. Phys Life Reviews 11:329-364

    Moore, Richard (2016) Meaning and ostension in great ape gestural communication. Animal Cognition 19:223-231.

    Scott-Phillips, T C (2015) Meaning in animal and human communication. Animal Cognition 18:801-805.

     

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  • 18.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    The individual and the species in the cultural evolution of language2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of language is a problem involving complex interactions between a number of different evolving systems. Language per se, regarded as a cultural/memetic entity, is one of the evolving systems, and its evolution is of major importance in the origin of modern human language. Possible structural parallels between language evolution and biological evolution are discussed. Genes, organisms, and species are key concepts in biology, and an understanding of the corresponding levels in language is needed for any fruitful linguistic application of theoretical tools from evolutionary biology. I identify candidate linguistic ’genes’, ’organisms’ and ’species’, and discuss implications for language evolution.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    The thinking Neanderthals: what do we know about Neanderthal cognition?2014In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, ISSN 1939-5078, E-ISSN 1939-5086, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 613-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of Neanderthal cognition is difficult, because of the archaeological invisibility of cognition, and because of the methodological issues that arise both from that invisibility and from their being close to modern humans. Nevertheless, fair progress has been made in gathering relevant evidence. There is now good evidence that Neanderthals were cognitively sophisticated, displaying many of the cognitive traits that were traditionally regarded as proxies for modern human cognition, notably including language. It can neither be proven nor excluded that they were our cognitive equals, but they were close enough to us, biologically and cognitively, to interbreed successfully and leave a genetic legacy in our DNA. 

  • 20.
    Johansson, Sverker
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Lindberg, Ylva
    Students write Wikipedia articles as assessment2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most assessment of students is based on artificial assignments, done purely for assessment, only read by assessing teachers. Much has been written on “authentic assessment” (reviewed in Frey et al. 2012), meant to mimic “the real world” in some sense. But even this is commonly not actual real-world assignments that reach a wider audience than teachers.

    Furthermore, in many educational contexts, teachers want to assess not just subject knowledge, but also e.g. writing skills, cooperative project-working skills, and skills in explaining the subject matter to others. These are non-trivial to assess either with traditional forms of assessment or with forms available in NGL contexts.

    One tool for assessing cooperative writing skills in NGL contexts is Wiki technology for joint text production. This is the same technology used in Wikipedia, but in educational contexts dedicated Wiki installations are typically used, with mixed results (e.g. Bruns & Humphreys 2005, Judd et al. 2010, Guth 2007).

    We have used Wikipedia itself for assessment in several courses in different subjects, from physics to literature, with fair success. Students are assigned the task of writing Wikipedia articles within the course topic.

    Wikipedia assessment is suitable for courses with specific characteristics. In such courses it has multiple advantages:

    • Authentic assessment, with student texts widely read by the general public, enhancing student motivation.
    • Feedback from and enforced collaboration with both the Wikipedia community and fellow students.
    • Straightforward tracking of individual student contributions in collaborative texts.
    • No setup and maintenance of dedicated system.
    • Valuable training in source criticism.
    • Writing process…

    Technical hurdles in Wikipedia writing are modest, but require some instruction. Copyright is an issue, making it legally difficult to force students to write for Wikipedia.

    Frey, Schmitt, & Allen (2012), Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, Vol 17, No 2:14

  • 21.
    Johansson, Sverker
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Lindberg, Ylva
    Jönköping University.
    Wikipedia as a virtual learning site and a multilingual languaging site2019In: Virtual Sites as Learning Spaces: Critical Issues on Languaging Research in Changing Eduscapes / [ed] Bagga-Gupta, S., Messina Dahlberg, G. & Lindberg, Y., Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 181-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Johansson, Sverker
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Lindberg, Ylva
    Wikipedia in the translanguaging classroom2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia, written entirely by volunteers in 288 different languages. It is the 6th most visited of all websites, and is both the largest and the most used encyclopedia of any kind. Both teachers and students regularly use Wikipedia as a tool, but are often unaware of its translanguaging potential.

    Wikipedia itself is multilingual rather than translingual, but can nevertheless be a valuable resource in the translanguaging classroom, mainly because it contains linked quasi-parallel texts in many languages on almost any topic. We see at least three levels of translanguaging Wikipedia use:

    • Source of knowledge, either in whatever language the student is most comfortable with or in a target language for language learners.
    • Comparison between languages. Both linguistic, genre, selection and perspective differences in the presentation of the same topic in different languages can give rise to fruitful classroom discourse across and between languages. These translanguaging comparisons can be an eminent tool for the development of critical thinking skills in students.
    • Translanguaging writing, where students add text to Wikipedia in multiple languages, using sources in one language to write in another. Either a Wikipedia article in one language can be created or extended using input from the same article in another language, or Wikipedia articles on the same topic in more than one language can be written concurrently.

    The focus of our study is on the second point, comparison between languages. We have investigated the types of differences than can be observed between languages in articles on the same major topics, using both quantitative and qualitative methods.

  • 23. Karpava, Sviatlana
    et al.
    Ringblom, Natalia
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Stockholm Universitet.
    Zabrodskaja, Anastassia
    Translanguaging in the Family Context: Evidence from Cyprus, Sweden and Estonia2019In: VESTNIK ROSSIISKOGO UNIVERSITETA DRUZHBY NARODOV-SERIYA LINGVISTIKA-RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS, ISSN 2312-9182, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 619-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight translanguaging practices in the home among bilingual/multilingual Russian-speaking children and their parents in Cyprus, Sweden and Estonia. Multilingual families are the focus of our research: 50 in Cyprus, 20 in Estonia and 50 in Sweden. Using parental written questionnaires with the focus on general background, socio-economic status and language proficiency, as well as oral semi-structured interviews and ethnographic participant observation, our study attempts to describe how family language policy is managed through translanguaging and literacy activities in multilingual Russian-speaking families in three different cultural and linguistic environments. Our results show both differences and similarities among Russian-speakers in the three countries, not only in their family language practices, but also in their attitudes towards the fluidity of language, language repertoires, translanguaging and Russian-language literacy. Russian-speakers incorporate a wide range of language repertoires in their everyday lives. Sometimes, such language contacts generate power struggles and the language ideological dimension becomes a key terrain to explore how speakers feel about the need to effectively attain a degree of multilingualism. Multilingualism and the maintenance of the Russian language and culture are usually encouraged, and parents often choose the one-parent-one-language approach at home. However, not all families make conscious choices regarding specific language management and may have "laissez-faire" attitudes to the use of languages in the family. We show how family language use and child-directed translanguaging can support, expand and enhance dynamic bilingualism/multilingualism, and reinforce and integrate minority language in a wider context: societal and educational.

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  • 24. Miller, Tim
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    Initial Analysis of Coincident Events Between the SPASE and AMANDA Detectors1995In: Nuclear Physics, no 43, p. 245-248Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Otwinowska, A.
    et al.
    Meir, N.
    Ringblom, Natalia
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Slavic and Baltic Studies, University of Stockholm.
    Karpava, S.
    La Morgia, F.
    Language and literacy transmission in heritage language: evidence from Russian-speaking families in Cyprus, Ireland, Israel and Sweden2019In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Ringblom, Natalia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Dobrova, Galina
    Holistic Constructions in Heritage Russian and Russian as a Second Language: Divergence or Delay?2019In: Scando-Slavica, ISSN 0080-6765, E-ISSN 1600-082X, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 94-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the strategies applied by young learners of Russian when naming a word in a vocabulary test. A total of 40 children took part in the experiment: 10 simultaneous Russian-Swedish bilingual children and 10 successive Russian-Swedish bilinguals who lived in Sweden, 10 children who moved to Russia and acquired Russian as a second language, and 10 monolingual Russian children living in Russia (as a control group). All the children were tested with the Russian version of Cross-Linguistic Tasks (CLT; Nenonen, Gagarina 2016). The results showed that the error pattern in all the groups of children seemed to be similar; yet, the acquisition of some structures appeared to be delayed in Russian Heritage Language (HL) children. Holistic constructions are common for all the children, but in bilingual children the effects of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) were also noticed. We argue that ‘atypical’ construction does not necessarily need to be disordered since the two languages of the HL child develop in contact with each other. However, a pattern of delayed acquisition can later lead to divergent development in the weaker language of bilingual children.

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  • 27.
    Rodheim, Stefan
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Den digitala lärandemiljön – möjlighet eller hinder?2016In: Framtidens lärandemiljöer: Rapport från SUHF:s arbetsgrupp, Sveriges universitets- och högskoleförbund (SUHF) , 2016, p. 83-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens utbildningsmiljöer präglas i allt högre grad av digitala verktyg och hjälpmedel. Samtliga svenska lärosäten nyttjar idag bland annat lärplattformar(sk LMS) och verktyg för kommunikation över nätet. Utnyttjandet av dessa digitala lärmiljöer skiljer sig åt mellan lärosätena där både den pedagogiska ansatsen samt det praktiska handhavandet kan variera. Detta kapitel syftar till att ge en överblick över vad som nyttjas och vilka planer/strategier som finns vid lärosätena. Det huvudsakliga materialet baseras utifrån den enkätundersökning som sändes till samtliga lärosäten under juli-augusti 2015 där tre huvudsakliga områden behandlades:

    • Används digitala lärandemiljöer och i så fall vilka.

    • Stöd och support

    • Planeras förändringar

  • 28.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Mörk, Lina
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Att vägleda nyanlända2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Design Matters for the Role of the University in a Regional Innovation System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of a university in an innovation system can take on various forms. The design of that role depends on how the university enters into collaboration with other parties in the innovation system, and how they all contribute to this design. Here, we apply a social system’s design perspective, and point out some key issues and aspects that should be considered if the role of universities is to be purposefully designed, rather than formed ad hoc.

    The purpose of such a design would be to support a wide scope of mutual benefits for the university and its collaborators – a “maximum output” from the engagement. The aim here is to point out concrete matters for the system’s designer(s) to consider, in order to create a role for the university in the innovation system that embraces a range of the university’s assets and capacities. Therefore, we address a number of critical issues and aspects affecting the functioning of the university in regard to an associated regional innovation system. Why these factors are critical will also be discussed.

    The paper stems from a pilot-project, where 16 semi-structured interviews from four (4) different Swedish regions were analysed, including regional innovation system executives, university innovation officers and leaders, as well as university research group leaders. We have analysed the reason why certain issues are critical for success when designing a university’s role in a regional innovation system:

    First, a university's contribution to the support of an innovation system through expertise consultancy and resources require other factors than participation in the innovation process by knowledge involvement does. Second, within the university there is a tendency to make a distinction between the ideation part and the utilisation part of the innovation process: different units at the university tend to show more engagement in different aspects of the process. Third, research commission is at heart for both university researchers and external parties. Fourth, the university comprises multifaceted capacities and potentials to sustain core functions in the innovation processes: as a meeting place; as a strategic knowledge broker; or as a driving force. Fifth, a university’s various networks  is a resource that might be underestimated by external parties. Sixth, much of collaborative innovation is accomplished in smaller units within the university, far from centralised university administration. Centralisation supports the university’s relations to external parties, whereas de-centralised and independent involvement of university units supports direct and efficient collaboration.  

    To maximise the output from the university’s engagement in the innovation system, the university’s role must be designed to distinguish between involvement in, or support of, innovation processes, between internal and external context requirements, and between what functions are suitable for innovation collaboration for different units of the university.

  • 30.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Disjunctive External and Internal Ideas on the University's Role in a Regional Innovation System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional innovation systems are recurrently presented by model figures. The purpose of such figures is to monitor certain ideas regarding each presented system. The topic of this paper is the role of the University represented through such model figures, and what ideas such figures are created to promote. In analysing the models, a visual communication perspective is paired with network notions.

    The current objective is to discuss what politics can be found behind the idea promotion, when figures created within a university is compared to figures created outside of it. The aim is to clarify core differences between motives underlying the engagement of a university in its associated regional innovation system, by taking on the research question: How should we understand the disjunctions between model imagery on the University’s role in a regional innovation system used by people inside and outside of the University, respectively?

    The research method used in this pilot-project, focusing on the Dalarna region of Sweden, is an analysis of policy documents in combination with interviews. The policy documents come from universities, as well as from other institutions engaged in regional innovation systems. Primarily the model figure of the regional innovation system presented by Region Dalarna (http://www.regiondalarna.se/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Mobilisera-for-tillvaxt-Innovationsarbete-och-smart-specialisering.pdf [p.18]) is compared to Dalarna University’s model figure of its regional collaboration self-understanding (https://www.du.se/sv/Samverkan/Lägesrapport och slutrapport – Förstudie Högskolan Dalarnas roll i det regionala innovationssystemet.pdf [p.11]), and analysed in regard to policy documents on the Dalarna innovation system. Semi-structured interviews are also made with regional innovation system executives, university innovation officers and leaders, as well as university research group leaders, 14 interviews in total, spread across four (4) different Swedish regions.

    The results are several: there are commonalities in the understanding of the university’s role in the Dalarna innovation system, inside and outside of Dalarna University, but also several disjunctions:

    (1)   It is a common understanding that there could be cooperation between the university and others based on research, and/or through education.

    (2)   One disjunction regard whether the university should act as one centrally organized hub for such collaboration, or function through a more scattered and self-organized set of units, in accordance with specific knowledge areas, where collaboration takes place.

    (3)   Another disjunction appears concerning the university’s role in regard to innovation, whether it should be expected to be involved in the very innovation processes, or be an external part in support of innovation by providing resources and expertise for those that innovate.

    (4)   A third disjunction concerns the university’s regional engagement, whether its prime efforts should be focused inwards the region, or if it is more important to function as a network provider and facilitator towards other regions as well as globally.

    (5)   The fourth encountered disjunction regards weather the university should take on the intermediating role as a (strategic) knowledge broker that connects and encourages parties to innovation collaboration, or, yet again, the active role as the (leading) driving force in collective innovation processes, covering entire strategic areas of intervention.

    (6)   A more delicate disjunction, the fifth, is the different views on knowledge, where the external expectations on the university is to deliver configured pieces of knowledge, from research or education, ready to exploit into innovation and business, whereas the university’s internal understanding is that knowledge should be developed during the collaborative process, jointly with the external parties.

    The implications of these results are that (1) the common attitude of the possibility for the university to be involved in the regional innovation system which constitutes the vital starting point for such involvement to be achieved in a systematic and meaningful way. The disjunctions are in that sense topics for negotiation: (2) how much the university should centralize its innovation system involvement must be balanced against the benefits of free and active collaboration with external parties on the level of units and individuals within the organization; (3) to what degree supportive functions for an innovation system should be expected from a university, or from others, and what actual innovation activities the university should be involved in, or not; (4) weather the university should have a more operative engagement within the region, or rather emphasize its capacity as a bridge towards other regions and countries through its networks; (5) in what regards it is useful that the university has a more strategic or leading role in terms of broking knowledge, or driving innovation processes; and (6) what are the goals and terms of collaboration – exploitation of existing knowledge or mutual development of new knowledge?

    We see, as the main outcomes of this study, that the outset for a university to engage in the regional innovation system is affirmative, when involvement is recognized as possible in both research and education, from within as well as from outside the university. The existing disjunctions regarding a university’s role in the innovation system, though, present a challenge for negotiation, which, if not taken seriously, risks a collapse of collaborations and a failure of the involvement.

  • 31.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Regional “Innovation Systems” vis-à-vis “Innovation Support Systems" – Is clarification needed?2020In: Industry and Higher EducationArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How language is used has political implications as well as communicational consequences. Regional development, using means of systematic support for innovation, is a widespread phenomenon globally that also includes numerous political ambitions and implications. This article argues that ambiguities regarding the use of terms such as ‘innovation system’ and ‘innovation support system’ need to be clarified to improve communication in this field, as well as to reveal underlying political ideas on how systematic support for innovation should be carried out, by drawing on examples from studies of regional systems. Such ambiguities contribute significantly to the often-mentioned lack of involvement and engagement in regional development on the part of higher education institutions and academics. Examining key terms and concepts of this discourse, in the interests of promoting a common and stringent use of terminology, helps to illuminate whether the desired academic involvement in innovation processes relates to ideation, implementation and commercialization, or to support for processes through the contribution of knowledge and expertise.

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  • 32. Åkesson, Torsten
    et al.
    Johansson, Sverker
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated. Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, Högskolan i Jönköping, HLK, Ämnesforskning.
    An emulsion study of 16O and 32S interactions at 200 GeV per nucleon selected by transverse energy1990In: Nuclear Physics, no 342, p. 279-301Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Öhlén, Mats
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Vesterholm, Angelica
    Dalarna University, Not School affiliated.
    Sedelius, Thomas (Editor)
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Political Science.
    Vägen till arbete för invandrade akademiker?: En utvärdering av kursen Korta vägen i Dalarna 20192020Report (Other academic)
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