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  • 1. Bejjani, Roland
    et al.
    Salame, Charlie
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    An Experimental and Finite Element Approach for a Better Understanding of Ti-6Al-4V Behavior When Machining under Cryogenic Environment2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 11, article id 2796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing demand in manufacturing industries, process optimization has become a major area of focus for researchers. This research optimizes the cryogenic machining of aerospace titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V for industrial applications by studying the effect of varying the nozzle position using two parameters: the nozzle's separation distance from the tool-chip interface and its inclination angle with respect to the tool rake face. A finite element model (FEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model are used to simulate the cryogenic impingement of cryogenic carbon dioxide on the tool-workpiece geometry. Experiments are conducted to evaluate cutting forces, tool wear, and surface roughness of the workpiece, and the results are related to the CFD and FEM analyses. The nozzle location is shown to have a significant impact on the cutting temperatures and forces, reducing them by up to 45% and 46%, respectively, while the dominant parameter affecting the results is shown to be the separation distance. Cryogenic machining is shown to decrease adhesion-diffusion wear as well as macroscopic brittle chipping of the cutting insert compared to dry turning, while the workpiece surface roughness is found to decrease by 44% in the case of cryogenic machining.

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  • 2. Cinca, N.
    et al.
    Gordon, S.
    Llanes, L. M.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Friction, Material Transfer And Wear Phenomena In Sliding Contacts Between Cemented Carbide And Aluminum During Metal Forming2022In: World PM 2022 Congress Proceedings, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many metal forming processes, certain texturization of the tool is necessary to have some friction that can make the operation possible. One example of that is the use of crosshatching methods on cemented carbide punches to manufacture beverage cans. The deep drawing and ironing process of the aluminum foil during can production involves different wear mechanisms being active on the punch surface, i.e. adhesive and abrasive wear. The present work examines the abrasive wear performance and friction characteristics of two cemented carbide grades by means of scratch and linear reciprocating sliding wear testing with Al2O3 counterparts under dry and lubricated conditions, with smooth polished and textured cemented carbide surfaces respectively. Additionally, well-controlled tests in which an aluminum pin is sliding over the cemented carbide surface were performed to evaluate the initial metal transfer. Post-test characterization shows the influence of carbide microstructure on the friction, material transfer and wear mechanisms. © European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA)

  • 3. Cinca, Nuria
    et al.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Assessment of initial transfer of metal work material on cemented carbide tools - Influence of cemented carbide composition, microstructure and surface topography2022In: Proceedings of 20th Plansee Seminar 2022, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications such as metal cutting and metal forming, cemented carbide tools work in sliding friction wear mode resulting in transfer of the metal work material to the tool surface. In these applications, a surface showing good anti-galling properties needs to be balanced with other desired tool material properties. In the present study, the metal transfer and friction characteristics of aluminum in sliding contact with cemented carbide were evaluated by performing tests under dry and lubricated conditions, where an Al tip is put into sliding contact with the polished surface of the cemented carbide under well-defined contact conditions. Cemented carbide grades include a straight WC-Co grade and two grades containing cubic carbides (i.e. TiC, TaC and NbC), to gain fundamental knowledge into the relation between microstructure and composition and anti-galling properties. Post-test characterization using high resolution FEG-SEM and EDS has been used to show the influence of carbide composition (chemical affinity effects) and topography on the tendency to initial material transfer.

  • 4.
    Grundén, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Palmér, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Synliggöra lärande i problemlösning2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5. Heinrichs, J.
    et al.
    Norgren, S.
    Jacobson, S.
    Yvell, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Influence of binder metal on wear initiation of cemented carbides in sliding contact with granite2021In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 470-471, article id 203645Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 6. Heinrichs Lindgren, J.
    et al.
    Mikado, H.
    Donzel-Gargand, O.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Wiklund, U.
    Kawamura, S.
    Jacobson, S.
    Exploring the tribochemical wear and material transfer caused by Cu15Zn alloys on shearing tools2024In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 542-543, article id 205274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cemented carbide tools are extensively used in the zipper industry, including shearing of a pre-formed Cu15Zn wire into individual zipper elements. Although the work material is significantly softer than the tool, wear is the life limiting factor for the tools and is considered to be of tribochemical nature. So far it has not been explained, however, it is known that the wear rate of uncoated, as well as CrC and CrN coated, cemented carbide increases dramatically when Zn is omitted from the Cu alloy. In this paper, worn tool surfaces, including any transferred material, were studied to investigate the tribochemical wear mechanism in detail. Material transfer occurred onto all tool surfaces. Cu and Zn were separated on the sub-micron scale, and preferential transfer of one of the constituents was observed. This is reflected in the outermost surface of the sheared element, which shows a homogeneous composition elsewhere. Oxidation was observed of all tool surfaces, which indicates elements of oxidative wear. Further, any Zn transferred to the tool surfaces was oxidized. Thus, it is suggested that the presence of Zn reduces the oxygen available and consequently reduces the oxidation rate of the tool surfaces, leading to the protective effect previously observed. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 7.
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Elo, Robin
    Uppsala University.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Electrochemical and passivation behavior of a corrosion-resistant WC-Ni(W) cemented carbide in synthetic mine water2023In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 114, article id 106227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different grades, WC-20 vol.% Ni and WC-20 vol.% Co cemented carbides, respectively were systematically investigated concerning their microstructure, binder composition, and corrosion behavior. SEM-EBSD analysis verified that both grades have similar WC grain sizes (0.9–1.1 μm). AES analysis confirmed that the binder phase of the respective grade is an alloy of Ni-W and Co-W and that the concentration of W in the Ni- and Co-binder is 21 and 10 at. %, respectively. In synthetic mine water (SMW), the EIS behavior of WC-Ni(W) at the open circuit potential (OCP) conditions was studied for different exposure periods (up to 120 h). The EIS data fitting estimates low capacitance and high charge transfer resistance (Rct) values, which indicate that the passive film formed on WC-Ni(W) is thin and exhibits high corrosion resistance. At the OCP and potentiostatic-passive conditions, SEM investigations confirm the uncorroded microstructure of the WC-Ni(W). The AR-XPS studies confirmed the formation of an extremely thin (0.25 nm) WO3 passive film is responsible for the high corrosion resistance of WC-Ni(W), at OCP conditions. However, above the transpassive potential, the microstructure instability of WC-Ni(W) was observed, i.e., corroded morphology of both WC grains and Ni(W) binder. The electrochemical parameters, Rct, corrosion current density, and charge density values, confirmed that the WC-Ni(W) is a far better alternative than the WC-Co(W) for application in SMW.

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  • 8.
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Effect of tribo-layer on the corrosion behavior of WC-Co and WC-Ni cemented carbides in synthetic mine water2021In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 100, article id 105621Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 9. Lin, Z.
    et al.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Hulme, C.
    Dadbakhsh, S.
    Rashid, A.
    Influence of Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion Process Parameters on Transformation Temperatures and Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Nickel Titanium2023In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, Vol. 25, no 12, article id 2201818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB) is used to manufacture dense nickel titanium parts using various parameter sets, including the beam current, scan speed, and postcooling condition. The density of manufactured NiTi parts is investigated in relation to the linear energy input. The results imply that the part density increases with increasing linear energy density to over 98% of the bulk density. With a constant energy input, a combination of low power and low scan speed leads to denser parts. This is attributed to lower electrostatic repulsive forces from lower number density of the impacting electrons. After manufacturing, the densest parts with distinct parameter sets are categorized into three groups: 1) high power with high scan speed and vacuum slow cooling, 2) low power with low scan speed and vacuum slow cooling, and 3) low power with low scan speed and medium cooling rate in helium gas. Among these, a faster cooling rate suppresses phase transformation temperatures, while vacuum cooling combinations do not affect the phase transformation temperatures significantly. Herein, all the printed parts exhibit almost 8% pseudoelasticity regardless of the process parameters, while the parts cooled in helium have a higher energy dissipation efficiency (1 − η), which implies faster damping of oscillations. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Engineering Materials published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

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  • 10. Maurya, H. S.
    et al.
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Vikram, R. J.
    Juhani, K.
    Sergejev, F.
    Prashanth, K. G.
    Additive manufacturing of TiC-based cermets: A detailed comparison with spark plasma sintered samples2023In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 960, article id 170436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is a comparative study on the TiC-430 L ferritic stainless steel (FSS) cermets manufactured via two powder metallurgical processes, namely, conventional spark plasma sintering (SPS) and metal additive manufacturing (AM) process (laser powder-bed fusion process (LPBF)/selective laser melting (SLM)). The rescanning strategy has been used to preheat and melt the powder bed with different laser parameters during the SLM process to suppress the presence of residual thermal stress leading to the fabrication of cermets without cracks. The as-fabricated SPS samples (95 %) show a relatively lower density than the SLM-built parts (~98 %). A study of their mechanical properties such as hardness, compressive strength, and fracture toughness was conducted and discussed in detail. Further, the corrosion behavior of the fabricated cermets parts was evaluated in 3.5 wt% NaCl. The SLM-prepared specimens reveal finer microstructures and better mechanical properties (compressive strength and fracture toughness) due to the presence of fine microstructure. Furthermore, the corrosion current density of TiC-430 L fss-based cermets fabricated by SLM is approximately 270 times lower than that of cermets parts fabricated by SPS, indicating excellent corrosion resistance. On the other hand, the hardness shows an opposite trend, where the SPS samples show the maximum hardness as compared to the SLM counterparts due to the presence of hard and coarse TiC particles along with some metallic carbides formed during the SPS process. The results reveal that AM processes not only can fabricate cermets with intricate shapes but can also fabricate them with improved mechanical and corrosion properties.

  • 11. Maurya, H. S.
    et al.
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Wang, Z.
    Juhani, K.
    Sergejev, F.
    Prashanth, K. G.
    Investigation of the tribological behavior of the additively manufactured TiC-based cermets by scratch testing2023In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 959, article id 170496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the tribological behavior of the TiC-430 L SS cermets fabricated via an additive manufacturing process such as laser powder bed fusion/selective laser melting. A gradient microstructure (finer and coarser morphology) can be observed in the fabricated parts due to SLM's complex thermal history. Using Rockwell indenter, single and multiple passes scratch tests have been performed as a function of applied load to study the wear mechanism of the binder and matrix phase. A surface 3D profilometer was used to analyze the scratch track variation in terms of scratch width and depth. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed on the scratched cermet parts to study the wear mechanism and microstructural analysis. It has been observed that the scratch hardness increases with increasing load and the same decreases with increasing the number of passes. Similarly, the coefficient of friction increases with increasing load. Cermets with complex microstructural features exhibit high wear resistance under low loads and for higher loads, multiple passes can lead to tribolayer formation.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Characterization of hot-rolled and annealed oxides on 2507 stainless steel – Microstructure, chemical composition, mechanical properties and pickling characteristics2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface characteristics of samples of the 2507 super duplex stainless steel with three different surface conditions, i.e. after hot rolling, annealing and blasting plus pickling, respectively, have been investigated. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scratch testing have been used to characterize the oxide scales with respect microstructure, chemical composition, and mechanical properties.

    SEM and EDS-analysis of the oxide scales formed on hot rolled and hot rolled plus annealed samples, show an outer Fe-rich oxide layer and an inner Cr-rich oxide layer close to the interface. While the hot rolled oxide scale displays a relatively porous oxide composed of oxide particles, the hot rolled plus annealed oxide scale displays a more dense, “sintered”, microstructure, i.e. the high temperature during the annealing step promotes a densification of the oxide scale microstructure.

    The outer porous Fe-rich layer shows poor cohesive strength and poor adhesion to the underlying Cr-rich layer. In contrast, the inner more dense Cr-rich layer shows strong adhesion towards the 2507 duplex stainless steel. The dense microstructure and strong adhesion of the inner Cr-rich layer is believed to significantly influence the blasting and pickling characteristics.

  • 13.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Characterization of oxide layers formed on pilot plant Steckel rolled 304 stainless steel samples2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of oxide scales on 304 austentic stainless steel during Steckel mill rolling has been investigated by performing pilot trials at Swerim Luleå. The influence of Steckel furnace conditions, i.e. temperature, time and excess oxygen, at reheating between subsequent roll passes have been evaluated and the resulting surface structures have been characterized.

    High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the oxide scales with respect microstructure and chemical composition. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to analyze the chemical composition at the stainless steel / oxide interface region.

    In common for all Steckell rolled samples investigated was a pronounced rough surface morphology and the surface roughness was found to increase with more iterations of rolling. Also, the amount of oxides in the rolled surface tends to increase with longer heating times and more iterations of rolling. 

    Surface areas, less distorted by the rolling contact, displayed an oxide scale with an outer rather well-defined oxide layer with relatively large grains and an inner, less well defined, oxide layer. EDS-analysis show that the outer oxide mainly consists of Fe2O3, whereas the inner oxide layer corresponds to a chromium rich (Cr,Fe)2O3 oxide combined with areas of partly oxidized stainless steel. ToF-SIMS analysis of the stainless steel / oxide interface region show the presence of B, Ca and Cu in connection to the oxides.

  • 14.
    Olsson, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Influence of annealing on hot-rolled oxides on 2507 stainless steel2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of annealing on the oxide scale characteristics of hot rolled samples of 2507 super duplex stainless steel have been investigated using well controlled lab scale annealing experiments. High resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the oxide scales with respect microstructure and chemical composition.

    SEM and EDS-analysis of the oxide scales after annealing show an outer Fe-rich oxide layer and an inner Cr-rich oxide layer close to the interface. While the hot rolled oxide scale displays a relatively porous oxide composed of oxide particles, the hot rolled plus annealed oxide scale displays a more dense, “sintered”, microstructure.

    The annealing peak temperature was found to have a strong impact on the oxide scale microstructure. The higher peak temperature, 1150 °C, resulted in a significantly denser microstructure with more pronounce, larger grains, as compared with the lower peak temperature, 1100 °C, which resulted in a less dense microstructure. In contrast, the influence of annealing atmosphere, was found to be relatively small.

  • 15.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Cinca, Nuria
    Mechanisms controlling friction and material transfer in sliding contacts between cemented carbide and aluminum during metal forming2024In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 118, article id 106481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold forming of aluminum alloys is frequently associated with problems related to severe adhesion and material transfer onto the forming tools which results in high friction forces and negatively affects the surface quality of the formed parts, a phenomenon frequently named galling. In the present study, well controlled laboratory tests using a scratch testing equipment have been performed to evaluate the friction characteristics and investigate the mechanisms controlling the initial transfer of aluminum in dry sliding contact with five different cemented carbide grades. In the tests, an aluminum pin (representing the work material) with a conical tip slides against a flat, fine-polished, cemented carbide surface (representing the tool). During sliding, the mechanical contact results in plastic deformation and flattening of the work material against the tool surface, thus simulating a metal forming contact. The small scale and well-defined tribo contact in combination with post-test surface characterization using optical surface profilometry, high resolution SEM and EDS makes it possible to evaluate the influence of material transfer on the friction characteristics.The results show that sub-mu m surface irregularities in the cemented carbide surface trigger mechanical interaction with the softer aluminum surface which promotes aluminum transfer to the cemented carbide surface resulting in high friction. Common surface irregularities, promoting aluminum transfer, are sharp edges of slightly protruding carbide grains, surface steps in connection to binder phase pockets, surface steps in connection to surface pores, etc. It should be noted that even very small surface steps, < 20 nm in height, constitute efficient cutting edges able to effectively cut off the passing aluminum material and thus have a very strong impact on material transfer. In contrast, the effect of carbide composition, e.g. the presence of cubic carbides of different composition, seems to be of minor importance to reduce the adhesion and the tendency to material transfer.

  • 16.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Lundin, Peter
    Swerim.
    Samuelsson, Jan-Erik
    Erasteel Kloster.
    Tjerngren, Peter
    SMT/Alleima.
    Åhlberg, Richard
    Fagersta Stainless.
    Börjesson, Malin
    Kanthal.
    Balazs, Emil
    Ovako.
    Färre ytfel på varmvalsade produkter2022Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Lundin, Peter
    Swerim.
    Samuelsson, Jan-Erik
    Erasteel Kloster.
    Tjerngren, Peter
    SMT/Alleima.
    Åhlberg, Richard
    Fagersta Stainless.
    Börjesson, Malin
    Kanthal.
    Balazs, Emil
    Ovako.
    YTFEL Deelrapport - Verksförsök2022Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Olsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Åhlberg, Richard
    Fagersta Stainless.
    YTFEL Delrapport - Ytfelsatlas2022Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Palmér, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Grundén, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Undervisning genom problemlösning2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Safara Nosar, Nima
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Modeling the Microstructure Evolution During and After Hot Working in Martensitic Steel2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the goal is to predict the microstructure evolution during and after the hot working of a martensitic stainless steel with 13% chromium using a physically-based model in the form of a MATLAB toolbox. This model is based on dislocation density theory and consists of coupled sets of evolution equations for dislocation, vacancies, recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth.

    The focus in this work is on the flow stress calculation and the effect of second phase particles on the strengthening mechanisms in the material at elevated temperatures. Recovery and recrystallization are also studied for this alloy during deformation and following stress relaxation.

    The experimental part of this work was performed with a Gleeble thermo-mechanical simulator over the temperature range of 850 to 1200°C. Samples were investigated later by a light optical microscope (LOM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). Hardness test and phase isolation were also performed on the samples and the results are compared with the modeling results.

    The model can satisfactorily predict the grain growth, recovery, recrystallization, and flow stress for this alloy. Further investigation on the second phase particles showed that the measured mean size of carbides has a good agreement with what is obtained from the model and the hardness values. On the other hand, the modeled volume fraction of the carbides followed a slightly different trend comparing to hardness values, and phase isolation results at temperatures higher than 1000°C. Additionally, the Ms temperature and fraction of the martensite phase are calculated for quenched samples where the results are following the measured hardness values.

    Finally, the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z) and its relation to the flow stress and the activation energy for deformation are defined. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) kinetic is modeled and the fraction DRX was calculated at various temperatures and strain rates for this alloy.

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  • 21. Singh, N.
    et al.
    Ummethala, Raghunandan
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Sokkalingam, Rathinavelu
    Rajput, Monika
    Chatterjee, Kaushik
    Prashanth, K.G.
    Effect of TiB2 addition on the mechanical and biological response of spark plasma sintered Ti6Al7Nb matrix composites2022In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 924, p. 166502-166502, article id 166502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Sokkalingam, Rathinavelu
    et al.
    Chao, Zhao
    Sivaprasad, Katakam
    Muthupandi, Veerappan
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Ramasamy, Parthiban
    Eckert, Juergen
    Prashanth, Konda Gokuldoss
    Additive Manufacturing of CoCrFeMnNi High-Entropy Alloy/AISI 316L Stainless Steel Bimetallic Structures2022In: Advanced Engineering Materials, ISSN 1438-1656, E-ISSN 1527-2648, article id 2200341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CoCrFeMnNi high-entropy alloy (HEA)/AISI 316L stainless steel bimetals were additively fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM). The bimetal structure comprises three regions, i.e., CoCrFeMnNi-HEA, AISI 316L stainless steel, and an interface between CoCrFeMnNi-HEA, AISI 316L stainless steel. SLM processing results in the formation of columnar grains extending over many built layers epitaxially in a preferential growth direction. The Vickers microhardness ranges mainly between 250 and 275 HV0.5 in all three observed regions. In addition, only a marginal variation in tensile strength is observed between the CoCrFeMnNi-HEA, AISI 316L stainless steel, and the CoCrFeMnNi-HEA/AISI 316L stainless steel bimetal. The unique higher work hardening behavior of the CoCrFeMnNi-HEA prevents failure along the CoCrFeMnNi-HEA side in the bimetallic structure during plastic deformation. The CoCrFeMnNi-HEA shows higher pitting susceptibility than the AISI 316L stainless steel in the bimetallic structure due to its lower pitting potential. Further, the presence of pores and lack of fusion spots further decreases the pitting resistance of the CoCrFeMnNi-HEA. Hence, the bimetal is prone to more preferential corrosion attack along the CoCrFeMnNi-HEA side due to its anodic behavior and defects.

  • 23.
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Sanni, O. C.
    Brodin, H.
    Microstructure and mechanical behavior of as-built and heat-treated Hastelloy-X alloy produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion process2022In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2022, Vol. 111, p. 373-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study,microstructure and mechanical characterization of as-built Hastelloy X (HX) samples produced by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process and post-heat-treated samples were investigated. Two sets of samples, horizontal and vertical to build direction, were considered in as-built condition to understand the effect of build direction and two solution heat-treatment temperatures, 1177°C and 1220°C, followed by fast cooling were considered to study the effect of solution heat-treatment temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties. Microstructure characterization of as-built sample horizontal to build direction revealed a typical multi-layer molten pool boundaries and the sample vertical to build direction revealed multi-layered and multi-tracked molten pool boundaries. Electron backscatter diffraction results reveal a disrupted epitaxial grain growth for the as-built samples vertical to build direction whereas equiaxed grain structure with varying twin grain boundary fractions was observed for heat-treated HX samples. As-built LPBF HX samples exhibit higher mean hardness and yield strength than post-heat-treated samples. Higher elongation and lower yield strength were observed for the sample solution treated at 1220°C as compared to the sample solution annealed at 1177°C. Microstructural evolution at 20% engineering strain for the exact positions before the tensile test was presented for solution treated at 1220°C samples, which reveals distinct slip lines within each grain as well as increased dislocation density at grain boundaries. © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 24.
    Teledahl, Anna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Palmér, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Representationer och strategier i problemlösning2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25. Ummethala, Raghunandan
    et al.
    Jayamani, Jayaraj
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Karamched, Phani S.
    Rathinavelu, Sokkalingam
    Singh, Neera
    Surreddi, Kumar Babu
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology.
    Prashanth, K. G.
    In Vitro Corrosion Behavior of Selective Laser Melted Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta2021In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta (TNZT) alloy has been fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) at different build orientations with respect to the base plate and the resulting disparities in the grain shape, size, preferred orientations and lattice strains have been determined. Potentiodynamic polarization tests performed under in vitro conditions indicated that the specimens built at 45° orientation showed the highest polarization resistance (24.5 kΩ cm2) and lowest rate of corrosion (0.23 μA cm−2) compared to the specimens built at other orientations. The corrosion behaviors of the SLM specimens have been correlated with their microstructural features and further compared with that of its spark plasma sintered (SPS) counterpart and commercial alloys such as Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiostatic measurements have revealed that the passive film forming on the TNZT sample at 45° orientation is highly stable and more protective than that of the other samples. Auger electron spectroscopy has confirmed that both Ti and Nb participate actively in the passive film formation on the SLM TNZT alloy.

  • 26. Vida, Ádám
    et al.
    Lábár, János
    Dankházi, Zoltán
    Maksa, Zsolt
    Molnar, David
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Varga, Lajos K.
    Kalácska, Szilvia
    Windisch, Márk
    Huhn, Gabriella
    Chinh, Nguyen Q.
    A Sequence of Phase Transformations and Phases in NiCoFeCrGa High Entropy Alloy2021In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present investigation is directed to phase transitions in the equimolar NiCoFeCrGa high entropy alloy, which is a mixture of face-centered cubic (FCC) and body-centered cubic (BCC) crystalline phases. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), transmission electron microscopy-based energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Based on the phases observed in different temperature ranges, a sequence of the phase transitions can be established, showing that in a realistic process, when freely cooling the sample with the furnace from high to room temperature, a microstructure having spinodal-like decomposition can also be expected. The elemental mapping and magnetic behaviors of this decomposed structure are also studied.

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  • 27.
    Åkerstedt, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Grundén, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Mathematics Education.
    Palmér, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Materials Technology. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Problemlösning - ett vidgat perspektiv2021Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 27 of 27
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