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  • 1. Anglart, D
    et al.
    Emanuelson, U
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Sandgren, C Hallén
    Detecting and predicting changes in milk homogeneity using data from automatic milking systems.2021Inngår i: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 104, nr 10, s. 11009-11017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure milk quality and detect cows with signs of mastitis, visual inspection of milk by prestripping quarters before milking is recommended in many countries. An objective method to find milk changed in homogeneity (i.e., with clots) is to use commercially available inline filters to inspect the milk. Due to the required manual labor, this method is not applicable in automatic milking systems (AMS). We investigated the possibility of detecting and predicting changes in milk homogeneity using data generated by AMS. In total, 21,335 quarter-level milk inspections were performed on 5,424 milkings of 624 unique cows on 4 farms by applying visual inspection of inline filters that assembled clots from the separate quarters during milking. Images of the filters with clots were scored for density, resulting in 892 observations with signs of clots for analysis (77% traces or mild cases, 15% moderate cases, and 8% heavy cases). The quarter density scores were combined into 1 score indicating the presence of clots during a single cow milking and into 2 scores summarizing the density scores in cow milkings during a 30-h sampling period. Data generated from the AMS, such as milk yield, milk flow, conductivity, and online somatic cell counts, were used as input to 4 multilayer perceptron models to detect or predict single milkings with clots and to detect milking periods with clots. All models resulted in high specificity (98-100%), showing that the models correctly classified cow milkings or cow milking periods with no clots observed. The ability to successfully classify cow milkings or cow periods with observed clots had a low sensitivity. The highest sensitivity (26%) was obtained by the model that detected clots in a single milking. The prevalence of clots in the data was low (2.4%), which was reflected in the results. The positive predictive value depends on the prevalence and was relatively high, with the highest positive predictive value (72%) reached in the model that detected clots during the 30-h sampling periods. The misclassification rate for cow milkings that included higher-density scores was lower, indicating that the models that detected or predicted clots in a single milking could better distinguish the heavier cases of clots. Using data from AMS to detect and predict changes in milk homogeneity seems to be possible, although the prediction performance for the definitions of clots used in this study was poor.

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  • 2. Arzpeyma, N.
    et al.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Gyllenram, R.
    Jönsson, P. G.
    Model development to study uncertainties in electric arc furnace plants to improve their economic and environmental performance2021Inngår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id 892Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical model is developed in order to simulate the melt composition in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) with respect to uncertainties in 1) scrap composition, 2) scrap weighing and 3) element distribution factors. The tramp element Cu and alloying element Cr are taken into account. The model enables simulations of a charge program as well as backwards estimations of the element concentrations and their variance in scrap. In the backwards calculation, the maximum likelihood method is solved by considering three cases corresponding to the involved uncertainties. It is shown that the model can estimate standard deviations for elements so that the real values lie within the estimated 95% confidence interval. Moreover, the results of the model application in each target product show that the estimated scrap composition results in a melt composition, which is in good agreement with the measured one. The model can be applied to increase our understanding of scrap chemical composition and lower the charged material cost and carbon footprint of the products. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 3.
    Borg, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Medicinsk vetenskap.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm; Stockholms Sjukhem, Stockholm.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge; Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Experiences of Assistive Products and Home Care among Older Clients with and without Dementia in Sweden2022Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, nr 19, artikkel-id 12350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to compare selection, use and outcomes of assistive products among older home care clients with and without dementia in Sweden, and to explore the relations between the use of assistive products and perceptions of home care, loneliness and safety. Self-reported data from 89,811 home care clients aged 65 years or more, of whom 8.9% had dementia, were analysed using regression models. Excluding spectacles, 88.2% of them used assistive products. Respondents without dementia were more likely to use at least one assistive product but less likely to use assistive products for remembering. Respondents with dementia participated less in the selection of assistive products, used less assistive products, and benefited less from them. Users of assistive products were more likely to be anxious and bothered by loneliness, to feel unsafe at home with home care, to experience that their opinions and wishes regarding assistance were disregarded by home care personnel, and to be treated worse by home care personnel. The findings raise concerns about whether the needs for assistive products among home care clients with dementia are adequately provided for. They also indicate a need to strengthen a person-centred approach to providing home care to users of assistive products.

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  • 4. Chozas, A.
    et al.
    Mahjani, B.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Family history of breast cancer is associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer: evidence for shared genetic risks2022Inngår i: Human Heredity, ISSN 0001-5652, E-ISSN 1423-0062, Vol. 87, s. 12-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Although breast and prostate cancers arise in different organs and are more frequent in the opposite sex, multiple studies have reported an association between their family history. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism data, based on distant relatives, has revealed a small positive genetic correlation between these cancers explained by common variants. The estimate of genetic correlation based on close relatives reveals the extent to which shared genetic risks are explained by both common and rare variants. This estimate is unknown for breast and prostate cancer. Method: We estimated the relative risks, heritability, and genetic correlation of breast cancer and prostate cancer, based on the Minnesota Breast and Prostate Cancer Study, a family study of 141 families ascertained for breast cancer. Results: Heritability of breast cancer was 0.34 (95% credible interval: 0.23-0.49) and 0.65 (95% credible interval: 0.36-0.97) for prostate cancer, and the genetic correlation was 0.23. In terms of odds ratios, these values correspond to a 1.3 times higher odds of breast cancer among probands, given that the brother has prostate cancer. Conclusion: This study shows the inherent relation between prostate cancer and breast cancer; an incident of one in a family increases the risk of developing the other. The large difference between estimates of genetic correlation from distant and close relatives, if replicated, suggests that rare variants contribute to the shared genetic risk of breast and prostate cancer. However, the difference could steam from genotype-by-family effects shared between the two types of cancers. ©; 2021 The Author(s).

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  • 5. Hallén Sandgren, C
    et al.
    Anglart, D
    Klaas, I C
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Emanuelson, U
    Homogeneity density scores of quarter milk in automatic milking systems.2021Inngår i: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 104, nr 9, s. 10121-10130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Milk quality and clinical mastitis in dairy cows are monitored by detecting visually abnormal milk. A standardized method to evaluate clots in milk and studies of the incidence and dynamics of clots in milk at the quarter level are lacking. We validated a method to score clot density in quarter milk samples and describe the prevalence and dynamics of the density scores between consecutive samplings and periods in 4 farms with automatic milking systems. Using in-line filters, we collected quarter milk samples at each milking during 3 periods of 30 h each in each farm. Clot density was scored based on coverage of the filter area as 0 (negative), 1 (trace), 2 (mild), 3 (moderate), 4 (heavy), and 5 (very heavy). The score for a specific quarter and milking is referred to as the quarter milking score (QMS). Three assessors independently scored 902 images of filter samples with a Fleiss kappa value of 0.72. In total, 21,202 quarter milk samples from 5,398 milkings of 621 cows were collected. Of the quarter filter samples, 2.4% had visible clots, distributed as mild (1.4%), moderate (0.6%), heavy (0.3%), and very heavy (<0.1%, n = 8). Cases with a cow period sum of QMS ≥ 4, corresponding to 9.4% of all periods, harbored 86% and 94% of all QMS of 2 to 5 and 3 to 5, respectively. Of these cases, cows sampled in all 3 periods and clots in only 1 period had a quarter period sum score ≥ 1 in 1.8 different quarters in average. Corresponding numbers for the cows with clots or traces in 2 or 3 periods were 2.2 and 2.5 different quarters, respectively. A QMS of 2 to 5 in the preceding milking increased the chance of a QMS >1 in the following milking, with an average chance of 38%. The probability of a QMS > 1 increased with increasing previous QMS, a higher sum of QMS during the milking period, longer milking interval, and higher lactation number, but decreased with increasing days in milk. Our study showed that the method of clot-density scoring is feasible to perform and reproducible for investigating the occurrence and dynamics of clots in milk. Elevated clot-density scores clustered within certain cows and cow periods and appeared in new quarters of the cows over time. The low recurrence of QMS of 1 and 2 within quarters indicated that QMS 3 could be a reasonable threshold for detecting quarters with abnormal milk that require further attention.

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  • 6.
    Hansson, I
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Silvera, A
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Ren, K
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Woudstra, S
    University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Skarin, A
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Fikse, W F
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Nielsen, P P
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden, Lund.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Cow characteristics associated with the variation in number of contacts between dairy cows2023Inngår i: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 106, nr 4, s. 2685-2699Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern freestall barns where large groups of cows are housed together, the behavior displayed by herd mates can influence the welfare and production of other individuals. Therefore, understanding social interactions in groups of dairy cows is important to enhance herd management and optimize the outcomes of both animal health and welfare in the future. Many factors can affect the number of social contacts in a group. This study aimed to identify which characteristics of a cow are associated with the number of contacts it has with other group members in 2 different functional areas (feeding and resting area) to increase our understanding of the social behavior of dairy cows. Inside 2 herds housed in freestall barns with around 200 lactating cows each, cow positions were recorded with an ultra-wideband real-time location system collecting all cows' positions every second over 2 wk. Using the positioning data of the cows, we quantified the number of contacts between them, assuming that cows spending time in proximity to one another (within a distance of 2.5 m for at least 10 min per day) were interacting socially. We documented in which barn areas these interactions occurred and used linear mixed models to investigate if lactation stage, parity, breed, pregnancy status, estrus, udder health, and claw health affect the number of contacts. We found variation in the number of contacts a cow had between individuals in both functional areas. Cows in later lactation had more contacts in the feeding area than cows in early lactation. Furthermore, in one herd, higher parity cows had fewer contacts in the feeding area than first parity cows, and in the other herd, cows in third parity or higher had more contacts in the resting area. This study indicates that cow characteristics such as parity and days in milk are associated with the number of contacts a cow has daily to its herd mates and provides useful information for further research on social interactions of dairy cows.

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  • 7.
    Johansson-Pajala, Rose-Marie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Gusdal, Annelie
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden.
    Heideken Wågert, Petra von
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden.
    Löwenmark, Annica
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholms Sjukhem, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna/Västerås, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anxiety and loneliness among older people living in residential care facilities or receiving home care services in Sweden during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national cross-sectional study2022Inngår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikkel-id 927Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Older people were subjected to significant restrictions on physical contacts with others during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social distancing impacts older people's experiences of anxiety and loneliness. Despite a large body of research on the pandemic, there is little research on its effects on older people in residential care facilities (RCF) and in home care services (HCS), who are the frailest of the older population. We aimed to investigate the effect of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in March-May 2020 on experiences of anxiety and loneliness among older people living in RCF or receiving HCS and the impact of the progression of the pandemic on these experiences.

    METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional design using data from the national user satisfaction survey (March - May 2020) by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Survey responses were retrieved from 27,872 older people in RCF (mean age 87 years) and 82,834 older people receiving HCS (mean age 84 years). Proportional-odds (cumulative logit) model was used to estimate the degree of association between dependent and independent variables.

    RESULTS: Loneliness and anxiety were more prevalent among the older persons living in RCF (loneliness: 69%, anxiety: 63%) than those receiving HCS (53% and 47%, respectively). Proportional odds models revealed that among the RCF and HCS respondents, the cumulative odds ratio of experiencing higher degree of anxiety increased by 1.06% and 1.04%, respectively, and loneliness by 1.13% and 1.16%, respectively, for 1% increase in the COVID-19 infection rate. Poor self-rated health was the most influential factor for anxiety in both RCF and HCS. Living alone (with HCS) was the most influential factor affecting loneliness. Experiences of disrespect from staff were more strongly associated with anxiety and loneliness in RCF than in HCS.

    CONCLUSION: Older people in RCF or receiving HCS experienced increasing levels of anxiety and loneliness as the first wave of the pandemic progressed. Older people' mental and social wellbeing should be recognized to a greater extent, such as by providing opportunities for social activities. Better preparedness for future similar events is needed, where restrictions on social interaction are balanced against the public health directives.

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  • 8. Johansson-Pajala, Rose-Marie
    et al.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    K Gusdal, Annelie
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Mälardalen University.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Trust and easy access to home care staff are associated with older adults' sense of security: a Swedish longitudinal study2024Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, s. 36830-, artikkel-id 14034948241236830Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: Older adults are increasingly encouraged to continue living in their own homes with support from home care services. However, few studies have focused on older adults' safety in home care. This study explored associations between the sense of security and factors related to demographic characteristics and home care services.

    METHODS: The mixed longitudinal design was based on a retrospective national survey. The study population consisted of individuals in Sweden (aged 65+ years) granted home care services at any time between 2016 and 2020 (n=82,834-94,714). Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were fitted using the generalised estimation equation method to assess the strength of relationship between the dependent (sense of security) and independent (demographics, health and care-related factors) variables.

    RESULTS: The sense of security tended to increase between 2016 and 2020, and was significantly associated with being a woman, living outside big cities, being granted more home care services hours or being diagnosed/treated for depression (cumulative odds ratio 2-9% higher). Anxiety, poor health and living alone were most strongly associated with insecurity (cumulative odds ratio 17-64% lower). Aside from overall satisfaction with home care services, accessibility and confidence in staff influenced the sense of security most.

    CONCLUSIONS: We stress the need to promote older adults' sense of security for safe ageing in place, as mandated by Swedish law. Home care services profoundly influence older adults' sense of security. Therefore, it is vital to prioritise continuity in care, establish trust and build relationships with older adults. Given the increasing shortage of staff, integrating complementary measures, such as welfare technologies, is crucial to promoting this sense of security.

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  • 9.
    Kroese, Adrien
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Hernlund, Elin
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Berthet, David
    Sony Nordic, Lund.
    Tamminen, Lena-Mari
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Fall, Nils
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    Högberg, Niclas
    Swedish University of Agricultural sciences, Uppsala.
    3D pose estimation to detect posture transition in free-stall housed dairy cows2024Inngår i: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Free stall comfort is reflected in various indicators, including the ability for dairy cattle to display unhindered posture transition movements in the cubicles. To ensure farm animal welfare, it is instrumental for the farm management to be able to continuously monitor occurrences of abnormal motions. Advances in computer vision have enabled accurate kinematic measurements in several fields such as human, equine and bovine biomechanics. An important step upstream to measuring displacement during posture transitions is to determine that the behavior is accurately detected. In this study, we propose a framework for detecting lying to standing posture transitions from 3D pose estimation data. A multi-view computer vision system recorded posture transitions between Dec. 2021 and Apr. 2022 in a Swedish stall housing 183 individual cows. The output data consisted of the 3D coordinates of specific anatomical landmarks. Sensitivity of posture transition detection was 88.2% while precision reached 99.5%. Analyzing those transition movements, breakpoints detected the timestamp of onset of the rising motion, which was compared with that annotated by observers. Agreement between observers, measured by intra-class correlation, was 0.85 between 3 human observers and 0.81 when adding the automated detection. The intra-observer mean absolute difference in annotated timestamps ranged from 0.4s to 0.7s. The mean absolute difference between each observer and the automated detection ranged from 1.0s to 1.3s. There was a significant difference in annotated timestamp between all observer pairs but not between the observers and the automated detection, leading to the conclusion that the automated detection does not introduce a distinct bias. We conclude that the model is able to accurately detect the phenomenon of interest and that it is equatable to an observer.

  • 10.
    Marina, Héctor
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Ren, Keni
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Hansson, Ida
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Fikse, Freddy
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Nielsen, Per Peetz
    RISE Research Institute of Sweden; RISE Ideon, Lund.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    New insight into social relationships in dairy cows, and how time of birth, parity and relatedness affect spatial interactions later in life2024Inngår i: Journal of Dairy Science, ISSN 0022-0302, E-ISSN 1525-3198, Vol. 107, nr 2, s. 1110-1123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interactions between cows play a fundamental role in the daily activities of dairy cattle. Real-time location systems provide on a continuous and automated basis information about the position of individual cows inside barns, offering a valuable opportunity to monitor dyadic social contacts. Understanding dyadic social interactions could be applied to enhance the stability of the social structure promoting animal welfare and to model disease transmission in dairy cattle. This study aimed to identify the impact of different cow characteristics on the likelihood of the formation and persistence of social contacts in dairy cattle. The individual position of the lactating cows was automatically collected once per second for 2 weeks, using an ultra-wideband system on a Swedish commercial farm consisting of nearly 200 dairy cows inside a free-stall barn. Social networks were constructed using the position data of 149 cows with available information on all characteristics during the study period. Social contacts were considered as a binary variable indicating whether a cow pair was within 2.5 m of each other for at least 10 min per day. The role of cow characteristics in social networks was studied by applying separable temporal exponential random graph models. Our results revealed that cows of the same parity interacted more consistently, as well as those born within 7 d of each other or are closely related by pedigree. The repeatability of the topological parameters indicated a consistent short-term stability of the individual animal roles within the social network structure. Additional research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing the long-term evolution of social contacts among dairy cattle and to investigate the relationship between these networks and the transmission of diseases in the dairy cattle population.

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  • 11. Marjanovic, J.
    et al.
    Mulder, H. A.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    de Koning, D. -J
    Bijma, P.
    Capturing indirect genetic effects on phenotypic variability: Competition meets canalization2022Inngår i: Evolutionary Applications, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 694-705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenotypic variability of a genotype is relevant both in natural and domestic populations. In the past two decades, variability has been studied as a heritable quantitative genetic trait in its own right, often referred to as inherited variability or environmental canalization. So far, studies on inherited variability have only considered genetic effects of the focal individual, that is, direct genetic effects on inherited variability. Observations from aquaculture populations and some plants, however, suggest that an additional source of genetic variation in inherited variability may be generated through competition. Social interactions, such as competition, are often a source of Indirect Genetic Effects (IGE). An IGE is a heritable effect of an individual on the trait value of another individual. IGEs may substantially affect heritable variation underlying the trait, and the direction and magnitude of response to selection. To understand the contribution of IGEs to evolution of environmental canalization in natural populations, and to exploit such inherited variability in animal and plant breeding, we need statistical models to capture this effect. To our knowledge, it is unknown to what extent the current statistical models commonly used for IGE and inherited variability capture the effect of competition on inherited variability. Here, we investigate the potential of current statistical models for inherited variability and trait values, to capture the direct and indirect genetic effects of competition on variability. Our results show that a direct model of inherited variability almost entirely captures the genetic sensitivity of individuals to competition, whereas an indirect model of inherited variability captures the cooperative genetic effects of individuals on their partners. Models for trait levels, however, capture only a small part of the genetic effects of competition. The estimation of direct and indirect genetic effects of competition, therefore, is possible with models for inherited variability but may require a two-step analysis. © 2022 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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  • 12.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Mälardalen University, Västerås; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Eklund, Caroline
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge; Stockholms Sjukhem, Stockholm.
    Lövenmark, Annica
    Mälardalen University, Västerås.
    Clarity and adaptability of instructions preventing the spread of the COVID-19 virus and its association with individual and organisational factors regarding the psychosocial work environment: a cross-sectional study2023Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 23, nr 1, artikkel-id 1312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In Sweden, older people in residential care had the highest mortality rates, followed by those who received home care, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Staff working in the care of older people assumed responsibility for preventing the spread of the virus despite lacking the prerequisites and training. This study aimed to investigate the psychosocial work environment during the COVID-19 pandemic among staff in the care of older people and examine the factors associated with staff's perceptions of the clarity of instructions and the ability to follow them.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was employed using a web survey. The staff's perceptions of their psychosocial environment were analysed using descriptive statistics. The association between organisational and individual factors, as well as the degree of clarity of the instructions and the staff's ability to follow them, were assessed using multivariate (ordinal) regression analysis.

    RESULTS: The main findings show that perceptions of the clarity and adaptability of the instructions were primarily correlated with organisational factors, as higher responses (positive) for the subscales focusing on role clarity, support and encouragement in leadership at work were associated with the belief that the instructions were clear. Similarly, those indicating high job demands and high individual learning demands were less likely to report that the instructions were clear. Regarding adaptability, high scores for demands on learning and psychological demands were correlated with lower adaptability, while high scores for role clarity, encouraging leadership and social support, were associated with higher adaptability.

    CONCLUSIONS: High job demands and individual learning demands were demonstrated to decrease the staff's understanding and adoption of instructions. These findings are significant on an organisational level since the work environment must be prepared for potential future pandemics to promote quality improvement and generally increase patient safety and staff health.

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  • 13.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Mälardalen University, Karolinska Institute.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Olsen, Marie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Karolinska Institutet.
    Swall, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad.
    Boström, A. -M
    Being Treated With Respect and Dignity?: Perceptions of Home Care Service Among Persons With Dementia2021Inngår i: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, nr 3, s. 656-662Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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    fulltext
  • 14. Niebuhr, B. B.
    et al.
    Van Moorter, B.
    Stien, A.
    Tveraa, T.
    Strand, O.
    Langeland, K.
    Sandström, P.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Skarin, A.
    Panzacchi, M.
    Estimating the cumulative impact and zone of influence of anthropogenic features on biodiversity2023Inngår i: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 14, s. 2362-2375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of cumulative impacts is widespread in policy documents, regulations and ecological studies, but quantification methods are still evolving. Infrastructure development usually takes place in landscapes with preexisting anthropogenic features. Typically, their impact is determined by computing the distance to the nearest feature only, thus ignoring the potential cumulative impacts of multiple features. We propose the cumulative ZOI approach to assess whether and to what extent anthropogenic features lead to cumulative impacts. The approach estimates both effect size and zone of influence (ZOI) of anthropogenic features and allows for estimation of cumulative effects of multiple features distributed in the landscape. First, we use simulations and an empirical study to understand under which circumstances cumulative impacts arise. Second, we demonstrate the approach by estimating the cumulative impacts of tourist infrastructure in Norway on the habitat of wild reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus), a near-threatened species highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. In the simulations, we showed that analyses based on the nearest feature and our cumulative approach are indistinguishable in two extreme cases: when features are few and scattered and their ZOI is small, and when features are clustered and their ZOI is large. The empirical analyses revealed cumulative impacts of private cabins and tourist resorts on reindeer, extending up to 10 and 20 km, with different decaying functions. Although the impact of an isolated private cabin was negligible, the cumulative impact of ‘cabin villages’ could be much larger than that of a single large tourist resort. Focusing on the nearest feature only underestimates the impact of ‘cabin villages’ on reindeer. The suggested approach allows us to quantify the magnitude and spatial extent of cumulative impacts of point, linear, and polygon features in a computationally efficient and flexible way and is implemented in the oneimpact R package. The formal framework offers the possibility to avoid widespread underestimations of anthropogenic impacts in ecological and impact assessment studies and can be applied to a wide range of spatial response variables, including habitat selection, population abundance, species richness and diversity, community dynamics and other ecological processes. © 2023 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

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  • 15. Patxot, Marion
    et al.
    Banos, Daniel Trejo
    Kousathanas, Athanasios
    Orliac, Etienne J.
    Ojavee, Sven E.
    Moser, Gerhard
    Holloway, Alexander
    Sidorenko, Julia
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Magi, Reedik
    Visscher, Peter M.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Swedish University of Agricultural Science.
    Robinson, Matthew R.
    Probabilistic inference of the genetic architecture underlying functional enrichment of complex traits2021Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 6972Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Rautiainen, Heidi
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Blackwell, Paul G
    School of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Skarin, Anna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Identification of reindeer fine-scale foraging behaviour using tri-axial accelerometer data.2022Inngår i: Movement Ecology, E-ISSN 2051-3933, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal behavioural responses to the environment ultimately affect their survival. Monitoring animal fine-scale behaviour may improve understanding of animal functional response to the environment and provide an important indicator of the welfare of both wild and domesticated species. In this study, we illustrate the application of collar-attached acceleration sensors for investigating reindeer fine-scale behaviour. Using data from 19 reindeer, we tested the supervised machine learning algorithms Random forests, Support vector machines, and hidden Markov models to classify reindeer behaviour into seven classes: grazing, browsing low from shrubs or browsing high from trees, inactivity, walking, trotting, and other behaviours. We implemented leave-one-subject-out cross-validation to assess generalizable results on new individuals. Our main results illustrated that hidden Markov models were able to classify collar-attached accelerometer data into all our pre-defined behaviours of reindeer with reasonable accuracy while Random forests and Support vector machines were biased towards dominant classes. Random forests using 5-s windows had the highest overall accuracy (85%), while hidden Markov models were able to best predict individual behaviours and handle rare behaviours such as trotting and browsing high. We conclude that hidden Markov models provide a useful tool to remotely monitor reindeer and potentially other large herbivore species behaviour. These methods will allow us to quantify fine-scale behavioural processes in relation to environmental events.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Ren, Keni
    et al.
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Nielsen, Per Peetz
    Department of Agriculture and Food, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Lund, Sweden.
    Gussmann, Maya
    Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Interpolation Methods to Improve Data Quality of Indoor Positioning Data for Dairy Cattle2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Animal Science, E-ISSN 2673-6225, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 896666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Position data from real-time indoor positioning systems are increasingly used for studying individual cow behavior and social behavior in dairy herds. However, missing data challenges achieving reliable continuous activity monitoring and behavior studies. This study investigates the pattern of missing data and alternative interpolation methods in ultra-wideband based real-time indoor positioning systems in a free-stall barn. We collected 3 months of position data from a Swedish farm with around 200 cows. Data sampled for 6 days from 69 cows were used in subsequent analyzes to determine the location and duration of missing data. Data from 20 cows with the most reliable tags were selected to compare the effects of four different interpolation methods (previous, linear interpolation, cubic spline data interpolation and modified Akima interpolation). By comparing the observed data with the interpolations of the simulated missing data, the mean error distance varied from around 55 cm, using the previously last observed position, to around 17 cm for modified Akima. Modified Akima interpolation has the lowest error distance for all investigated activities (rest, walking, standing, feeding). Larger error distances were found in areas where the cows walk and turn, such as the corner between feeding and cubicles. Modified Akima interpolation is expected to be useful in the subsequent analyses of data gathered using real-time indoor positioning systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Ren, Keni
    et al.
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Per Peetz
    Department of Agriculture and Food, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Lund, Sweden.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Where do we find missing data in a commercial real-time location system? Evidence from 2 dairy farms2021Inngår i: JDS Communications, ISSN 2666-9102, Vol. 2, s. 345-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time indoor positioning using ultra-wideband devices provides an opportunity for modern dairy farms to monitor the behavior of individual cows; however, missing data from these devices hinders reliable continuous monitoring and analysis of animal movement and social behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the data quality, in terms of missing data, in one commercially available ultra-wideband–based real-time location system for dairy cows. The focus was on detecting major obstacles, or sections, inside open freestall barns that resulted in increased levels of missing data. The study was conducted on 2 dairy farms with an existing commercial real-time location system. Position data were recorded for 6 full days from 69 cows on farm 1 and from 59 cows on farm 2. These data were used in subsequent analyses to determine the locations within the dairy barns where position data were missing for individual cows. The proportions of missing data were found to be evenly distributed within the 2 barns after fitting a linear mixed model with spatial smoothing to logit-transformed proportions (mean = 18% vs. 4% missing data for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively), with the exception of larger proportions of missing data along one of the walls on both farms. On farm 1, the variation between individual tags was large (range: 9–49%) compared with farm 2 (range: 12–38%). This greater individual variation of proportions of missing data indicates a potential problem with the individual tag, such as a battery malfunction or tag placement issue. Further research is needed to guide researchers in identifying problems relating to data capture problems in real-time monitoring systems on dairy farms. This is especially important when undertaking detailed analyses of animal movement and social interactions between animals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Roos, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Vårdvetenskap.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Swall, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad.
    Boström, Anne-Marie
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Factors associated with older persons’ perceptions of dignity and well-being over a three-year period: A retrospective national study in residential care facilities2022Inngår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 22, nr 1, artikkel-id 515Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dignity and well-being are central concepts in the care of older people, 65 years and older, world‑wide. The person-centred practice framework identifes dignity and well-being as person-centred outcomes. Older persons living in residential care facilities, residents, have described that they sometimes lack a sense of dignity and well-being, and there is a need to understand which modifable factors to target to improve this. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between perceptions of dignity and wellbeing and the independent variables of the attitudes of staf, the indoor-outdoor-mealtime environments, and individual factors for residents over a three-year period.

    Methods: A national retrospective longitudinal mixed cohort study was conducted in all residential care facilities within 290 municipalities in Sweden. All residents aged 65 years and older in 2016, 2017 and 2018 were invited to responded to a survey; including questions regarding self-rated health and mobility, the attitudes of staf, the indooroutdoor-mealtime environments, safety, and social activities. Data regarding age, sex and diagnosed dementia/pre‑scribed medication for dementia were collected from two national databases. Descriptive statistics and ordinal logistic regression models were used to analyse the data.

    Results: A total of 13 763 (2016), 13 251 (2017) and 12 620 (2018) residents answered the survey. Most of them (69%) were women and the median age was 88 years. The odds for satisfaction with dignity did not difer over the three-year period, but the odds for satisfaction with well-being decreased over time. Residents who rated their health as good, who were not diagnosed with dementia/had no prescribed medication for dementia, who had not experienced disrespectful attitudes of staf and who found the indoor-outdoor-mealtime environments to be pleasant had higher odds of being satisfed with aspects of dignity and well-being over the three-year period.

    Conclusions: The person-centred practice framework, which targets the attitudes of staf and the care environment, can be used as a theoretical framework when designing improvement strategies to promote dignity and well-being. Registered nurses, due to their core competencies, focusing on person-centred care and quality improvement work, should be given an active role as facilitators in such improvement strategies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Roos, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Vårdvetenskap. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Swall, Anna
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad.
    Boström, Anne‐Marie
    Division of Nursing Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden;Theme Inflammation and Ageing, Unit Nursing Ageing Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge Sweden;Research and Development UnitStockholms Sjukhem Stockholm Sweden.
    Marmstål Hammar, Lena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för hälsa och välfärd, Omvårdnad. Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Factors associated with perceptions of dignity and well‐being among older people living in residential care facilities in Sweden. A national cross‐sectional study2022Inngår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 30, nr 5, s. e2350-e2364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of older people living in residential care facilities (RCFs) should promote dignity and well-being, but research shows that these aspects are lacking in such facilities. To promote dignity and well-being, it is important to understand which associated factors to target. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between perceived dignity and well-being and factors related to the attitudes of staff, the care environment and individual issues among older people living in RCFs. A national retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in all RCFs for older people within 290 municipalities in Sweden. All older people 65 years and older (n = 71,696) living in RCFs in 2018 were invited to respond to the survey. The response rate was 49%. The survey included the following areas: self-rated health, indoor-outdoor-mealtime environment, performance of care, attitudes of staff, safety, social activities, availability of staff and care in its entirety. Data were supplemented with additional data from two national databases regarding age, sex and diagnosed dementia. Descriptive statistics and ordinal logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Respondents who had experienced disrespectful treatment, those who did not thrive in the indoor-outdoor-mealtime environment, those who rated their health as poor and those with dementia had higher odds of being dissatisfied with dignity and well-being. To promote dignity and well-being, there is a need to improve the prerequisites of staff regarding respectful attitudes and to improve the care environment. The person-centred practice framework can be used as a theoretical framework for improvements, as it targets the prerequisites of staff and the care environment. As dignity and well-being are central values in the care of older people worldwide, the results of this study can be generalised to other care settings for older people in countries outside of Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Saeed, Nausheen
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Informatik.
    A multimodal deep learning approach for gravel road condition evaluation through image and audio integration2024Inngår i: Transportation Engineering, ISSN 2666-691X, Vol. 16, artikkel-id 100228Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the combination of audio and image data to classify road conditions, particularly focusingon loose gravel scenarios. The dataset underwent binary categorisation, comprising audio segments capturinggravel sounds and corresponding images. Early feature fusion, utilising a pre-trained Very Deep ConvolutionalNetworks 19 (VGG19) and Principal component analysis (PCA), improved the accuracy of the Random Forestclassifier, surpassing other models in accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. Late fusion, involving decisionlevelprocessing with logical disjunction and conjunction gates (AND and OR) in combination with individualclassifiers for images and audio based on Densely Connected Convolutional Networks 121 (DenseNet121),demonstrated notable performance, especially with the OR gate, achieving 97 % accuracy. The late fusionmethod enhances adaptability by compensating for limitations in one modality with information from the other.Adapting maintenance based on identified road conditions minimises unnecessary environmental impact. Thismethod can help to identify loose gravel on gravel roads, substantially improving road safety and implementing aprecise maintenance strategy through a data-driven approach.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Saeed, Nausheen
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Informatik.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Gravel road classification based on loose gravel using transfer learning2022Inngår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Road maintenance agencies subjectively assess loose gravel as one of the parameters for determininggravel road conditions. This study aims to evaluate the performance of deep learning-based pretrainednetworks in rating gravel road images according to classical methods as done by humanexperts. The dataset consists of images of gravel roads extracted from self-recorded videos andimages extracted from Google Street View. The images were labelled manually, referring to thestandard images as ground truth defined by the Road Maintenance Agency in Sweden (Trafikverket).The dataset was then partitioned in a ratio of 60:40 for training and testing. Various pre-trainedmodels for computer vision tasks, namely Resnet18, Resnet50, Alexnet, DenseNet121, DenseNet201,and VGG-16, were used in the present study. The last few layers of these models were replaced toaccommodate new image categories for our application. All the models performed well, with anaccuracy of over 92%. The results reveal that the pre-trained VGG-16 with transfer learning exhibitedthe best performance in terms of accuracy and F1-score compared to other proposed models.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Saeed, Nausheen
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Informatik.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Dougherty, Mark
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University.
    Jomaa, Diala
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för lärarutbildning, Pedagogik.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Datateknik.
    Classification of the Acoustics of Loose Gravel2021Inngår i: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, nr 14, artikkel-id 4944Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Road condition evaluation is a critical part of gravel road maintenance. One of the assessed parameters is the amount of loose gravel, as this determines the driving quality and safety. Loose gravel can cause tires to slip and the driver to lose control. An expert assesses the road conditions subjectively by looking at images and notes. This method is labor-intensive and subject to error in judgment; therefore, its reliability is questionable. Road management agencies look for automated and objective measurement systems. In this study, acoustic data on gravel hitting the bottom of a car was used. The connection between the acoustics and the condition of loose gravel on gravel roads was assessed. Traditional supervised learning algorithms and convolution neural network (CNN) were applied, and their performances are compared for the classification of loose gravel acoustics. The advantage of using a pre-trained CNN is that it selects relevant features for training. In addition, pre-trained networks offer the advantage of not requiring days of training or colossal training data. In supervised learning, the accuracy of the ensemble bagged tree algorithm for gravel and non-gravel sound classification was found to be 97.5%, whereas, in the case of deep learning, pre-trained network GoogLeNet accuracy was 97.91% for classifying spectrogram images of the gravel sounds.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Classification of the Acoustics of Loose Gravel
  • 24.
    Saleh, Roxan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. Swedish Transport Administration, Borlänge.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Datateknik.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    An Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Retroreflectivity Performance of In-Service Road Traffic Signs2022Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikkel-id 2413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The road traffic signs in Sweden have no inventory system and it is unknown when a sign has reached the end of its service life and needs to be replaced. As a result, the road authorities do not have a systematic maintenance program for road traffic signs, and many signs which are not in compliance with the minimum retroreflectivity performance requirements are still found on the roads. Therefore, it is very important to find an inexpensive, safe, easy, and highly accurate method to judge the retroreflectivity performance of road signs. This will enable maintenance staff to determine the retroreflectivity of road signs without requiring measuring instruments for retroreflectivity or colors performance. As a first step toward the above goal, this paper aims to identify factors affecting the retroreflectivity of road signs. Two different datasets were used, namely, the VTI dataset from Sweden and NMF dataset from Denmark. After testing different models, two logarithmic regression models were found to be the best-fitting models, with R2 values of 0.50 and 0.95 for the VTI and NMF datasets, respectively. The first model identified the age, direction, GPS positions, color, and class of road signs as significant predictors, while the second model used age, color, and the class of road signs. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Saleh, Roxan
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. Swedish Transport Administration,Borlänge.
    Fleyeh, Hasan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Datateknik.
    Alam, Moudud
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik.
    Hintze, Arend
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Assessing the color status and daylight chromaticity of road signs through machine learning approaches2023Inngår i: IATSS Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 305-317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The color of road signs is a critical aspect of road safety, as it helps drivers quickly and accurately identify and respond to these signs. Properly colored road signs improve visibility during the day and make it easier for drivers to make informed decisions while driving. In order to ensure the safety and efficiency of road traffic, it is essential to maintain the appropriate color level of road signs. The objective of this study was to analyze the color status and daylight chromaticity of in-use road signs using supervised machine learning models, and to explore the correlation between road sign's age and daylight chromaticity. Three algorithms were employed: Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The data used in this study was collected from road signs that were in-use on roads in Sweden. The study employed classification models to assess the color status (accepted or rejected) of the road signs based on minimum acceptable color levels according to standards, and regression models to predict the daylight chromaticity values. The correlation between road sign's age and daylight chromaticity was explored through regression analysis. Daylight chromaticity describes the color quality of road signs in daylight, that is expressed in terms of X and Y chromaticity coordinates. The study revealed a linear relationship between the road sign's age and daylight chromaticity for blue, green, red, and white sheeting, but not for yellow. The lifespan of red signs was estimated to be around 12 years, much shorter than the estimated lifespans of yellow, green, blue, and white sheeting, which are 35, 42, 45, and 75 years, respectively. The supervised machine learning models successfully assessed the color status of the road signs and predicted the daylight chromaticity values using the three algorithms. The results of this study showed that the ANN classification and ANN regression models achieved high accuracy of 81% and R2 of 97%, respectively. The RF and SVM models also performed well, with accuracy values of 74% and 79% and R2 ranging from 59% to 92%. The findings demonstrate the potential of machine learning to effectively predict the status and daylight chromaticity of road signs and their impact on road safety in the Swedish context. © 2023 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Stingo-Hirmas, Diego
    et al.
    IFM-Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Cunha, Felipe
    IFM-Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Cardoso, Rita France
    IFM-Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Carra, Laura G
    IFM-Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Statistik. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wright, Dominic
    IFM-Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henriksen, Rie
    IFM-Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Proportional Cerebellum Size Predicts Fear Habituation in Chickens2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 826178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The cerebellum has a highly conserved neural structure across species but varies widely in size. The wide variation in cerebellar size (both absolute and in proportion to the rest of the brain) among species and populations suggests that functional specialization is linked to its size. There is increasing recognition that the cerebellum contributes to cognitive processing and emotional control in addition to its role in motor coordination. However, to what extent cerebellum size reflects variation in these behavioral processes within species remains largely unknown. By using a unique intercross chicken population based on parental lines with high divergence in cerebellum size, we compared the behavior of individuals repeatedly exposed to the same fear test (emergence test) early in life and after sexual maturity (eight trials per age group) with proportional cerebellum size and cerebellum neural density. While proportional cerebellum size did not predict the initial fear response of the individuals (trial 1), it did increasingly predict adult individuals response as the trials progressed. Our results suggest that proportional cerebellum size does not necessarily predict an individual's fear response, but rather the habituation process to a fearful stimulus. Cerebellum neuronal density did not predict fear behavior in the individuals which suggests that these effects do not result from changes in neuronal density but due to other variables linked to proportional cerebellum size which might underlie fear habituation.

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