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  • 1. Adie, Bailey Ashton
    et al.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Mid-Sweden University.
    Amore, Alberto
    Reframing rurality: the impact of Airbnb on second-home communities in Wales and Sweden2022In: Peer-to-peer Accommodation and Community Resilience: Implications for Sustainable Development / [ed] Anna Farmaki, Dimitri Ioannides, Stella Kladou, CABI Publishing, 2022, p. 81-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alnyme, Omar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Behind the Miranda tool: A technical report on a decision support tool for tourism and travel investments2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a brief explanation of the MIRANDA tool and its links to the D.U.GIS platform. The report also presents system components and data sources used within the MIRANDA tool.

    The starting point for the development of the MIRANDA tool has been the call for better understanding of the scale and scope of tourism at the local and regional levels. The purpose of the MIRANDA project was to develop a micro-based decision support to be used by public planners for more efficient and sustainable decisions regarding infrastructure investments in connection with destination development.

    This report gives a brief introduction to the project before starting out with an overview of the MIRANDA-tool’s software architecture. This is followed by a description of the Coding languages, a section giving information on the Class libraries, as well as the type of data used. Following this are two sections describing APIs and the system model, before a final section concludes by giving an outlook for future development options for the MIRANDA tool.

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  • 3.
    Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Luleå Technological University.
    Lepy, Elise
    Brännström, Malin
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    Oulu University.
    Komu, Teresa
    Oulu University.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Österlin, Carl
    Heritage for the future – narrating abandoned mining sites2023In: Resource extraction and Arctic communities: the new extractivist paradigm / [ed] Sörlin Sverker, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4. Avango, Dag
    et al.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Rodon, Thierry
    The making and re-making of high modernist towns in the Circumpolar North2022In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918, Vol. 12, article id 101191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we explore the fate of high modernist architecture and settlement planning in the North, through the lens of mining towns in Sweden and Quebec. After WW2, cities across the world were subject to a wave of restructuring in accordance with high modernist ideals. The circumpolar north became the subject of some of the most radical examples, often described as utopian. In the Swedish Arctic, a renowned architect Ralph Erskine played a leading role. He combined functionalist principles, with ideas of creating settlements protecting inhabitants from harsh Arctic conditions, in harmony with the environment. Erskine...s ideas were implemented to a different extent in Kiruna and Svappavaara in north Sweden in the 1960's and in Fermont, Quebec, in the early 1970...s. Our aim is to understand the challenges of creating industrial settlements in the Arctic, with the capacity to attract employees that are needed for resource extraction and other industries. While Erskine's architecture in Svappavaara and Kiruna will be demolished, the wall shaped town in Fermont is still intact and expanding. By comparing and highlighting differences, we call attention to the threat of demolition of legacies of an era that has yet to be defined as cultural heritage.

  • 5.
    Bakas, Fiona
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Lusófona University, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Farmaki, Anna
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Women and peace: A gender approach to peace through tourism2024In: A Research Agenda for Peace and Tourism, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. , 2024, p. 157-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of women in peacebuilding and security is imperative. Even though much research exists on women in tourism and women in peace, scarce attention has been paid on the role of women in the peace through tourism research field and how gender roles influence this field. In this chapter, we aim to respond to this research gap and conceptually examine the role of women in the peace through tourism goal. Specifically, we explain the importance of women in peacebuilding before analysing their role in peace through tourism using a feminist economics approach. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of how the relevant research agenda can be advanced as well as offer practical insights that need to be taken into consideration if the peace through tourism goal will be more appropriately addressed in terms of gender.

  • 6.
    Bhattacharya, Shalini
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Williams Ubani, Chinonso
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the potential of Creative Tourism in Small Cities and Rural Areas in Dalarna Region, Sweden2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creativity and innovation are often associated with big metropolitan cities because the potentia lof creative industries and creative class is concentrated in cities. This study aims to explore the potential of Creative Tourism in small cities and rural areas in the Dalarna region, Sweden and explores the challenges of the municipalities and local creative actors in implementing Creative Tourism in the Dalarna region. Dalarna in Sweden has a rich cultural heritage with a well-developed creative industry, but it is not seen as well integrated with the wider tourism destination mix. For this purpose, a qualitative methodology is used to carry out the research. Data was collected from secondary sources like websites, google scholar, DMO (Destination Management Organisation) followed by semi structured interviews with the local creative actors, municipalities and DMOs. A snowball sampling method was used for the convenience of getting participants for interviews. This study analyzes how Creative activities can be applied to cultural tourism for small cities and rural areas in Dalarna to fully utilize their creative and cultural heritage potential and the challenges associated in developing the creative activities for tourism purposes.

  • 7.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Celebrating 30 years louder than hell: exploring commercial and social ‘Host Event Zone’ developments of the heavy metal festival Wacken Open Air2022In: Annals of Leisure Research, ISSN 1174-5398, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 116-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although respective research has proliferated, little attention has been given to the processual nature of festivals. By drawing upon the concept of host event zones, we examine how different spectators perceive the development of the heavy metal festival Wacken Open Air (WOA) with respect to the dynamics between the festival as a temporary place in which visitors enjoy spectacle and ritual, a commercial site and the everyday living space of local inhabitants. WOA has grown in 30 years from an initiative by a few friends for devoted metal fans into an internationally renowned music mega-event. WOA represents a consumption mediated ‘peaceful utopia’ where festivalgoers find social meaningfulness in neo-tribes. However, the accelerating mainstream appeal of Wacken Open Air for a non-metal fan audience, which significantly spurt by the media, challenges both regular attendees’ experience of this idealized space and the relationship between the host community and the festival.

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  • 8.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Building a spatial decision support system for tourism and infrastructure planning: technical solution and data integration challenges2022In: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1792-1341, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 94-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility planning in rural areas with a high number of tourists is important for creating sustainable destinations. By identifying mobility gaps in the transportation system, measures to improve the situation can be implemented. In order to identify such mobility gaps, decision-makers need a spatial decision support system (SDSS). The aim of this paper is to identify vital aspects of creating such an SDSS and to build a prototype. Two important aspects were identified, data and system design. The result of the analysis of available data shows a lack of data portals with disaggregated socio-economic and intradestination travel data. Further, it shows that data on points of interest (POI) and public transit data are primarily found in company databases. The system design analysis showed that most SDSS today are relying on public data and are not designed to integrate disparate data sources. They are primarily developed to be used by experts. Based on these findings an SDSS that automatically integrates both public and private data was developed. It comprises a self-hosted web mapping system and several geospatial tools. Our main conclusion is that both data and system design are important aspects to consider when building an SDSS for mobility planning. By using the architecture proposed in this article, new data can easily be incorporated in an SDSS. Furthermore, the system design also facilitates the involvement of stakeholders in the planning process. © 2022. by the authors. All Rights Reserved.

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  • 9.
    Brehmer, Jana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. MidSweden University, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism, ETOUR.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Understanding challenges in studying visitor’s compliance to recreational funding models: Lessons learnt from a study of cross-country skiers in Sweden2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first research output coming out from a newly launched project on Recreational mobility and trails in mountain destinations: Understanding Behavioural insights and New technology in relation to funding systems for high quality trails in a Swedish context, funded by the Swedish KK-foundation. The overall purpose is to analyse prerequisites for funding and management of trails as part of developing nature-based tourist destinations. This specific study looks at the challenge of understanding the consumer behaviour of tourists when it comes to the decision to contribute to trail funding by buying a trail pass and to understand if and how context of resort ownership, other visitors’ behaviour and the social norm, matters for the decision. With a quantitative approach and 346 filled in surveys we are sharing lessons learnt hwo to measure actual behaviour towards criticial questions.

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    Understanding challenges in studying visitor’s compliance to recreational funding models: lessons learnt from a study of cross-country skiers in Sweden
  • 10.
    Carvalho, Ines
    et al.
    Univ Europeia, Fac Social Sci & Technol, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Aveiro, Res Unit Governance Competitiveness & Publ Polici, Aveiro, Portugal..
    Ramires, Ana
    Univ Europeia, Fac Social Sci & Technol, Lisbon, Portugal.;Inst Portugues Administracao Mkt IPAM Porto, Porto, Portugal..
    Bakas, Fiona
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Univ Aveiro, Portugal.;Lusofona Univ, Portugal.;Univ Aegean, Greece.;Univ Coimbra, Portugal.
    Who are the language tourists?: A factor-cluster analysis based on language-related attitudes, beliefs, and travel outcomes2022In: The international journal of tourism research, ISSN 1099-2340, E-ISSN 1522-1970, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 150-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researching language tourism (where language learning is a primary or secondary motivation for the trip) is a growing field of interest as the importance of language within tourism experiences is recognized. Conceptually located at the intersection of cultural, youth, academic, and educational tourism, past research has focused on the analysis of tourists who travel to formally learn a language, missing out on an important number of tourists who travel to learn a language informally. To overcome this gap in research, cluster analysis of a sample of 1014 formal and informal language tourists was undertaken to segment them based on language-related attitudes, beliefs, and travel outcomes. Four clusters of language tourists were identified, called the Enthusiasts, the Devoted, the Pragmatists, and the Less-Committed. We propose that two axes are fundamental for characterizing and understanding language tourists, thus contributing to expand theory on language tourism.

  • 11.
    Conti, Eugenio
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    FOMO – Fear of Missing Out2022In: Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing / [ed] Buhalis, Dimitrios, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Conti, Eugenio
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Guides as Forest Experience Co-creators: Lessons Learned at Fulufjället National Park, Sweden2021In: Managing Visitor Experiences in Nature-based Tourism / [ed] J. Albrecht, CABI Publishing, 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the role of tour guides as human experience brokers of naturalness in forest areas. After outlining conceptual discussions around the role and tasks of the guide as experience broker, empirical findings from Fulufjället National Park (Sweden) are presented, showing the guide as a pivotal forest experience co-creator. Implications are discussed, with particular emphasis on how the guide's personal valuations of the forest, background and personal aims are reflected in the guide's pathfinding, storytelling and staging strategies, and on how tourists are positively impacted by unexpected and different ways of valuing, mapping and interpreting the forest landscape.

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  • 13.
    Conti, Eugenio
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    JOMO – Joy of Missing Out2022In: Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Conti, Eugenio
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Disconnection as a performative act in nature-based tourism experiences2021In: INVTUR2021 online Conference, University of Aveiro, Portugal, May 6-7 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives 

    A large part of the growing body of literature on the use of ICTs  and mobile technologies in tourism has examined the adaption and embracement of mobile technologies in tourism and the impact it brings in tourist experiences, often in advocative approaches (Neuhofer, Buhalis & Ladkin, 2012; Buhalis & Foerste, 2015). Nevertheless, an increasing number of authors have been commenting on the disruptive character of these technologies with the research pointing to the tourists’ loss of sense of place, disengagement and alienation caused by the perceived invasiveness of technology on the overall nature-based experience (Silas et al. 2016, White & White 2007, Gretzel 2010, Tribe & Mkono 2017). Although trends related to disconnection have been acknowledged in the form of ‘digital detox’ and ‘digital switch-off’ holidays (Elmahdy, Haukeland & Fredman, 2017; Gretzel, 2014), a relatively limited number of studies has looked into tourists desire to “disconnect” from ICTs and mobile connectivity in nature-based tourist experience (Dickinson et al. 2016; Paris et al. 2015). Current research regarding connectedness and disconnectedness in tourism experiences has followed rather dualistic, dichotomising approaches. For example, research has looked into the enforced disconnectedness as experienced in “technology dead zones” or as deliberate disconnectedness in technology-free zones (Pearce and Gretzel 2012); or technology as a barrier or an opportunity in experiencing the natural environment (Dickinson et al 2016). Dickinson et al. discussed also the dilemma of ‘to use or not to use’ mobile technologies as a “double edge sword” (p. 196) as experienced by users in campsites.ICT and mobile technology use and value creation in nature-based experiences along with the negotiation of tourists’ connectivity is a relatively understudied topic which would require further investigation (Dickinson et al. 2016; Gundersen & Frivold 2008; Vespestad & Lindberg 2011).

    In this paper, we examine connectedness and disconnectedness in nature-based experiences as positions in a continuum. Instead of examining mobile technology use in nature-based activities as something inherently “good” or “bad” which either advances or destructs the experience, we try to understand the different positioning that tourists can have on a continuum, which embrace both disconnection and connectivity as performative valuing acts (Baka 2015). In doing so, we move from the dominant post-positivist approaches of technology (Munar et al. 2013), which are reflected on how connectivity and disconnection are investigated in nature-based tourism. By adopting a performative view, we examine how and why subjective ideas of disconnection and connection are constructed and performed within the tourist experience of natural areas. This could contribute to answering the question of how disconnection is subjectively negotiated with being connected (Dickinson et al. 2016; Neuhorfer 2016). 

    Methodology Qualitative, semi-structured interviews at international visitors in Fulufjället National Park, Sweden, was the method of data collection. Interviews took place right after their visit to the park and were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. A total of 36 interviewees were part of this research.

    Main Results and Contributions Preliminary analysis indicate that tourists seek for some control over their connectivity while outdoors in the park. Although a clear articulation of the need to disconnect has been expressed during interviews, this is negotiated from complete disconnectedness to partial one, allowing information, orientation and safety reasons to use it. Furthermore, this negotiated disconnectedness was found to form part of a broader disconnectedness from their every-day life. Disconnecting from their mobiles and technology act as a performance of their escapism from their ordinary lives and work. This is better understood as a performative act of disconnecting from ordinary life and connecting back to nature and the inner self.

    Limitations 

    This research builds on a limited number of interviews in a single case-study. Further research would be necessitated to explore further the findings. The findings offer also the ground for the development of further quantitative surveys.

    Conclusions 

    This research contributes to a rather understudied field, that of ICT and mobile connectivity use in nature-based experiences with empirical data from Sweden. The resulting knowledge contributes to a better understanding on the mediating role of ICTs as contributors or destructors in nature-based experiences and visitors value creation in these experiences. At a theoretical level, the research introduces the notion of a continuum in connectedness/disconnectedness in nature-based activities and the understanding of it as a performative act.

    References 

    Baka, V. (2015). Understanding valuing devices in tourism through “place-making”. Valuation Studies, 3(2), 149-180.

    Buhalis, D., & Foerste, M. (2015). SoCoMo marketing for travel and tourism: Empowering co-creation of value. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4(3), 151-161.

    Dickinson, J. E., Hibbert, J. F., & Filimonau, V. (2016). Mobile technology and the tourist experience: (Dis)connection at the campsite. Tourism Management, 57, 193–201

    Elmahdy, Y. M., Haukeland, J. V., & Fredman, P. (2017). Tourism megatrends, a literature review focused on nature-based tourism. MINA fagrapport 32, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

    Gretzel, U. (2010). Travel in the network: Redirected gazes, ubiquitous connections and new frontiers. Post-global network and everyday life, 41–58.

    Gretzel, U. (2014). Travel Unplugged: The case of Lord Howe Island, Australia. In Proceedings of the TTRA Canada annual conference. Yellowknife, Canada, september 24–26. 

    Gundersen, V. S., & Frivold, L. H. (2008). Public preferences for forest structures: a review of quantitative surveys from Finland, Norway and Sweden. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 7(4), 241-258.

    Munar, A. M., Gyimóthy, S., & Cai, L. (Eds.) (2013). Tourism social media: Transformations in identity, community and culture. Emerald Group Publishing.

    Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D. & Ladkin, A., (2012). Conceptualising technology enhanced destination experiences. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 1(1-2), 36-46.

    Neuhofer, B. (2016). Value co-creation and co-destruction in connected tourist experiences. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2016 (pp. 779-792). Springer, Cham. 

    Silas, E., Løvlie, A. S., & Ling, R. (2016). The smartphone’s role in the contemporary backpacking experience. Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network, 9(6), 40–55.

    Tribe, J., & Mkono, M. (2017). Not such smart tourism? The concept of e-lienation. Annals of Tourism Research, 66, 105–115.

    Vespestad, M. K., & Lindberg, F. (2011). Understanding nature-based tourist experiences: An ontological analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(6), 563-580.

    White, N. R., & White, P. B. (2007). Home and away: Tourists in a connected world. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), 88–104.

  • 15.
    Conti, Eugenio
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University.
    Disconnection in nature-based tourism experiences: an actor-network theory approach2022In: Annals of Leisure Research, ISSN 1174-5398, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies question whether ubiquitous connectivity via mobiles represents an enhancer and facilitator in nature-based tourism experiences or a potential destructor to disconnect from. We argue that extant research approaches cannot fully grasp the complexity of the connectivity-disconnection dilemma, specifically how tourists appropriate, reinterpret, reshape, and negotiate with meanings inscribed in mobiles and how such negotiations link to valuations of nature-based experiences. This research adopts an interpretivist approach and uses actor-network theory to investigate negotiations of connectivity and their experiential meanings through field interviews in Fulufjället National Park, Sweden. Results reveal translations of social connectivity, facilitation of information and orientation as thematic cores of tourists’ embodiments of mobile connectivity. Results also show how the comprehensive tourismscape where such embodiments find meaning contributes to tourists’ definitions of disconnection. Such definitions comprise human and non-human actors on site, off site, and cannot be exhausted by essentialist dualisms between being plugged and unplugged.

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  • 16.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland; Mid-Sweden University, Östersund.
    Sámi tourism in marketing material: a multimodal discourse analysis2022In: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 115-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of tourism marketing communication is an important aspect that contributes to the understanding of how destinations and locals are portrayed. Through the so-called circle of representation, images can spread from tourism marketing to other media, such as tourism photography. Marketing material in the form of 118 brochures, 3000 Instagram posts and a guidebook portraying the Sámi population mostly in Swedish Lapland, but also in Finnish Lapland as well as Finnmark, Norway, have been collected and analyzed. The focus is on pictorial and textual elements and eight previously conceptualized themes have been used to guide the analysis. The focus was on the portrayal of the Sámi Indigenous population. The materials were collected through a direct qualitative content analysis and analyzed through a multimodal discourse analysis. The results show that there is still a tendency to portray the Sámi based on exoticism. This can spread to different media channels, but there are also discrepancies that hint at a gradual change in how Indigenous populations such as the Sámi are presented. The results of this study show the potential for the use of social media channels such as Instagram for Indigenous entrepreneurs and destination management organizations to educate, attract and entice potential visitors. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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  • 17.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    The connection between nature and Sámi identity: The role of ecotourism2022In: Routledge Handbook of Ecotourism, Taylor and Francis , 2022, p. 144-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Mid-Sweden University, Östersund.
    Values, emancipation, and the role of knowledge in tourism education. A critical realist perspective2022In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 36-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Values are important in education and their role in university studies is central in tourism teaching as well. How values are communicated to students is an important aspect of our axiological approach. In order to promote a fruitful approach to values in the students, this conceptual paper discusses the role of theoretical knowledge in achieving empowerment for the students based on the tenets of critical realism and on Gramsci’s philosophy. As students acquire disciplinary theoretical knowledge, they also develop the tools to make ethical evaluations. Knowledge is meant as the best possible understanding that we have of the world at the moment and it is always possible to achieve a better explanation of a phenomenon. Through an approach based on theoretical knowledge integrated with other creative ways to teach, the students can develop an ethical sensitivity and a flexible set of skills for both the workplace and academia. © 2021 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 19.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Edelheim, J.
    Crossley, É.
    The Role of Catteries and Boarding Kennels In Enabling Tourist Mobility2022In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 387-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pets are increasingly being recognized as family members, leaving their owners with difficult decisions about how to care for them during periods of travel. Tourists can either travel with their pets, leave them in the care of family or friends, or use a paid service provided by an animal boarding facility or “pet hotel.” We empirically explore the latter option and theorize pet hotels as enablers of tourist mobility in tourist-generating regions. User-generated content (UGC) consisting of textual pet owner reviews on Google Reviews and Facebook from boarding kennels and catteries across six countries are analyzed using qualitative content analysis. We identify three key themes revealing what users of these services emphasize in their reviews: first, catteries and boarding kennel enable pet owners to travel; second, these facilities alleviate tourists’ feelings of guilt or worry; third, pets are imagined to be enjoying their own holidays while at the facilities. This research note sheds light on a growing cultural phenomenon relating to tourism among a globally mobile population for whom pets substitute or extend their human families. © 2022 Cognizant, LLC.

  • 20. Della Lucia, Maria
    et al.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    A sustainable afterlife for post-industrial sites: balancing conservation, regeneration and heritage tourism2023In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 641-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giving industrial sites new life requires enabling change and overcoming change resistance. By cross-fertilizing relevant managerial and urban development literature, this study develops a theoretical and analytical framework that integrates several factors that can lead to the sustainable transformation of post-industrial sites. Case evidence collected using qualitative methods at the Great Copper Mountain WHS, Sweden, reveals a Managerial innovation model of industrial heritage regeneration which fails to fully engage the surrounding communities. This model is associated with early-stage post-industrial heritage tourism. The resistance, controversy and community misperceptions hindering the adaptive reuse of the site's industrial heritage and urban surrounds are mainly determined by institutional norms arising from the industrial monoculture. Change management entails working to dismantle lock-ins and empower change at different levels.

  • 21.
    Duncan, Tara
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    ATLAS Annual Conference review 20202021In: International Journal of Spa and Wellness, ISSN 2472-1743, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 106-108Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 22.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Business Administration and Management.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Do we need a new airport in the Mountains?: An analysis of soft and strong sustainability arguments2023In: Enabling Sustainable Visits / [ed] Mathias Cöster, Sabine Gebert Persson & Owe Ronström, Visby: Uppsala University, 2023, p. 53-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Business Administration and Management.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Stakeholders’ sustainability discourses of a tourist project in rural Sweden2021In: 29th Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research, “Shaping mobile futures: Challenges and possibilities in precarious times", 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is a concept that has been dominating developmental and political debates during at least the last two decades. It is a contested concept, flexible enough to match diverse or even conflicting viewpoints and interests. In tourism, this vagueness is related to the value-based character of the sustainable tourism concept. The concept is often related to broad and sweeping ethical and ideological considerations and to a simplified and harmonic view on sustainable development where inescapable conflict of interests between social, cultural, economic and environmental issues are neglected. The aim of this research is to critically discuss discourses of sustainability of a disputed tourist project in rural Sweden as communicated in mass media. More specifically, the research is examining the case of Sälen mountain resort and look on how the development process of a new international airport, inaugurated in 2020, was presented and debated in newspapers. The project was considered controversial with many proponents as well as opponents raising conflicting interests and points of view. We have analysed material in newspapers for the period 2011-2019. Preliminary findings indicate that the project of the development of an international airport is presented as hopeful and good with indications of intrinsic though utilitarian values. Pro-growth discourses around increasing numbers of international tourists and job generation, or even of positive environmental impacts are evident in the media. Opposition on the other hand, comes as debate articles and develops around tax-payers money, responsibility to future generations and environmental concerns. Discourses of weak and strong approaches and pro-growth vs degrowth become part of the discussion of the results to inform the theoretical framework of analysis. As this transportation project and the discourses around it analysed rely a lot on the premise of growth and international tourism, aspects of circularity become also part of the discussion.  The role of an international airport as a transportation mega-project to compensate for rurality and peripherality as well as social sustainability is evident also in the discourses. Aspects of locality and proximity are ignored in these discourses and pinpoint its relevance to circularity paradigm and its contribution in advancing sustainability discourses. 

  • 24.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Climate change and sustainable tourism in the new normal2021In: Tourism 21: Re-building Tourism – Continuities and Changes, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world is experiencing an unpresented health, social, and economic crisis situation with tourism reported to be one of the most severely hit sectors (UNWTO, 2020). COVID-19 pandemic is often discussed as an imposed pause of humanity’s frantic growth and an opportunity to reflect on our choices and future paths, an invitation to tourists and the industry to reconsider their options and adopt more sustainable practices in the after COVID-19 era (Gretzel et al., 2020; Ioannides and Gyimóthy, 2020) a view shared also by UNWTO claiming that “sustainability should be the new normal” in the after covid era (https://www.unwto.org/covid-19-oneplanet-responsible-recovery).. COVID-19 crisis although reduced or even eliminated tourism and travel opportunities for certain periods, it has also contributed to the first in history reduction in greenhouse gas emissions related to reduced travels and industrial production (Gössling et al., 2020).  As the world is now focusing in mitigating the adverse impacts of the pandemic and bringing economy and tourism ‘back to business’, there are also alarming voices that measures taken in the pressure of emergency to combat economic recession from COVID-19 should not contradict or jeopardise with long-term sustainability goals and SDGs should not be overlooked or neglected (Hall et al., 2020).  Besides the problems created, crises can be a disruption leading to innovations. It is a period of transition and innovation to combat a rapid crisis such as the pandemic while some of these actions and innovations, if adjusted adequately, can be useful in the long run to combat the less visible slow crisis like climate change and other sustainability challenges. In this research we look on knowledge and experience generated during the pandemic crisis to attain a more sustainable development of tourism now but very importantly in the “new normal” after the crisis. We look onto how companies in Dalarna and Gotland have responded to the pandemic so far and how they work with sustainability and climate change. In this presentation I want to explore the idea of cocreating knowledge with companies. How can we engage companies? What is relevant research for them? How can we help them towards a transformational approach to embrace sustainability?

  • 25.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the nexus between sustainable tourism governance, resilience and complexity research2023In: Tourism Recreation Resarch, ISSN 0250-8281, E-ISSN 2320-0308, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 352-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governance and complexity have increasingly become subjects of interest within research on sustainable tourism. Governance has been marked by a turn to more corporatist and networked policymaking structures. At the same time, the use of the concept of complexity in research on tourism destinations and governance is gaining momentum in an effort to address the links in increasingly networked systems as well as the interrelatedness of the multiple features of a tourist destination. Meanwhile, resilience has emerged as a new buzzword in research on sustainable development and governance which denotes the ability of a destination to cope with and adapt to change. This article reviews the literature on destination governance to identify critical issues and trends and discusses the relevance of complexity approaches. Evolutionary studies and research on resilience in a sustainability context are becoming part of this discussion. The review sheds light on the limitations and merits of each of these concepts, as well as on their nexus. The article concludes with some key areas for future research on destination governance. The aim of the review is to contribute to conceptual clarity and to advance the application of complexity approaches in research on destination governance.

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    Farsari governance paper
  • 26.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    HDa – Site Collaboration Review  2020-20212021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Pedagogy for sustainable tourism: reflections on the curriculum space of a master programme in Sweden2022In: Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism, ISSN 1531-3220, E-ISSN 1531-3239, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism education has matured from vocational to more liberal education while current trends underline the importance of critical studies and the shift of curricula to more action-oriented forms of education and citizenship education. However, a gap can be noticed between theory and practice in the development of pedagogy for sustainable tourism. The research reported here draws from debates in tourism education, education for sustainability, critical studies, and education for citizenship to develop a conceptual framework for pedagogy for sustainable tourism. This framework is used to reflect on the curriculum space of a master programme in tourism in Sweden in an analytic autoethnographic approach. The analysis indicates that the master programme addresses several aspects of the reflective vocational and reflective liberal curriculum space. It would also benefit from the integration of more experiential, action-oriented learning to strengthen the communal understanding of civil action and education for citizenship. This research contributes to the conceptualisation of the curriculum space for sustainable tourism. Such efforts are considered especially important in acknowledging the complex, dynamic character of tourism higher education. The aim is to invite a dialogue about the reform and evolution of tourism education to meet the needs for a sustainable future.

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  • 28.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Bakker, M.
    Carvalho, L.
    Climate change and tourism: scholars’ reflections on transformative research2023In: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 29.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Persson-Fischier, Ulrika
    Uppsala University.
    Paul, Leonie
    Uppsala University.
    Liu, Shuangqi (Olivia)
    Uppsala University.
    Climate change and sustainable tourism in the new normal: How can we learn from the Covid-19 pandemic?2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 30.
    Farsari, Ioanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Poort, Marije
    Persson-Fischier, Ulrika
    Sustainable tourism in the new normal: learning from covid experience2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 pandemic is often discussed as an imposed pause of humanity’s frantic growth and an opportunity to reflect on our choices and future paths (Gretzel et al., 2020; Ioannides and Gyimóthy, 2020. As the world is now focusing in mitigating the adverse impacts of the pandemic and bringing economy and tourism ‘back to business’, measures taken in the pressure of emergency to combat economic recession from COVID-19,  sustainability goals should not be overlooked or neglected (Hall et al., 2020).  At the same time, it is a period of transition and innovation; crises can be a disruption leading to innovations. This research develops around a new project funded by Tillväxtverket which focuses on eliciting the knowledge and the experience generated during the pandemic crisis to attain a more sustainable development of tourism in the “new normal” after the crisis. During the presentation, an overview of the project will be given and some preliminary results from interviews with companies in Dalarna and Gotland will be presented. We look onto how companies have responded to the pandemic so far and how they work with sustainability and climate change. The aim is to better understand vulnerability and resilience among tourism companies and contribute to a more sustainable tourism in the new normal. In this project we undertake a transformative approach which acknowledges the presence of diverse interests and tensions and which employs collaborative and disruptive methods to work with. It also integrates a transformative approach in analysing and discussing the preliminary results and the role of companies in climate change and sustainability in the new normal. Transformative approaches thus are integrated in the ontological as well as epistemological foundations of this research. Very importantly, methodologically we work with collaborative disruptive methods to trigger transformation in the system and enable a discussion with stakeholders around systemic changes in our understandings of development, vulnerability, climate change and sustainability

  • 31. Fleckhaus, Pia
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Sustainable recreational trails in Sweden: Is it possible to talk about ROI for hiking trail investments?2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spending time in nature is becoming increasingly popular in Sweden, as in many other countries, following the pandemic. In the Swedish context, the issue of funding investments and regular maintenance of recreational trails in nature is a challenge given the Allemansrätten (public access to private land), which hinders the closing of land and charging of entrance fees. Still, high-quality trails are demanded to serve as a driver for attracting visitors to destinations. 

    This report looks into aspects that are relevant for a discussion on return on investment (ROI) for investments in trails, and especially hiking trails. The first section offers an outlook to a few international cases that discuss access and funding types for hiking trails. Another section uses a mini-case to evaluate a few larger trail networks in relation to guidelines for the Swedish national framework for hiking trails. 

    This report highlights that people’s use of trails bring a number of benefits to society, mainly economic, environmental, and public health benefits. The economic benefits originate from spending by the visitors and direct investments during construction of trails, while environmental benefits come from reduced CO2 emissions and the public health benefits derive from reductions in health care spendings. Finally, quality of life and happiness values arise from the increased relationship between individuals and nature and social aspects. 

    The report notes that a proper evaluation of ROI for trails can be conducted, with consideration of the many loopholes. The benefit side incorporates such needs as considering visitors’ potential multiple purpose of trips and how to properly value and include the non-monetary effects coming from improved health, interaction with nature, and socializing with other people. Finally, the report discusses the benefits of trail use in relation to the fulfillment of the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs). We find that investments would contribute to decent work for all and sustainable economic growth, as well as a reduction in inequalities.

    A key point to emerge from this report is that, to properly use ROI for trail investments in practice, there is a need to further analyze the economic impact of hiking trail users in Sweden. 

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  • 32.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Visual representations of indigenous tourism places in social media2021In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 95-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focused the analysis on social media representations of Sapmi using the hashtags #visit-sapmi and #visitsapmi, which nuance official, top-down versions of the place communicated in other contexts, but simultaneously are more focused on visitors and their experiences. The results show that the making of the Sapmi region as a place and a tourism destination through social media content is an ongoing process of interpretation and reinterpretation of what indigenous Sami culture is and how it connects to specific localities. Future research should look at the broader understanding of places that can be accessed through social media analysis. The main argument is that visual communication is a very important tool when constructing the brand of a destination. Considering the growing role of social media, the process of place-making through visual communication is explored in the case of the destination VisitSapmi, as it is coconstructed in online user generated content (UGC). From a theoretical viewpoint, we discuss the social construction of places and destinations as well as the production of meaning through coconstruction of images and brands in tourism contexts. The focus is on how places are created, branded, and made meaningful by visualizing the place in a framework of tourism experiences, in this case specifically examined through indigenous tourism. We use a content analysis of texts, photographs, and narratives communicated on social media platforms. Regardless of negotiated brand management's efforts at official marketing, branding, and tourism planning, the evolution of Sapmi as a place to visit in social media has its own logic, full of contradictions and plausible interpretations, related to the uncontrollable and bottom-up processes of UGC.

  • 33.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Duncan, Tara
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Hosts, Hospitality workers and Sex Trafficking in the Platform Economy2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Economic Impact Analysis of Events: Landsmót 20162021In: Humans, Horses and Events Management / [ed] Kate Dashper, Guðrún Helgadóttir and Ingibjörg Sigurðardóttir, Abingdon: CABI Publishing, 2021, p. 1-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter aims to explain some of the basic principles and practices of economic impact analysis (EIA) of events, with particular focus on smaller size special events, and how results from an EIA are used in practice for decision making at various stakeholder levels. Data collected on site from 404 visitors to the special event Landsmót 2016 - the National Championship of the Icelandic horse - and the analysis of the event’s economic impact are used as an illustrative case. Starting with a review of the traditional approach to EIA, followed by a thorough description of the case, including details of data collection and descriptive statistics, the chapter ends by putting the results in policy relevant contexts for different types of stakeholders.

  • 35.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    MIRANDA 1.0: Ett beslutsstöd för hållbart turismresande och infrastrukturplanering2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en sammanfattning av resultat från projektet Mikrobaserade beslutsstöd för hållbart turismresande och infrastruktur-planering (Miranda). Utgångspunkten har varit de oklarheter och de svårigheter som finns i att uppskatta turismen och besöksnäringens storlek och struktur på regional nivå.

    Mirandaverktyget är ett mikrobaserat beslutsstödsystem för hållbar turism- och infrastrukturplanering som består av två delar, dels en teknisk plattform där flera datakällor som beskriver turismvolymer sammanförs för att kunna beräkna och presentera turismens ekonomiska effekter, dels en processmetodik för hur datakällorna samlas in och vilka aktörer i planeringssystemet som behöver samverka.

    Syftet med texten är att ge en lättillgänglig beskrivning av vad Mirandaverktyget gör, vilka aktörer som kan använda det och hur den nya kunskap som Mirandaverktyget producerar kan användas i praktiken.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstateras i rapporten att Mirandaverktyget i dagsläget är på dess första nivå av utveckling och att det redan nu är möjligt med ett antal analyser såsom:

    ·  en geografisk analys av turismens intressepunkter för en valfri destination/testområde i Sverige

    ·  en presentation av företag och dess ekonomi för ett urval av turistnäringens SNIs

    ·  uppskattningar av turismens volymer för ett valfritt studieområde

    ·  beskrivning av turistnäringens storlek och struktur från producentsidan och konsumentsidan

    ·  beskriva ekonomiska effekter av besöksnäringen och enskilda evenemang

    ·  initiera processer för samverkan mellan såväl privata aktörer som olika offentliga nivåer för turism-och infrastrukturplanering

    Framtida utvecklingsbehov för Mirandaverktyget ligger främst inom datakvalitétsförbättringar, kalibrering av indata, visualisering och dashboard samt särskild utveckling av vissa delar (fartkameradelen samt en för scenariobyggande).

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  • 36.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Sabah Al-Musleh, Azhar
    Investigating equine daily spending and use values: Competition vs. leisure2021In: Equine Cultures in Transition 2021: Past, Present and Future Challenges, Uppsala, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently developed socio-economic model for the horse industry in Sweden (https://hastnaringen-i-siffror.se/) estimates the turnover of the horse industry to 31,3 Billion SEK for 2016 (Heldt et.al 2018). The model enables an estimation of the impact for the national level as well as a decomposition to regional levels. Current data in the model is based on fairly crude estimates of average spending on horse-related goods and services, (e.g. boarding, veterinary services and horse equipment). 

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate daily spending and daily use values a horse owner spend and place on their horse depending on relationship. Data for the study was collected using a social media survey carried out during 2020/2021 inspired by citizen science in cooperation with the Swedish Equestrian Federation. The paper estimate spending patterns on various horse-related goods and services as well as daily use values, i.e. the value a horse owner places on the daily use of their horse for its intended purpose, which could be for pleasure riding, horse showing, or competition. 

    The preliminary results indicate that there is a huge difference in spending depending on relationship to the horse as well as noticeable regional differences in spending and use values. The results from this study can be used to extend the socio-economic model for the Swedish horse industry as well as inform service providers on values and willingness to pay related to horse-related goods and services.

  • 37.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Tydén, Thomas
    Waleghwa, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Planning for mobility and accessibility in rural touristic areas: A report on the Swedish case in InterReg MARA project2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes activities within the overarching InterReg project MARA – Mobility and Accessibility in Rural areas, by the two Swedish partners Swedish Transport Authority ( henceforth, Trafikverket) and Dalarna University. The overall purpose of the InterReg project was to improve the accessibility and mobility in touristic remote areas of the Baltic Sea Region by increasing the capacity of transport actors. The Swedish case in the MARA consisted of two parts: one looked to improve integrated mobility planning for the boarder region Sälen in Sweden and Trysil in Norway, and the other sought to develop GIS based maps to assist in transport planning. 

    The first part, the processes related to the Trafikverket planning method, Strategic Choice of Measures (SCM), was studied with the help of previous R&D and own interviews. The SCM is looked into from different perspectives, such as gender, regional development, financing, cultural clashes, and chain of command, thus identifying problems in the process and discussing countermeasures, all using the Sälen and Åre as specific case areas. 

    The second part highlighted mobility demand analysis using survey data collected on-site in Sälenfjällen, 2020 as well as mobility GAP analysis using a newly developed tool D.U.GIS for the Sälen case area. Furthermore, an innovative use of Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) was included as part of the on-site survey as a test on the methods ability to collect data that could improve the early-stage planning processes of Trafikverket’s SCM method.

    There are three key findings from the Swedish activities in the MARA-project. First, the maps produced by D.U.GIS can be used as analytical support in the planning process to better visualize a current mobility situation and mobility GAPs. Second, the piloting of PPGIS to improve on early-stage planning process showed potential, especially for pointing out gender differences. However, the study was conducted using a small sample and further research is needed to fully assess its potential. Third, the study of SCM identified problems in the process and discussed important issues such as early interplay between stakeholders, flexible way of working together, and continuity of the process. The study also highlighted perspectives on knowledge and competence development.

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  • 38.
    Hoarau-Heemstra, Hindertje
    et al.
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University.
    Pashkevich, AlbinaDalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.Wigger, KarinNord University Business School.
    Coastal tourism communities in transition: change practices, innovation, and governance for resilient futures2023Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue focusses on the transition of tourism in coastal communities to more resilient futures. A wide range of land- and marine tourism activities take place in coastal communities, and marine tourism, such as cruise tourism is often promoted as a way to develop the host communities and regional economies. Such communities are, however, particularly vulnerable to disturbances, unexpected shocks, and crises, such as climate change, depopulation, or pandemics. As well as identifying and developing desirable futures, communities need opportunities and activities, including tourism, that create economic value while sustaining livelihoods and restoring and preserving natural and social resources. Change practices, innovation, governance, and resilience are key themes and there is a need to critically rethink the connections between resilient communities and sustainable development in future.As the travel industry rebounds from the pandemic, it is expected that established coastal destinations will continue to grow and new destinations will emerge. While a great debate has emerged around the impacts of tourism on coastal communities and how to manage tourism development to ensure sustainability, we know relatively little about change practices of stakeholders directly affected by and involved in tourism development. Research has shown that, despite differences between communities, the way marine tourism activities are perceived by stakeholders, depends on the balance between different types of visitor segments (land-based, marine-based, organized, or individual travelers) and the development stage of the destination. There is a need for more knowledge on how communities develop change practices and innovate for sustainability and resilience as global anthropogenic transformations have made striving for sustainability more urgent and prominent. Consequently, understanding the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural impacts of tourism in coastal communities, is an important task that has recently been emphasized by several tourism researchers.

    In this special issue we encourage an approach that invites many more actors than the tourism industries into a coastal tourism ontology, which allows for telling tourism not as a uni-dimensional ´tool´ for development or ´threat´ for nature and culture of coastal communities, but as a messy, distributed, and collaborative achievement and a process of making-with, becoming-with and thinking-with a much larger collective than the usual tourism stakeholders. By including many stories and identifying the ideological influences that are at work, we can ask whose interests are being served by a particular ideology.

    This special issue is geared towards sharing research on the challenges and possibilities of tourism from the perspective of local communities in which it occurs. Academics so far only generated very few insights on how tourism communities are defining, governing, and implementing the principles of sustainability to prevent negative impacts, or to develop in a favorable direction. Consequently, there is a need to explore how local communities understand, engage with, and adapt to coastal tourism and sustainability, or even finding alternative paths to their future development. It therefore seems timely to examine the concepts of change practices, sustainability, resilience, innovation, and coastal community development at both organizational and community level. This call responds to the acknowledgement that tourism needs to be reoriented towards the public good, and that the types of tourism developed should be decided by the local community. We are therefore looking for voices from coastal tourism communities that discuss and imagine ways tourism can be developed to enable human, non-human and environmental wellbeing.

    Accordingly, this call for papers seeks original and relevant conceptual and empirical papers on how coastal tourism activities offer opportunities and pose challenges for tourism and hospitality actors, communities, regions, and coastal environment and how these stakeholders adapt, change, and innovate accordingly. We would like to encourage a critical dialog regarding these aspects and engage in the discussions of possible futures for coastal regions, conserving the co-existing development of tourism and other economic sectors.

    For this special issue we encourage submissions that that examine sustainability and resilience practices in the context of coastal, Arctic, and Nordic tourism and hospitality. Suggested research themes include but are not limited to:

    • Tourism communities: resilience and sustainability• Mechanisms for promotion of the engagement of local stakeholders with coastal and/or marine tourism• Governance and management of marine tourism development• Innovation, knowledge and change management• Institutional entrepreneurship, social movement, and collective action of tourism stakeholders• Employment and labor markets in the context of coastal tourism and hospitality• Emerging, innovative or participatory research methods and methodologies• Community leadership and collaboration in tourism and across other economic sectors• Role of land-based tourism activities in the cruise tourism development: lessons learned and ways forward• Adaptations of coastal tourism development in the post pandemic era and risk management• Role of public and private sector collaboration in adaptations and crisis management in times of global pandemics

  • 39.
    Jakovele, Elza
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    How COVID-19 affected immigrant housekeeper work in Sweden2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hotel industry employees have been one of the most affected people in the industry by the Covid-19 pandemic. Immigrant workers and women are not an exception. Considering the literature gap on investigating immigrants in hospitality in Sweden, this thesis aims to understand the immigrant housekeeper worklife post Covid-19. Using a qualitative approach, this study participants were interviewed to share and voice their concerns. Findings indicated that room attendants have faced poor job conditions, additional issues on seeking a job as immigrants, and Covid-19 only hardened existing working conditions.

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  • 40. Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Schilar, Hannelene
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Deconstructing the indigenous in tourism: The production of indigeneity in tourism-oriented labelling and handicraft/souvenir development in Northern Europe2021In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 16-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In literature on tourism in northern or ‘Arctic’ areas and on regions and places in northern areas, terms such as ‘indigenous’ and ‘non-indigenous’ are often used to distinguish people and places from each other. The aim of this paper is to deconstruct the ‘indigenous’/‘non-indigenous’ categories as well as the geographical categories to which they are linked, using examples from tourism in northern Fennoscandia and northwest Russia, selected as areas with circumstances that vary greatly both locally and regionally. Specific focus is on the construction of labels and restrictions of use, particularly regarding handicrafts/souvenirs as a specific object of indigeneity to separate it from other objects. The study reviews the processes in tourism for constructing, labelling, and valuing – and thereby also exerting power upon – specific conceptions, and thereby also on the contesting of such processes amongst broader, but often unacknowledged, local groups.

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  • 41. Lexhagen, Maria
    et al.
    Conti, Eugenio
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Instagramming2022In: Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Nowak, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Book Review: Handbook of Social Tourism2022In: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 101-103Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Nowak, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Book review of Çakmak, E., Tucker, H., & Hollinshead, K. (Eds.) (2021). Tourism Paradoxes: Contradictions, Controversies and Challenges. Channel View Publications. ISBN: 9781845418144, 192 pp.2022In: European Journal of Tourism Research, ISSN 1994-7658, E-ISSN 1314-0817, Vol. 30, p. 3017-3017Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 44.
    Nowak, Marie
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Mid Sweden University.
    Tourism Paradoxes: Contradictions, Controversies and Challenges2022In: European Journal of Tourism Research, ISSN 1994-7658, E-ISSN 1314-0817, Vol. 30Article, book review (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Testing the effectiveness of increased frequency of norm-nudges in encouraging sustainable tourist behaviour: a field experiment using actual and self-reported behavioural data2023In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norm-nudges are effective in encouraging sustainable consumer behaviour in various settings, by raising the salience of the target behaviour via social norms. Tourism presents a highly hedonic context, in which behaviour is primarily framed by self-oriented goals as opposed to normative ones related to the good of the environment and society. While the existing literature provides insights on the appropriate content of norm-nudges to raise the salience of normative goals, less is known about an appropriate frequency of nudges. It is important to address this gap in tourism because tourists need to be aware of desired sustainable behaviours, while overly obtrusive nudges may backfire. A field experiment was conducted to test the extent to which an increased frequency of norm-nudges has a backfiring effect on sustainable tourist behaviour, using donations for mountain-biking trails as the target behaviour. Results show that increasing the frequency of norm-nudges does not diminish their positive uptake, which suggests that they can be used more to encourage sustainable behaviour and enhance tourists’ experiences. Using actual and self-reported behavioural data, this study provides new empirical evidence on the effectiveness of increased frequency of norm-nudges in a real tourism setting, contributing to knowledge on norm-nudges and backfiring effects. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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  • 46.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Mittuniversitetet.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Financing recreational trails through donations: Management challenges, visitor experiences and behavioural theory in a mountain biking context2021In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitors in Recreational and Protected Areas (MMV10), Lillehammer, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended abstract

     

    The demand for outdoor recreation has significantly increased over the last decade, and along with this the pressure on financial resources required to develop recreational infrastructure in nature areas. Fiscal and regulatory policies to generate the necessary funding are often neither ideologically nor legally accepted in countries where the right of public access applies, which is particularly broad in scope in the Nordics. Local stakeholders are thus reliant on voluntary contributions of visitors as one funding source (Sandell & Fredman, 2010). However, since these are often insufficient to cover the costs of infrastructure development, new strategies are called for to realise the benefits of trail-based recreation in the Nordics, without impeding the right to roam and the welfare of the natural environment (Sandell & Fredman, 2010). 

    Soft policy approaches enhanced with insights from behavioural economics may offer such alternatives (Heldt, 2005). Recent research in this field provides strong arguments that consideration of social and psychological factors can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of soft policies (Avineri, 2012; Thaler & Sunstein, 2008).  Behavioural theories like the Norm Activation Model (Schwartz, 1977), Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 2002), and Conditional Cooperation (Frey & Meier, 2004) have thus increasingly been used to study different pro-social behaviours and to inform behaviour change policies accordingly (Testa et al., 2018). Despite the success of these in various field, behaviourally informed policies are still rare in the management of nature areas.

    This paper uses a field experiment approach   to test the influence of behaviourally informed messages on the donation behaviour of mountain bike trail users. The context is Sweden, due to the countries’ unique public access rights (Sandell & Fredman, 2010). The practical research implications concern the development of behaviourally informed policies to enhance funding for recreational nature areas in public access settings. We add to the literature by testing behavioural theory to encourage pro-social behaviour in a yet underexplored context of tourism, i.e MTB-cycling. 

    Research design

    The field experiment took place in Rörbäcksnäs, a small village located in the Dalarna county 35km west of Sälen. Renowned for its natural trail qualities, Rörbäcksnäs has experienced significant growth in MTB visitors over the last decade. The trail management is entirely based on the voluntary work of the local sports association, which uses visitor donations to finance the materials for trail upkeep. However, these are insufficient for further development. Currently, a signpost at the trail entrance invites visitors to contribute with basic information about the use of donations.

    The research was conducted over an eight-month period and involved a pre-study and the actual field experiment. The pre-study included interviews and cooperation with the local community group to define their goals and barriers for MTB development. Following this, we developed surveys and counting instruments for the field experiment phases (baseline + treatment phase) which were conducted during MTB high season, between June and August. 

    The baseline condition was the existing signpost with a suggested amount, and some altruistic appeals. Informed by attribution theory, NAM and equity-theory/reciprocity, we hypothesized that activating the pro-social norm to donate in a message, using a descriptive norm, suggested amount and framing increases the share of donations and donation amount. 

    Results

    204 responses entered the analysis stage. 

    Firstly, we found that the bikers donation behaviour was affected by the normative message. A little bit more than 50 percentages  donated (any amount) in the baseline condition. In the treatment condition this increased to roughly 70 percentages.. A chi-square test indicated a significant difference between the share of donators, which demonstrates that the normative message affected the donation behaviour. The amount also increased from an average of 64.71 SEK to 90.50 SEK.

    Results 2: Beliefs about others drive behaviour

    Secondly, running a regression analysis to explain the decision to donate (discrete yes/no decision),  we found the effect of the treatment positively significant at a 10 percent level, even after controlling for several other variables that might influence the behaviour. This indicates that beliefs about others drive the donation behaviour.

    This results support the thesis that normative information increase conformity (Goldstein et al., 2008). A variable capturing personal norm emerged furthermore as significant and adds positively to the likelihood of donating. The responses indicate strong personal norms in favour of donating. Lastly, ‘Kilometres biked’ was found to be another significant variable, meaning the longer the distance biked, the higher the likelihood of donating.

    Implications

    Based on our finding it appears that activation of socials norms to donate for MTB trails encourages higher donation rates and average donation amounts. Normative messages seem to appeal to conditional contributors while not deterring those that already endorse donations. This is consistent with our prediction and findings in other pro-social contexts (Frey & Meier, 2004; Heldt, 2005). Whilst the requirements of recreational infrastructure and existing support varies between destinations, our findings imply that normative messages can provide effective strategies to boost pro-social behaviour in a context where a certain level of social support towards funding already exists. As non-costly and freedom preserving policies, normative interventions can easily be implemented by those involved in the management of recreational trails in such contexts. However, for a managing a sustainable destination in which the recreational trail network is a key driver one needs to recognize the risk of backfiring on the visitor experience if the norm is made too salient. 

    Ourstudy is one of the few that tests normative interventions in a recreational public good context, and the first that is informed by several behavioural theories and links behaviour to the visitor experience. 

  • 47.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies. Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Financing recreational trails through donations: Testing behavioural theory in mountain biking context2023In: Journal of Outdoor Recreation, ISSN 2213-0780, E-ISSN 2213-0799, Vol. 42, article id 100603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The funding of recreational trails in publicly accessible nature areas is a prevailing challenge for the development of tourism destinations. In some cases, mandatory fees are neither ideologically nor legally supported, meaning that local stakeholders are reliant on the voluntary contributions of trail users. In light of the motivational barriers and uncertainties that hinder recreationists from donating, we tested behaviourally informed interventions to enhance cooperation in such settings. Specifically, we examined the effect of normative social cues on the share and amount of donations for mountain biking trails by conducting a field experiment in a rural destination in Sweden. Consistent with our predictions and previous studies, we found an increase in both the donation amount and share of donators after the intervention. Additionally, our research shows that the change in behaviour seems to be related to the belief about the donation behaviour of others, which can easily be targeted in policies. These findings imply that voluntary contribution schemes enhanced with normative messages can provide effective funding strategies for recreational nature-based trails. The importance of developing these strategies with regard to the local context is highlighted. Management implications: • Mountain bikers are, to a large extent, willing to contribute financially to the upkeep of trails through donations. Proving information about previous contributions and framing techniques to highlight this norm can further increase the share of contributions. • Contributions of approximately SEK100–120 (€9–11) per visit seem to be the norm for mountain bikers in Rörbäcksnäs. • Stakeholders involved in the management of recreational trails might benefit from making more effort to raise awareness about the possibilities to donate, for example through more channels and displays, and by testing different placements and designs. © 2023 The Authors

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  • 48.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    Nordström, Jonas
    Boosting Sustainable Food Choice with Carbon Labels in Tourism Destination Restaurants - A Field Experiment2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal and OriginalityFood consumption in tourism is a key contributor to the tourism industry’s carbon footprint. Yet, empirically tested interventions aimed at nudging tourists towards more sustainable food choices are lacking. 

    By conducting a field experiment in a restaurant at a major Swedish winter destination, we study how food service providers in tourism can boost the sustainable food choices of consumers via carbon labels. Our findings contribute to knowledge on the drivers of sustainable tourist behaviour. This has practical implications for providers aiming to trigger sustainable behaviour.

    Methodology We ran two workshops with restaurant staff to design an intervention (CO2e labels) aimed at triggering sustainable food choices of consumers. A field experiment tested the intervention over 6 weeks using an A-B-A experimental design. In the analysis, 9 menu items and 1449 data cases were used.

    Results and ImplicationsTheoretical implications concern the advancement of knowledge on the behavioural factors that drive sustainable food choices of tourists and the challenges and opportunities tourism providers face in facilitating more sustainable food choices. Practical implications concern new knowledge on the design of effective interventions and how these can reduce providers’ carbon footprint with sustained or increased profitability. Methodologically, we contribute with new understandings of field experiments designed in collaboration with restaurant managers and staff.

    Research Limitations The study was conducted in only one restaurant. Other factors that might influence consumers’ food choices (price, taste, personal disposition etc) were not measured. 

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  • 49.
    Nowak, Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Lexhagen, Maria
    MidSweden University.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Engaging workshops as a method in design of field experiments and behavioural interventions: The case of climate-friendly food choices at a Swedish mountain tourism destination2022In: / [ed] Anatoly Lvov, Raija Komppula and Jarmo Ritalahti, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that food consumption is a key contributor to climate change, making up around a third of emissions in developed countries. Tourism and hospitality, which accounts to around 8% of global greenhouse gas emission, is of high relevance in food consumption. Nudging or “boosting” consumers to choose more sustainable food and beverage options would be one way to reduce the industry's overall climate footprint. Field experiments in a natural setting provide the ultimate test to examine if such interventions could have the intended “boosting” effect. However, conducting a successful field experiment involves several challenges. Engaging the company partner is one key challenge where scientific quality criteria as well as practical and business-related issues in the implementation of the experiment must be understood and negotiated.  Through two initial workshops using Open Space and Design Thinking as facilitating workshop methods, more methodologically valid and practically effective behavioural interventions have been identified. Two restaurants serve as case in our study and restaurant staff, managers and researchers participated in the workshops.  Our findings so far, show that staff knowledge on sustainable food as well as on guest satisfaction are key factors for the implementation of the field experiments. Results from this study will have practical implications for tourism providers aiming to trigger more sustainable behaviour. Further, this study advances knowledge on the challenges and opportunities food service providers in tourism face in offering more climate-friendly choices to their customers. 

  • 50. Olsen, K.
    et al.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Selling the indigenous in Nordic welfare states: examples from Norway and Sweden2023In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indigenous peoples’ right to control representations of their own culture and heritage is unquestionable, but in the case of tourism activities other stakeholders’ understandings come into play. The nation-state is still an important organizational foundation for tourism. For the Indigenous Sámi people, who are located in four different nation-states, national destination management organizations (DMOs) have a crucial role in how their culture and traditions are represented. The current study examines the content of Visit Norway and Visit Sweden’s visual marketing of indigenous Sámi tourism products. Using content analysis to sort electronic images and related texts, categories distinguishing natural, human, and other types of relevant symbols were created. The marketing strategies of both countries reinforce the traditional connection of the Sámi people to nature and their reindeer. Visit Sweden uses a distinct notion of what we call the artification of the Sámi, where young female artists contribute to the modern image of this indigenous people. Visit Norway continues to use more stereotypical representations of the Sámi, with a focus on colourful outfits and traditional buildings. Thus, tourism marketing continues to reinforce simplified images of the indigenous populations of the Arctic and their relation to the nation-state. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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