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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Sanaz
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Sorry for Thanking You: Expressions of Gratitude and Apology in Favor Asking Messages of Swedish Advanced Learners of Japanese2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [ja]

    日本語を勉強する外国人の重大な問題の一つは語用論と談話に関連する難しさである。言語習得には文化的な要素が重要であるが、文化の経験がない学習者が基本的な間違いをする人が多人数である。スウェーデン人の日本語学生に支障になる事の中では相手に迷惑や失礼を回避するような方法で要求文を作成する事である。文化的な相違点を参考にし、スウェーデン人の日本語学生に要求の言語行為のDCTを使いインターネット調査を行った。調べるにあたって注目した点は依頼の場合でのポライトネス・ストラテジーという言語行為である。結果的にスウェーデン人の日本語学生の間違いは特の言語行為による事ではなく、国の社会が個人主義か集団主義かという事によるようだ。スウェーデンは日本と比較して個人主義な社会である事で個人を基本とするポライトネス・ストラテジーを用いる事が多い。

  • 2.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Bastu i vått och torrt2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Cross-cultural analysis of Finnish vs. Japanese politeness strategies2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Cross-Cultural Analysis of Swedish vs. Japanese Politeness Strategies2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. However, the attitude surveys I conducted over the past eight years indicate that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or unintentionally, Swedish students often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies as Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, with the elimination of the second person plural form ni to indicate a higher level of politeness reflecting this change. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and the culture they find themselves in.

    Cross-cultural data on polite discourse shows that the politeness strategies differ considerably across cultures. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely associated in Japanese (e.g., Ide 1989, 2006; Matsumoto 1988, 1989, 1993) Swedish speakers perceive respect and politeness as separate matters (Björk 2014; Brumark 2006; Utrzén 2011; Norrbom 2006). Studies have also found that while Japanese speakers are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, Swedish speakers tend to express respect through non-verbal actions or behaviors (Norrbom 2006; Pizziconi 2008; Utrzén 2011).

    Language and identity are closely related, and language use is based on culture and society. Understanding both one’s own politeness strategies as well as foreign norms can help learners realize how culture, language, and their own identity are intertwined. Learners of Japanese should therefore consider polite discourse as part of the rules of the language rather than as something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    Based on an analysis of cross-cultural differences in politeness strategies between Japanese and Swedish seen from both cultural and linguistic viewpoints, this study investigates politeness strategies used by Swedish and Japanese speakers by conducting attitude surveys and by analyzing the types of pragmatic errors made by Swedish learners of Japanese along with possible reasons for such errors.

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. Speakers can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if they are aware of differences in inter-cultural pragmatics. Studies have shown that pragmatics can be taught effectively by using appropriate methods and tools (Cohen & Ishihara 2005, Bardovi-Harlig & Mahan-Taylor 2003). By demonstrating the use of the Japanese honorific system more systematically and contrasting it with Swedish politeness strategies, I aim to motivate students to learn honorific expressions, thus enabling them to communicate more successfully in Japanese.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan and Sweden suggested by previous studies and discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish speakers’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from the surveys and error analyses I conducted. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be discussed.

     

  • 5.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Cross-cultural pragmatics: Challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to learners of L2 Japanese2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. Yet Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or otherwise, Swedish learners often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies in large part because Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and to the culture they find themselves in.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan, Sweden, and the US as well as other English-speaking countries as suggested by previous studies, and I will discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish learners’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from surveys and error analyses. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be proposed, which may be applied to learners of other languages.

  • 6.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Finland and Japan: A peek into shared histories through tango's migration, transformation, and assimilation2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Finrando to nihon no tango būmu kara kaimamiru ryōkoku kyōtsū no rekishiteki, shakaiteki haikei2019Inngår i: Nihon to finrando no deai to tsunagari: / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Ojiro Suzuki, Okayama: Daigaku Kyoiku Shuppan , 2019, s. 197-209Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    From Buenos Aires to Finland and Japan: The tango's unusual migration2014Inngår i: List of Abstracts for Conference Transcultural Identity Constructions in a Changing World, Dalarna University, Sweden, April 2-4, 2014, 2014, s. 19-20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, thousands of miles away from Buenos Aires, people crowd the dance floors of restaurants and dance halls nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also caught the heart of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not very well known to the outside world.

    Though some scholars have stated that the tango reflects the personality, mentality and identity of the Finnish and Japanese people, this may only be partially true. Moreover, it is difficult to generalize what the Finnish or Japanese personality is. I argue that the tango's success in these two countries also has significant connections to historical and social factors. As being a dancer myself, I also believe that the 'liminality' (originally a term borrowed from Arnold van Gennep's formulation of rites de passage) of tango dancing plays an important role in these two nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by the war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the  pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being (Selänniemi 1996) and “the regular occurrence of sacred-profane alternations mark important periods of social life or even provide the measure of the passage of time itself”(Leach 1961).

    In this paper, I will discuss motives and paths of how a culture travels, settles and shapes into a new form, using the tango as an example.

  • 9.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Improving Intercultural Competence for the Distance Students in Sweden through Online Joint-Seminars in Japanese with University Students from the United States2014Inngår i: Next Generation Learning Conference, March 19–20 2014, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden: Book of abstracts, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been quite a few studies (Helm 2009, Chun 2011, Schenker 2012, Kitade 2012, etc.) regarding the development of intercultural competence through online exchanges. Most of these exchanges, however, are between native speakers and learners of that language. The benefit of such exchanges can be maximized if both parties are learning each other’s language and they both have the opportunity to utilize the languages they are learning during the exchange, but often times, this is not the case.  Byram (1997) suggests that intercultural competence can be assessed using the following components: knowledge, skills, attitudes, and critical awareness.  If ‘intercultural competence’ means not just learning about the target culture, but also about becoming aware of one’s own culture (Liaw 2006), connecting students from different countries who are studying the same target language and culture would be an ideal setting in order for the students to evaluate both their own and target cultures critically. Having learners of a target language from different countries in a virtual classroom also helps create an environment which mimics the language classroom in the target country enabling them to experience studying abroad without leaving their home countries.

    It is often said to be difficult or almost impossible for students in distance courses to develop intercultural competence because of the lack of opportunity to study abroad or the lack of an international atmosphere in the classroom (Tyberg 2009). Thus, the goal of this study is to provide opportunities for all students, regardless of their circumstances, to develop intercultural competence.  In this study, a group of intermediate/advanced level Japanese students from a university in Sweden (all distance students) and a group from a university in the U.S. were brought together in a virtual classroom using an online video conferencing system.  Through their interactions and post-seminar reflections, I examined how students develop intercultural competence.

     

    The results from this study show that through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as of the topics discussed during the meetings thus satisfying each of the criteria in Byram's model. Not everyone has the opportunity to study abroad, but today's technology allows every student to be a part of the internationalization process, develop his/her cultural-literacy and reflect on his/her identity.

  • 10.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Intercultural communicative competence: the challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to Swedish learners of Japanese2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if she/he understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. The data I have collected during the past 6 years indicates that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While the politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to using verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the Discourse Politeness Default suggested by Usami (2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

                                                                                                                                                                          

                                                                          

                                                                                                                                                                          

  • 11.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Internationalization at home: Effectiveneess of online joint-seminars with overseas university students: Results from a pilot study2013Inngår i: INTED2013 Proceedings: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013 / [ed] International Association of Technology, Education and Development, IATED , 2013, s. 5242-5247Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Högskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting “internationalization at home.” In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during on-line video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as ‘Chat’ that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe® Connect™ help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students’ interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to ‘internationalization at home’.

  • 12.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Internationalization at home: effectiveness of online joint-seminars with overseas university students - results from a pilot study2013Inngår i: 7th International technology, education and development conference (INTED2013), 2013, s. 5242-5247Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent years, both the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education or Hogskoleverket (HSV) and individual universities in Sweden have been promoting "internationalization at home." In an attempt to make it possible for all the students to be part of internationalization regardless of their financial, family and other situations that prevent them from studying abroad, I have brought a virtual international classroom to the students studying Japanese. The initial pilot study was conducted to examine the interactions during online joint-seminars with overseas students. In order to eventually create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, I focused on finding answers to the following three questions: (1) How do the students from different countries interact during online video conferencing seminars? (2) What can teachers do to make the students feel comfortable in such seminars and maximize learning? (3) Do functions such as 'Chat' that are available in the video-conferencing system Adobe (R) Connect (TM) help improve communication between students from both countries? In the study conducted during the spring 2012 term, I examined the students' interactions during the joint-seminars using a video conferencing system. I analyzed not only the conversation during the online-seminars but also the chat during the seminars and blog entries as well as comments outside the class to see how they compliment the verbal communication. The positive feedback from the participating students indicates that, through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but also expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. The success of the initial pilot study implies a great potential in internet-based university education contributing to 'internationalization at home'.

  • 13.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Issues on cross-cultural pragmatics: Swedish learners' attitudes regarding the learning of Japanese politeness strategies2016Inngår i: Abstracts, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is considered extremely important in today’s language instruction. One can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if one understands the differences in intercultural pragmatics. This study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse and how Japanese politeness strategies can be taught effectively to the Swedish learners of Japanese. Politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations. It has been indicated in the course evaluations and comments from the students that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and they often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. As a consequence, Swedish students often fail to utilize appropriate politeness strategies when speaking in Japanese. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not interchangeable and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. Thus Swedish Learners of Japanese should consider politeness discourse as a part of the rules of the language rather than something that can be modified based on one’s opinion. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors I have complied during the past six years have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies in Swedish and in Japanese context. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express respect more through non-verbal actions or behaviors. This paper suggests ways in which learners of Japanese may overcome these differences.

  • 14.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Language education and identity: Discussing identity in the Sweden-U.S. online joint seminars2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Migration, transformation, and the homecoming of a culture: Tango in Finland and Japan as an example2016Inngår i: Migration, transformation, and the homecoming of a culture: Tango in Finland and Japan as an example, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Finland, a great distance away from Buenos Aires, people crowd dance floors nightly to dance to tango music, while the tango has also captured the hearts of the people on the other side of the world in Japan. The popularity of the tango in both Finland and Japan, however, is not so familiar to the outside world.

     

    In this paper, I will discuss the motives and the paths by which a culture travels, settles and shapes itself into a new form, using the tango as an example. First, the tango’s relationship to society and history in each of these countries are explored using archives and literature. Then such aspects as inner emotion, solitude, illusion, and liminality are analyzed through data collected from surveys, interviews, and forum discussions in the SNS.

     

    Some scholars suggest that the tango reflects the personality, mentality, and identity of the Finnish and Japanese peoples. Though this may be partially true, it is difficult to generalize about the Finnish or Japanese personality. It is argued, rather, that the tango's prosperity in these two countries has significant connections to some shared historical and social factors. I also propose that the 'liminality' of tango dancing plays an important role in both nations that went through difficult struggles to recover from the damage caused by war. “The liminal phase is considered sacred, anomalous, abnormal and dangerous, while the pre- and post-liminal phases are normal and a profane state of being” (Selänniemi 1996). Tango dancing can be considered an escape or a vacation from the hardship of everyday life as well as a fuel which enables the people to keep moving forward.

    The tango’s transformation in Finland and Japan, and its homecoming back to Argentina are also examined. The results reveal some of the unusual paths a culture can travel.

  • 16.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Politeness as a part of intercultural competence2015Inngår i: Japanese Language Education in Europe, ISSN 1745-7165, Vol. 20, s. 395-396Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. While politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between the speakers, and situations, Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning the polite/honorific discourse and often view these negatively as Swedish society is one of the most egalitarian in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural/social norms are not modifiable based on one’s opinion and that one must adapt to the language one is using and the culture one is in. The current study investigates the differences in politeness strategies between Swedish and Japanese discourse. Student surveys and analysis of students’ errors have revealed clear differences in the use of politeness strategies. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely intertwined in Japanese; the Swedes perceive respect and politeness as separate matters. It is also found that while the Japanese are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, the Swedes express their respect more through non-verbal actions/behaviors. Various Japanese and Swedish utterances have also been examined to determine the DP default (Usami 2006) in order to systematize the politeness strategies in ways similar to grammatical rules.

  • 17.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Review Understanding Intercultural Communication (Second Edition) Stella Ting-Toomey and Leeva C. Chung (2012)2015Inngår i: Sociolinguistic Studies, ISSN 1750-8649, E-ISSN 1750-8657, Vol. 9, nr 4, s. 507-513Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Tangon huumaa: Musiikki ja tanssi mielenmaisemien siltana2019Inngår i: Suomi ja Japani: Kaukaiset mutta läheiset / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Laura Ipatti, Helsinki: Edita Publishing Oy, 2019, s. 190-199Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    The Development of Identity and Intercultural Communicative Competence in NNS-NNS Online Interaction2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As demonstrated in recent studies of Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), authentic intercultural contexts can be created by using online exchanges to enhance students’ foreign language learning and identity. While research on telecollaboration and identity has mainly focused on NS-NNS interactions, this study examines NNS-NNS telecollaborative interactions.

    The study examines two sets of NNSs with different L1 backgrounds, namely NNSs of Japanese from universities in the US and Sweden. The project combines telecollaborative activities consisting of both asynchronous written (blogs) and synchronous verbal (online discussions).

    The Intercultural Dialogue (ID) model (Houghton, 2012) was used to evaluate the outcome. The model consists of five stages: 1) Analysis of Self; 2) Analysis of Other; 3) Critical analysis of value similarities (or differences) between Self and Other; 4) Critical evaluation of the values of Self and Other relative to a standard; and 5) Identity development.

    Results indicate that through their written and oral discussions, the students’ choice of words constructed images of the person they are or wished to be perceived as while building an understanding of their own identities. This shows that language use does not necessarily reflect who one is but is used to contribute to the construction of one’s identities. We also observed that there exists a stage prior to the first stage in the ID-model, namely a “no-awareness” stage. Furthermore, our findings indicate that Stage 1 “Awareness of Self” occurs as two sub-stages: 1-a) Awareness of single identity; and 1-b) Awareness of having multiple identities. Our data also suggest that at one point, several students were offering different critical evaluations of Self and Other as a result of their own and the Japanese cultural standard not fitting the standard identity development model, suggesting that the multicultural nature of NNS-NNS interactions involving different L1 backgrounds can accelerate identity development.

  • 20.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Yuge no nakae, hi-nichijō no sekai e (Into the steam, into the dream): Tsūka girei to shite no finrando no sauna to nihon no furo (The Finnish sauna and the Japanese furo as rite of passage)2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ja]

    湯気の中へ、非日常の世界へ:

    通過儀礼としてのフィンランドのサウナと日本の風呂

     

    遠く離れた北欧フィンランドと極東日本。気候もそこに暮らす人々も一見全く異なるこのふたつの国に共通する熱い湯気の文化がある。フィンランド人が長い歴史の中で大切にしてきた「サウナ」、そして多くの日本人にとって欠かせない「風呂」。どちらも身体を清潔にする場所というだけではなく、宗教的・文化的意味合いや、癒し、儀礼とも深く関係していると考えられている。1998年にはフィンランドのユヴァスキュラで風呂とサウナに関するエキシビションも催されている。

    本発表では、フィンランドと日本での過去20年間のフィールドワークの結果をもとに、サウナと風呂が、それぞれどのようにそこに暮らす人々の人生や日々の生活の節目に行われる通過儀礼(van Gennep 1909)として機能しているのかを明らかにし、サウナと風呂文化に共通して見られるリミナリティー (Turner 1974)を「マクロモデルとマイクロモデル」(Niendorf 2000)を用いて文化人類学的観点から検証する。

  • 21.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Investigating the use of the verbs ”naru” in Japanese and ”bli” in Swedish through translation2013Inngår i: Nordic Association of Japanese and Korean Studies (NAJAKS): Abstracts for 2013, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how use of the Swedish verb “bli” corresponds to the Japanese verb “naru” using translated materials as a corpus.  

     

    Japanese is said to be a situation-oriented language, while English is person-oriented.

              e.g., Mariko wa kekkon surukotoni NARImashita.

                       (It became so that Mariko will be married.)

                       ‘Mariko will get married’ in English.

     

    The Swedish verb ”bli” usually means ’to become’ or ’to be (as an auxiliary verb),’ yet is used more widely than these English meanings.

              e.g., Det blir 100 kronor, tack.

                       (100 kr ni NARI-masu.)

                       ’It makes/will be 100kr.’

     

    Examples like this lead to the observation that ”bli” is used in a context more similar to the Japanese verb ”naru.” than English verb “become.” Comparison of some translated materials also shows that “bli” is often translated into Japanese as “naru” while it is more likely to be replaced by a transitive or intransitive verb in English.

     

    However, erros such as

               *okoru ni NARU (verb ‘to be upset’+naru)

                  [okoru: a verb]

               *annshin ni NARU (noun ‘feeling at ease’ +naru)   

                  [annshin suru: a verb derived from a noun]

    which are made by Swedish learners of Japanese indicate that the translation of “bli” into Japanese is not so straight forward.

     

    In this study, we examined the following questions:

    1. How is ”bli” translated into Japanese/English?
    2. If ”bli” is translated into ”naru” in Japanese, in what grammatical context(s) does it occur?
    3. How are these variations related to the errors students make in translating ”bli” into  Japanese?

     

    In order to examine the above research questions, we conducted two separate studies:

     

    Study I: Examining how Swedish bli is translated into Japanese in literature translation

     

    Using children´s novels “Sommerboken” by Tove Jansson and “Pippi Långstrump” by Astrid Lindgren as the data source, all the sentences that contain bli were extracted along with their translations into English and Japanese. The extracted sentences were, then, categorized according to the various types of usage of the verb bli, and the translation into Japanese for each of those categories was analyzed.

     

    Study II: The translation of various uses of bli into Japanese by Swedish students

     

    Study I above showed usages of the verb bli in various context. In Study II, we tried to see if some of these usages cause more problems than the others for the Swedish students. The students in the Japanese-English translation course at Högskolan Dalarna (Sweden) were given 7 Swedish sentences containing various usages of bli, and were asked to translate them into Japanese. Then the accuracy of the translation and the translation techniques used were analyzed.

     

    The results from Study I showed that there were numerous usages of the verb bli, such as describing conditions, describing the changes of conditions, indicating certain emotional status, and so on, which naturally led to the variety in Japanese translation. Furthermore,  apart from the most literal translation, which is to use the verb naru, various types of compound verbs (main verb – help verb combinations) were used in order to express different nuances.

     

    In some of the usages identified above, translation shifts were obligatory when translated into Japanese; i.e. the literal translation was impossible, and the translator has to make minor changes from the ST (source text) to the TT (target text), such as changes of grammatical categories or of voice (e.g. passive to active).

     

    The results from the Study II show that the sentences which require more complicated translation shifts tend to cause more errors when students translate them into Japanese.

     

    Clarifying how the use of “bli” correlates with the use of “naru” will not only help Swedish students understand the use of the somewhat difficult concept of “naru,” but also help translators deal with this issue. Finding a more systematic way to translate “bli” into Japanese using more tokens from various genres would be necessary in order to achieve this.

     

  • 22.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Saito, Rieko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Creating an effective environment for development of intercultural competence through online Japanese Language exchanges: How it is done and what it takes2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing intercultural competence has been an important focal point of university education especially in the area of foreign language instruction. In order to incorporate intercultural competence in our Japanese language instruction, we have brought together students studying Japanese from the U.S., Korea and China to join our students studying Japanese in Sweden for online exchanges. In order to create an ideal virtual classroom environment in an international setting, we have examined how students from different countries interact during the online exchanges in Japanese. In this presentation, we will discuss the process, strength, difficulties and potential of such exchanges.

  • 23.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.
    Beikoku to sueeden no nihongo gakushusha wo tsunaida jissen: aidentiti wo teemanishita torikumi2016Inngår i: : , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [ja]

    言語教育におけるソーシャルネットワーキングアプローチ(以下 SNA)では、「他者の発見、自己の発見、つながりの実現」を理念に、従来の「わかる」「できる」能力に加え、新たに「つながる」能力を 重要視する(當作 2013)。SNAに基づいてことばと文化を学ぶことで、学習者の人間的成長が促され、社会力も獲得される。  本発表では、上記の教育理念を念頭に、異なる文化圏で学ぶ日本語学習者をオンラインでつないだ取り組みについて紹介する。実践には米国とスウェーデンの大学で中上級レベルの日本語を学ぶ学習者10名が参加した。1学期間、アイデンティティをテーマに授業を行い、非同期型ツールであるブログ、同期型ツールであるビデオ会議システムを利用して双方を継続的につないだ。  アンケート、インタビュー、観察データを分析した結果、学習者はこのようなオンラインでの交流により、言語面だけでなく、自己・他者のアイデンティティや文化について肯定的な視点を持つようになるという変化が見られた。これは自己・他者の新たな発見といえる。また、参加者は、日本に興味があるという共通点があるため、様々なトピックについて積極的に探求し、互いに教え学びあう関係を築くことが容易にできた。さらに「つながり」が形成されていくに従い、日本だけでなく米国やスウェーデンについてもより知りたいと考えるようになり、好奇心の幅が広がった。これはつながりの理想的な実現であるといえよう。  通常、海外の日本語学習者は、日本の英語学習者と交流するケースが多いが、この場合、母語話者に教えてもらうという一方向的な形のコミュニケーションをとりやすい。一方、異なる場所で学ぶ日本語学習者同士の交流の場合、対等な形でのコミュニケーションがとれ、場所によって日本の捉え方も違うことに気づくことで、多元的な視点で日本を捉え直すきっかけにもなる。これは学習者の言語・文化面、精神面での成長にとって大きな意義がある。発表では、学習者、教師だけでなく、教室内外の多くの人たちをつなぐことを可能にするオンラインツールについて紹介し、その効果的な使い方や交流を成功させるための具体的な提案も行う。

  • 24.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Identity (re)construction and improvement in intercultural competence through synchronous and asynchronous telecollaboration: Connecting Japanese language learners in the United States and Sweden2019Inngår i: Technology-supported Learning In and Out of the Japanese Language Classroom: Advances in Pedagogy, Teaching and Research / [ed] E. Zimmerman & A. McMeekin, Multilingual Matters, 2019, s. 111-145Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    The University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Improving intercultural competence through online joint-seminars with university students from the U.S. and Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There have been quite a few studies regarding the development of intercultural competence through online exchanges (Helm 2009, Chun 2011, Schenker 2012, Kitade 2012, etc.). Most of these exchanges, however, are between native speakers and learners of that language. The benefit of such exchanges may be maximized if both parties are learning the same foreign language and have the opportunity to utilize the language they are learning during the interaction. As defined by Byram (1997) and Liaw (2006), 'intercultural competence' is not just learning about the target culture, but also about becoming aware of one's own culture, and connecting students from different countries who are studying the same target language and culture would be an ideal setting in order for the students to evaluate both their own and target cultures critically.

    It is often said to be difficult or almost impossible for students in distance courses to develop intercultural competence because of the lack of opportunity to study abroad or the lack of an international atmosphere in the classroom (Tyberg 2009). Thus another goal of this study is to investigate the possibility of providing opportunities for all students, regardless of their circumstances, to develop intercultural competence.

    During the spring semester 2012, a group of fourth level (intermediate to advanced level) Japanese students from Gettysburg College in the United States and from Högskolan Dalarna (Dalarna University) in Sweden took part in a study of how Japanese learners from different countries benefit from communicating with each other in Japanese. Throughout the term, the students exchanged ideas and views regarding the topics surrounding the issues of “identity” via blogs and joint-seminars using an online video conferencing system. The topic “identity” was selected since both parties can discuss the issue from different perspectives such as 'foreigners in Japan', 'foreigners in the U.S./Sweden', 'Japanese people living in the U.S./Sweden', as well as from the students' 'own identities.'

    The student survey showed that the students from both Sweden and the United States found the project to be fun, interesting and a new and positive experience. One student epitomized the comments from the majority of the participants. – “We were actively discussing identity with students raised in another culture in a class setting, which lends an air of understanding and interest to the discussion.”

    The results from this study suggest that through interactions with university students from other countries who study Japanese at the same level, the students can gain not only Japanese skills, but expand their horizons and deepen their understanding of another culture as well as the topics discussed during the meetings. Not everyone has an opportunity to study abroad, but today's technology allows every student to be a part of the internationalization process, develop his/her cultural-literacy and reflect on his/her identity.

    In this session, the process, benefits, and limitations of our online exchanges will be discussed and some suggestions on how one should conduct and what are required for in ordered to have a successful international online exchanges will also be presented based on our experiences.

    The target audience of this session are teachers and educators as well as administrators who recognize the importance of acquisition of intercultural competence, not limited to but especially, in language education, and those who are considering the possibilities of allowing students to participate in the internationalization process without traveling abroad.

    References:

    Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

    Byram, M., Gribkova, B., & Starkey, H. (2002). Developing the intercultural dimension in language teaching: A practical introduction for teachers. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europ.

    Chun, D. M. (2011). Developing Intercultural communicative competence through online exchanges. CALICO Journal, 28 (2), 392-419.

    Helm, F. (2009). Language and culture in an online context: what can learner diaries tell us about intercultural competence. Language and Intercultural Communication, 9 (2), 91-104.

    Högskoleverket. (2008). En högskola i världen: internationalisering för kvalitet. Högskoleverkets rapportserie 2008:15R.

    Kitade, K. (2012). An exchange structure analysis of the development of online intercultural activity. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 25 (1), 65-86.

    Liaw, M-L. (2006). E-learning and the development of intercultural competence. Language Learning &Technology, 10(3), 49-64.

    Schenker, T. (2012). Intercultural competence and cultural learning through telecollaboration. CALICO Journal, 29(3), 449-470.

    Tyberg, E. (2009). Internationalisering: perspektivbyte, förhållningssätt och fredsprojekt. In Martin Stigmar, (Ed.). Högskolepedagogik: att vara professionell som lärare i högskolan, Chapter 12. Stockholm: Liber.

  • 26.
    Aldea, Silvia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    A comparative study of approaches to audiovisual translation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For those who are not new to the world of Japanese animation, known mainly as anime, the debate of "dub vs. sub" is by no means anything out of the ordinary, but rather a very heated argument amongst fans. The study will focus on the differences in the US English version between the two approaches of translating audio-visual media, namely subtitling (official subtitles and fanmade subtitles) and dubbing, in a qualitative context. More precisely, which of the two approaches can store the most information from the same audiovisual segment, in order to satisfy the needs of the anime audience. In order to draw substantial conclusions, the analysis will be conducted on a corpus of 1 episode from the first season of the popular mid-nineties TV animated series, Sailor Moon. The main objective of this research is to analyze the three versions and compare the findings to what anime fans expect each of them to provide, in terms of how culture specific terms are handled, how accurate the translation is, localization, censorship, and omission. As for the fans’ opinions, the study will include a survey regarding the personal preference of fans when it comes to choosing between the official subtitled version, the fanmade subtitles and the dubbed version.

  • 27.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Feedback as a Topic Changing strategy in Japanese TV Discussions: Issues in Intercultural Communication Volume1 Issue 22008Inngår i: Journal of Intercultural Communication, ISSN 1404-1634, E-ISSN 1404-1634, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 145-158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Feedback as strategy to change Topic and its function in Japanese TV discussion program.2007Inngår i: The 20th meeting of The Japanese Association of Sociolinguistic Sciences, Kansai Gakuen University, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    How they change topics: Empirical study of “supportive” and “negative” speaking styles in mixed-gender conversation: Arizona Linguistics and Anthropology Symposium2008Inngår i: Arizona Linguistics and Anthropology Symposium, Tuscon, USA, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The compensatory style of Feedback on Japanese Inter Relay Chat2011Inngår i: Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT) 2011, Georgetown, Washington DC, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback(FB) has been defined as the 3rd move in the interactional exchange of the Initiation-Response-Follow up structure(Coulthard et al.,1975). In Japanese , it was also defined as a response or reaction to previous statements made by other participants (Takamor, 2004). On the basis of such definisions, the formula and function of FB has also been analyzed. On the other hand, Inter Relay Chat (IRC) is considred as a relativily "Lean" Medium as IRC, based on the data that comprises 5574 utterances taken from "Yahoo Japan" chat rooms. Qualitative analysis clarified that emoticons, the hedge in a form of the alphabet "w", and the verbal play and rhyme can be considred as the unique aspects of IRC in Japanese.

  • 31.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The difference of conceptualization in the Japanese and American occupational meeting - Through examining the pragmatic usage of discourse marker “Oh” and “Att”2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The pragmatic usage of each Discourse markers has been analyzed on its pragmaticand semantic meaning on various contexts.  Some research seeks for clarifying only the major usage for the purpose of languagelearning, such as the usage in dictionary. At the other hand, some claims Pragmaticmarkers have a number of different functions depending on the context, questioningwhether they have one meaning or many meanings.  According to Schiffrin (1987), there are two types of discourse markers in Americandiscourse. One of those is the semantic-relevant usage, which focuses on the logicalaspect of markers, such as”because”, “so” or “but”. The other one is the markers suchas “well” or “oh”, which are relatively supposed not to be logical and rather their mainfocus is on the emotional or turn-management effect.  Especially as for the discourse marker “oh”, though it belong to the latter type,Schiffrin (1987) notifies all of 6 main usages from pragmatic (strong emotional state)to semantic are based on the information management task, regardless of detailedclassification inside it.  Except the usage of each marker, this research also focuses on the perspective of“genre discourse analysis”, as a scale to examine discourse markers. Genre is aperspective to analyse discourse, and the definition of which is suggested by Bensonand Greaves (1981), as “the type of activity in which the discourse operates its content,idea and institutional focus”.  This research sets the “occupational meeting “on Japanese and American as the typeof activity, and aims to find the difference of “concept of meeting” and thus “theconceptualisation of Japanese politeness reflected in the “wakimae” principle, byinvesting the pragmatic usage of “oh” American and Japanese speakers choose.As the methodology, based on 500 turns from the speech setting of “meeting” and“casual conversation” on both of American and Japanese corpus, the marker to show“surprise” are extracted respectively and further divided to 6 usage along theSchiffrin’s categorization and then cross-examined.  Consequently the result is found as next:1. “Strong emotional state” such as showing the surprise or fear, the most pragmaticusage is frequently found in American corpus and the frequency doesn’t showany difference when the setting changed from the casual conversation to themeeting. Whereas it was rare to find same usage in Japanese especially inmeeting.2. The most pragmatic usage, which just collocates with feedback to answer, isfound frequently in Japanese especially in the meeting.3. The usage that focus on information management aspect as “repair” or “requestof clarification” increase in American meeting, compared to that in casualconversation, In contrast, the opposite tendency is found in Japanese counterparts.  In conclusion, negotiations of debating aspect are mainly cantered in Americanmeetings, in which the exchanges of the difference in information they have obtainedare focused. However in Japanese, the main issue are replaced by wakimae(discretion),which require the participants to choose certain formality of the conversational settings.

  • 32.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The framework to analyze the discourse in Adobe Connect base class- room environment: How the interaction on the web promotes the acquisition of learners2011Inngår i: / [ed] Amino, Kaoru, Yokohama National University, 2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The function of Feedback and Emcee’s role in Japanese TV discussion program2008Inngår i: Social and Cultural Studies, ISSN 1175-7132, Vol. 24, s. 1-11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The pragmatic usage of contrastive connectives as Turn-Taking strategies in Japanese conversation2007Inngår i: Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2007 (GURT 2007), Georgetown, USA, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The subjectivity and Sentence Final Particles in the citation clause: Re-Construct their story in Japanese mass-media2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The Turn-Taking strategy and its function in Japanese conversation: The 3rd meeting in Chubu district of The Society for Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language2005Inngår i: The society for Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language, Kinjo Gakuen University, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 37.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    The uses of contradictory conjunctions in Japanese and American Corpuses: Context Analysis from three perspectives; semantic, diverted and developed usages2010Inngår i: The Pragmatics Society of Japan, Osaka, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Topic Closing expression before Topic-Shift: Genre and its influence in formula and function2008Inngår i: The 21th meeting of The Japanese association of Sociolinguistic Sciences, Tokyo Joshi University, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Turn the technique in Visual arts into literature: Dramatic effect in Akutagawa works and the management of tense2013Inngår i: / [ed] Takahashi Tatsuo, International Society for Akutagawa Ryūnosuke Studies , 2013, , s. 19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The works of Akugatawa has been evaluated to connote the Drama-like expressiveness, which enables readers to perceive his works as if they are watching the visual arts as film or play.

    Elaine (1997) analyse those characteristic of Akutagawa works, and suggested the resemblance of it with the technique called as "Montage (Eisenstein, cited in Aumont, 1987)"used in some Visual Arts. Accordinng to Einstein, this technique is the "juxtaposition of two fragments resembles their product more than it does their sum", in which each scene is carefully framed and accumulated one after another, as if it is Kaleidoscope.

    In this research, those carefully accumulated scenes and its shifts are focused on, and how two elements, the narration by the protagonist’s view and the description of what happens are structured in each novel are examined. As well, the relevance of the shifts of scenes and how "tense" as syntactic element are differently managed are also subjects to be examined, based on his two works "Toshisyun" and "Torokko".

    To look into the usage of tense in "Toshisyun", "-ta form (past tense)" is used in the dialogue at the opening part as narration, in other hands, "-ru form (present tense)" is shown in the descriptive part.

    Same tendency is also shown in "Torokko". "-ta form (past tense)" is used the monologue by protagonist at the opening part, however the "-ru form (present tense) "is used in the descriptive part, which is actually considered to precede the narrative part chronologically.

    One reason of these contradicted usages of tense could due to the expressional effect of present form in Japanese. Maynard (2005) implies the descriptive effect of present tense as the vividness that gives readers the sensation of chronological and physical closeness to the event shown in the narrative.

    These two works also shows the structural equivalence; In addition to the usage of tense in the monologue or dialogue part in opening, "-ta form (past tense)" is also used in the closing part. This structural accordance of tense makes readers to refrain a scene, which has already been submitted. Ricio (2007) suggested the same technique in films as "flash forward". Thus management of tense in Akutagawa could realize the expressional means in visual arts in the literature, and it could be one element of Drama -characteristic in his works.

    [References]

    Aumont,J.(1998).Montage Eisenstein, London and Bloomington Publisher (BFI).

    Elaine Gerbert (1997). A new look: The Influence of Vision Technology on Narrative in Taisho, In

    Haruko Minegishi Cook, Kyoko Hijirida, Mildred M. Tahara, eds., New Trends and Issues in

    Teaching Japanese Language and Culture, Volume 3, Issue 15, Second Language Teaching and

    Curriculum Center University of Hawai’I ,pp 15-30.

    Maynard, Senko, K. (2005) Danwa Hyogen handbook, Kuroshio publisher, Tokyo.

    Rocio Montoro (2007). Analysing Literature through Films, In Greg Watson and Sonia Zyngier, eds.,

    Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners: Theory and Practice, Palgrave macmillan,Finland,

    pp48-59.

  • 40.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Turn-Taking strategies and style shift by gender difference: Linguistic convention and its obligation2008Inngår i: The Japanese association of Sociolinguistic Sciences, Tokyo Joshi University, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Turn-Taking Strategy and Style-Shift in Japanese Women2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 5 th Biennial International Gender and Language Association Conference IGALA 5, held at Victoria University of Wellington, July 2008, Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University of Wellington , 2009, s. 225-239Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines gender differences and style-shifting of women in turn-taking (TT) strategies during Japanese conversations; such strategies appear when there is a new shift in conversation. Specifically, the article explores the gender difference in TT strategies and whether a woman’s TT strategy changes in accordance with the interlocutor’s gender. This article suggests that women have varying conversational styles that are rather similar to those of men. The following tendencies were observed in the TT strategies of men and women. First, in the TT strategies adopted toward male interlocutors, females exhibited supportive tendencies, such as involving men in the conversation or actively responding to them. Second, the TT strategies adopted by males toward female interlocutors revealed negative elements such as the use of blunt responsive markers or first person pronouns. Third, in the TT strategies adopted toward female interlocutors, females displayed relatively negative tendencies, using blunt or simple TT strategies in comparison to those seen in the conversations between males and females. The article then discusses the implications of these findings as women do not innately possess supportive conversational styles and simply converse in accordance with their gender role. In particular, the discussion focuses on the possibility that the socialization of women also compels them to follow linguistic socialization, which reflects a woman’s customary role to engage in assistant work.

  • 42.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    Turn-Taking Strategy in Japanese CMC2009Inngår i: Studies in Language and Cultures, ISSN 1341-0032, Vol. 24, s. 47-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [un]

    IRC (Inter Relay Chat) falls under the form of media called CMC (Computer-mediated communication); however, this form of media lacks such features as co-presence and simultaneity (Lark and Brennan, 1991). Therefore, CMC is said to be a limited form of media, compared to face-to-face communication (King, 1996). With regard to CMC, studies on turn-taking systems have been examined in the Western context. Hence, in this paper, I would like to argue that, to some extent, Japanese CMC has its own turn-taking system. One of the unique characteristics of the Japanese turn-taking system is the coconstruction of turns by more than two participants, in which one of the participants utters only the former part of the statement, anticipating that the latter part will be completed by the other participants (Mizutani, 1993). In Japanese, co-construction is possible partly because of the language's syntactic structures, in which syllables can easily be attached one after the other. This type of construction is called turn-projectability and the individual part of a sentence is called TCU (Turn Construction Unit; Szatrowski, 1993). Focusing on TCU, this paper studies how a turn is taken and examines how turn-taking in IRC is different from that in face-to face communication. On the basis of 3000 turns extracted from the IRC of “Yahoo Japan,” I first counted the frequency of turn-taking strategy by initiations, such as connectives, fillers, and responsive markers as discourse markers, and then compared it with the frequency of turn-taking strategy found in face-to-face communication. Consequently, it was clarified that the initiations in CMC are not as frequent as they are in face-to-face conversation. A further observation of the data showed that TCU tends to appear instead of initiation. Through a qualitative analysis of each TCU, it can be said that primer turn, which ends in the topical marker “wa,” draws a response from other participants in the cyber community and makes the community livelier. Furthermore, in the case of a narrative, a participant connects each turn by using the conjunctive suffix “-te,” in order to draw the other's response to the story, thus contributing to the vividness of communication in cyber space. In conclusion, TCU effectively compensates for the leanness of CMC, and the various TCU can be unique and powerful tools for turn-taking strategy in Japanese CMC.

  • 43.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    When men use feminine sentence final particles: the act of deviating from the classical citation rule in narratives2008Inngår i: Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2008 (GURT 2008), Georgetown, Washington DC, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Amino, Kaoru
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Japanska.
    話者交替と話題転換に関する言語表現: -場面・性別・メディアが言語表現に与える影響-2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Aronsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Franska.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Fan Activities in Online University Education2018Inngår i: Fandom as Classroom Practice: A Teaching Guide / [ed] Katherine Anderson Howell, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press , 2018, 1, s. 70-82Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Asplund, Beatrice
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Gendered Language Use in the Japanese Game Streaming Community2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine Japanese gendered language use in online game streaming, and the differences in gendered language use between male and female streamers. The main aim of this thesis is to examine how, and to what extent, young Japanese adults use gendered language when broadcasting gaming streams online. I will examine how pronounced the differences in gendered language use are between male and female streamers, and see if the major theories about gendered language apply in the Japanese streaming community. To collect the data, I looked at 20 game streamers, with each stream lasting 15-30 minutes. I transcribed the streamers’ commentary, and examined the frequency of certain sentence ending particles, personal pronouns, and polite speech/word choice. The streamers were chosen with regards given to certain criteria to prevent skewed results, and to control the independent variables to a certain extent. For example, the streamers must be playing alone to ensure that the streamer is the only person speaking. I analyzed the results using a qualitative method, which indicated that the greater gender differences are found in the use of personal pronouns, but not as much in the use of sentence ending particles or politeness level.

  • 47.
    Bråth, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Analyzing the Translation of Japanese Humor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the translation of Japanese humor. The goal is to determine how approximate the translation of a comedic work can be to the original and through what strategies. This is accomplished by analyzing seven different verbal jokes in Japanese to their subtitled English translations. First the jokes are transcribed, then a comparison of the similarity between the source joke to the target joke using the knowledge resources from The General Theory of Verbal Humor is attempted. Then the two texts are analyzed line by line to determine which of Peter Newmark’s translation procedures can be identified. The analyzation of the jokes using the General Theory of Verbal Humor showed that similarities in all five of the six knowledge resources can often be achieved. Similarity in the knowledge resource language may need to be sacrificed for a more natural sounding text. The usage of translation procedures proves to be enough to achieve a close approximate between the source joke and the target joke, however the over usage of reductions may prove problematic.

  • 48.
    Chiang, Bowie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    A comparative study of translation strategies applied in dealing with role languages.: A translation analysis of the video game Final Fantasy XIV2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Localisation is the process of taking a product and adapting it to fit the culture in question.

    This usually involves making it both linguistically and culturally appropriate for the target audience. While there are many areas in video game translations where localisation holds a factor, this study will focus on localisation changes in the personalities of fictional characters between the original Japanese version and the English localised version of the video game Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn and its expansion Heavensward for PC, PS3 and PS4. With this in mind, specific examples are examined using Satoshi Kinsui's work on yakuwarigo, role language as the main framework for this study.

    Five non-playable characters were profiled and had each of their dialogues transcribed for a

    comparative analysis. This included the original Japanese text, the officially localised English text and a translation of the original Japanese text done by myself. Each character were also given a short summary and a reasoned speculation on why these localisation changes might have occurred.

    The result shows that there were instances where some translations had been deliberately

    adjusted to ensure that the content did not cause any problematic issues to players overseas. This could be reasoned out that some of the Japanese role languages displayed by characters in this game could potentially cause dispute among the western audience. In conclusion, the study shows that localisation can be a difficult process that not only requires a translator's knowledge of the source and target language, but also display some creativity in writing ability to ensure that players will have a comparable experience without causing a rift in the fanbase.

  • 49.
    Choi, Jiyun
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    おしんとはだれか-NHKドラマ『おしん』: ―MBTI性格検査を中心に―2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study is to investigate Oshin, the main character of the NHK morning drama Oshin, and analyze her personality such that we may understand how women lived during the Meiji era. This drama was on air from 1983-1984 and recorded the highest rating ever in NHK morning drama history, 62.9%. In fields regarding women and media, there is an abundance of research done regarding Oshin, but comparatively, there are few studies in the field of literature. For the sake of tightening this gap, this paper will focus on researching Oshin. To understand what kind of person Oshin is, her personality will be examined using the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) based on Carl G. Jung’s theory of psychological type. The MBTI aims to find universal features among all humans and to also identify the differences. Therefore, it could be considered as a proper method for this study.

    In this study, we will analyze Oshin and three other characters who exerted large influences on her life. The MBTI will be used to estimate the personality type of each character. These personality types will be looked at in conjunction with the personalities of each character in the drama itself to see if there are correlations.

    The results show that the features estimated from the MBTI and the features of each character in the drama were nearly identical. Using the analysis process, it was possible to look at the conflicting factors in personal relationships, the way people live, and even the author’s intentions.

  • 50.
    Edfeldt, Chatarina
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Portugisiska.
    Fjordevik, Anneli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Tyska.
    Inose, Hiroko
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Japanska.
    Fan Culture: The Use of Informal Learning Environments by Dalarna University Language Students2014Inngår i: NGL 2014: Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference Summary / [ed] Erik Brunnert Walfridsson,, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2014, s. 17-17Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning outside the academic institution, or affinity-based informal learning, has been studied by various scholars (e.g., Paul Gee and Henry Jenkins). One place where this type of learning can occur is in online participatory fan culture activities, where fans create, for example, works of literature, films, and translations, as well as comment on one another’s work and teach one another.

    In Sweden, very little research on fan culture as a place for collaborative learning has been conducted and existing research has mainly focused on high-school students (Olin-Scheller); therefore, our examination of fan culture activities and learning processes among university students will serve as in important contribution. The general purpose of our project is to find out more about informal learning activities that exist among our own students so that we can then apply that knowledge to our teaching and pedagogical methods as university teachers. We are interested to see how the practitioners themselves experience informal learning activities and how they benefit from these.

    As such, a two-step project was designed: first, a questionnaire was distributed to all students of ten language departments at Dalarna University (2432 students). The questionnaire contained questions about the level of awareness of online fan activities and the degree of student participation in these activities. The second part of the project comprised qualitative interviews (in the autumn of 2013) of some of the students who responded to the survey. Here, we examine the kind of fan culture activities that they are consuming and the reasons for their participation. As well, we examine whether they think they have developed any language, cultural, or other skills and knowledge through the communities. In our paper we present the results of this study.

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