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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Vad kännetecknar en bra idrotts- och träningsmiljö för elitsatsande inom längdskidåkning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet var att ta reda på vad elitaktiva inom längdskidor anser vara en bra idrotts- och träningsmiljö.

    Metod

    Metoden som används är uppdelad i två olika ansatser. Den första ansatsen är inom den kvantitativa forskningen och utformades som en enkätstudie, där längdskidåkare har fått svara på frågor om sin träningsmiljö. Den andra delen av uppsatsen är utformad som en kvalitativ studie med semistrukturerade intervjufrågor baserat på ett mindre urval av de som svarat på enkäten. Detta skedde efter att resultatet av den kvantitativa studien blivit analyserat, för att utforma en intervjumall från enkätsvaren, i syfte att försöka få en djupare förståelse av detta problemområde.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att det finns en stor komplexitet i uppfattningen om vad som anses vara en bra träningsmiljö för längdskidåkare. Dock kan det urskiljas att vissa faktorer som viktigare än andra, till exempel vikten av att ha träningskamrater och god sparring för att kunna utvecklas. Värdet av att ha en tränare ansågs också viktigt. Resultaten visar även hur den elitaktive upplever sin träningsmiljö i dag och vad som efterfrågas.

    Slutsatser

    Det framkom tydligt att bristen på hjälp upplevs stor bland seniorer inom längdskidor. Att steget mellan junior och eventuellt gå på ett skidgymnasium, till att bli senior upplevs alldeles för stort, att det inte finns tillräcklig stödfunktioner, skolor eller träningsgrupper att tillgå som senior.

  • 2.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Frohagen, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013In: WALS - World Association of Lesson Studies, International conference 2013: Lesson and Learning Study as teacher research, 5-9 september: Conference Programme and Abstracts of papers, 2013, p. 82-82Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Chair: Ingrid Carlgren

    Discussant: Ference Marton

     

    Contributions:

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

     

    Eva Björkholm - The meaning of knowing how to construct a  linkage mechanism. Discerning aspects of the object of learning by analyzing classroom interactions

    This presentation describes a Learning Study within primary technology education focusing on the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. What one has to know in order to be able to construct a linkage mechanism is, however, not self-evident. The study reported here explores the meaning of this specific knowing. The study was conducted in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes (children aged 6-7 years). Throughout the whole study step by step, starting with the analysis of the pre-test, followed by three cycles of planning and evaluation of research lessons, and the analysis of post-test, the meaning of the object of learning was specified (Marton & Pang, 2006; Carlgren, 2012). The presentation will focus on knowledge generated from the video recorded lessons by analyzing the classroom interactions and students’ difficulties that were made visible through these interactions. Teacher-student interactions as well as student-student interactions were analyzed. By analyzing students’ difficulties regarding the specific object of learning, critical aspects of the expected knowing were discerned and in this way the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known was made explicit.

    The results are presented in the form of critical aspects of what it means to know how to construct a linkage mechanism for this group of students. The critical aspects identified in the pre-test were further elaborated in the research lessons and by analyzing the classroom interactions in terms of student difficulties, additional aspects that were critical for students’ learning were identified. By gradually identifying the critical aspects, the collective understanding of the meaning of the object of learning was developed and specified.

     

    Jenny Frohagen – The meaning of knowing how to make expressions in artifacts: generating knowledge through designing lesson tasks   

    The school subject sloyd derives from a practical knowledge tradition which covers knowing in craft and art (Mäkelä, 2011; Hasselskog, 2010; Borg, 2001). However, sloyd teachers express difficulties when trying to explain and deal with aesthetic aspects when teaching sloyd (Fransson, 2010; Borg, 2007). There has been a tendency of trivializing the subject content into a shallow form of craft knowledge understood as ‘merely’ working with traditional craft techniques (Borg, 2008; Skolverket, 2005). There is a need to articulate the aesthetical features of knowing in sloyd. In my contribution I will present results from a Learning Study in sloyd focusing on the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts.

    In my presentation I will focus on how the iterative process of designing (short) lesson tasks given to the students during the research lessons and also in pre- and post-tests in each cycle, can be a way of understanding the object of learning. Since explicit tests of the students knowing are rarely found in sloyd education, conducting Learning Studies in sloyd can be a meaningful way of developing subject specific tasks. In this Learning Study different designs of tasks has been explored during the process as a way to inquire the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts. The results from this study show how the articulation of an object of learning in sloyd can be specified and validated throughout the process of designing and carrying out subject specific tests and lesson tasks. Depending on how the object of learning was articulated, the tasks/tests changed focus and the meaning of the knowing differed. By analyzing the students learning outcomes and redesigning the pre- and post-test in a Learning study as well as the given lesson tasks, new aspects of the learning object can be discerned.

     

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

     

  • 3.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

  • 4.
    Albinsson, John
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Ryden-Ahlgren, Åsa
    Lunds universitet.
    Cinthio, Magnus
    Lunds universitet.
    Improved tracking performance of lagrangian block-matching methodologies using block expansion in the time domain: in silico, phantom and in vivo evaluations2014In: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0301-5629, E-ISSN 1879-291X, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2508-2520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean - 48%, p<0.005 [in silico]; mean - 43%, p<0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean - 19%, p<0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. 

  • 5.
    Alf, Viktor
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Lindberg, Linus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Kartläggning av tillslagsprecision i fotboll2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze if the precision of a shot and a pass differs between professional youth players (16-18 years) and senior players (22+ or older).

    Method

    A total of 30 elite players which were 16 males and 14 females performed tests in shooting and passing precision. The set-up on the test days were a total of 60 shots(30 lying still and 30 half volley) and 80 passes (20 lying still best foot, 20 rolling best foot, 20 lying still next best foot and 20 rolling next best foot). The test results were analyzed using Excel and Kinovea. In these programs the mean value and standard deviation for each player and test group could be calculated.

    Results

    The result shows that there were only significant differences in one of six parts regarding precision on the men's side. On the women's side, there was no significant difference in any of the six moments.

    Conclusions

    The authors of this study identified a plateau between players aged 16-18 and senior players in terms of accuracy in passing and shooting. Players between the ages of 16-18 is as good as a senior player at the individual skills passing and shooting. This plateau can be the result of too little individual training so called isolated training in terms of precision. If the club coaches follow the training SvFF educate, only two minutes per training session goes to each individual skill (SvFF names 13 skills). The lack of time for these skills can be a decisive factor for why the development of precision stands still today.

  • 6.
    Andersson, David
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Fysisk utveckling inom ämnet idrott och hälsa: en undersökning av två högstadieskolors arbetssätt för att involvera eleven i arbetet med sin fysiska utveckling2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose: The overall purpose with the study was to investigate how active teachers considered physical activity in the swedish school subject ”idrott och hälsa”(physical education). Further the reason was to investigate how teachers follow-up and evaluate the students physical development in secondary school and how the student are getting involved. The study has focused the following questions: • How do teachers of physical education define physical activity? • Do the teachers measure, and in that case how do they measure the students physical development in secondary school? • If they are doing measurments, how do the students get involved? Methods: The survey consisted of an interview study of four active teachers and even a survey of students from the classes of these teachers. Both approaches have been aimed towards the answer the studyquestions, but the main focus has mainly been on the outcome of the interviews. It is through these teachers' thoughts and opinions emerged and student responses from the questionnaires has been useful to see if they can be fed back to the teachers descriptions. Results: The Teachers in the study has no clear periodic testingsystem, where pupils' physical development clearly is measured. The teachers argue to be able to see that students develop physically also without special tests. The moment you book results in which annual returns in the teaching of the four teachers are crosscountry-running. None of the teachers have regular testing in strenght, speed, coordination and movement, and not even half the students state that the teacher after a physical test to discuss the test purpose, student performance and how the connection with previous test results of students' physical development. The teachers seem to fear that the focus should fall too much on profit and competition in tests and thus could not justify the weaker students to want / dare to be involved in teaching. Top-mount seems to be that it is important that students compare with himself and became aware of their own development. A very large proportion of students (62 out of 75) also indicates that they think it is good with physical tests in physical education.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Diana
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    ”Vegankost, övervikt och hälsa”: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plant-based diets on

    overweight individuals based on previous research. The questions asked were: “Is

    there any evidence that suggest positive effects of plant-based diets on blood

    pressure-, blood sugar-, LDL-cholesterol- and blood lipids levels?” and “Is there

    any evidence that suggest positive effects of plant-based diets on BMI?”

    Method

    This study was conducted as a literature review containing 14 academic journal

    articles with a quantitative approach. The articles were found in databases such as

    PubMed (EBSCO), SportDiscus, Cinahl, Scopus and ERIC. A thematic analysis

    was used in the data compilation that seeks to identify patterns and themes of

    convergence in research. These following objects were researched in relation to

    plant-based diets: BMI, blood pressure-, blood sugar-, cholesterol and blood lipid

    levels.

    Result

    A number of articals showed that following a plant based diet gave significantly

    positive effects on health, such as lowered BMI-measures, blood pressure-, blood

    sugar-, cholesterol-, and blood lipid levels among overweight and obese

    individuals.

    Conclusions

    There is suggestive evidence that plant-based diets demonstrated numerous health

    benefits according to previously conducted research studies. Plant-based diets

    were shown to be effective in prevention of obesity by reducing BMI

    measurements in overweight individuals after following diet interventions.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Möjligheter till motivation för fysisk aktivitet: En interventionsstudie avsedd att motivera elever till fysisk aktivitet genom självbestämmande2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att under en femveckorsperiod undersöka möjligheterna till att förändra elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet. Utifrån detta syfte formulerades följande frågeställning:

    • Vad sker med elevers motivation till fysisk aktivitet om den praktiska undervisningen utformas efter self-determination theory?

    För att utforma den praktiska undervisningen efter self-determination theory valdes Engstöms praktiker som en grund och stöttepelare i planeringen och genomförandet av lektionerna. Vilket gav en underliggande frågeställning till den ovanstående:

    - Vilka praktiker finns representerade i underökningsgruppen?

    Studien har genomförts på en högstadieskola i mellersta Sverige, där två klasser i årskurs (åk) 8 valdes ut att delta i studien. I undersökningsgruppen blev urvalet 14 elever och i kontrollgruppen 9 elever. Undersökningsgruppen genomförde en praktikenkät innan interventionen, vilken låg till grund i planeringen och genomförandet av lektionerna. De två klasserna genomförde en motivationsenkät före och efter interventionen för att mäta motivationsnivån. Resultatet av interventionsstudien visar att det skedde en viss förändring i de olika motivationsnivåerna. Det fanns dock ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan test ett och test två på någon av motivationsnivåerna, varken hos undersökningsgrupp eller hos kontrollgrupp.

  • 9.
    Arnesson, Jesper
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Enberg, Anton
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Resultatinriktad idrott – ett problem för längdskidsporten: En studie om avhopp inom längdskidåkning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of the study is to examine the dropout from cross-country skiing after high school and how elite associations with connection to university, attractive cities and support to elite athletes can prevent it.

    Design

    This study has a qualitative orientation where totally nine persons was interviewed. The study had four different target audiences which where dropouts, coaches from Dala Sports Academy, representatives from Falun and Borlange community and the Swedish ski association. Questions about dropout have been answered by all participants in the study but the questions about elite associations on senior levels were only answered by coaches, representatives of the communities and the Swedish ski association.

    Results

    All participants showed that bad results, interests beside the sport and that the conditions and support gets smaller at senior level was reasons for dropout. The dropouts also showed that lack of motivation was a reason for leaving cross-country skiing. The coaches, communities and the Swedish ski association intended that the enviroment in Falun and Borlange was good for running an elite association on senior level for cross-country skiing. They also provided that the economical part is important for an elite association on senior level.

    Conclusions

    The main reason for dropout in cross-country skiing is when the sport gets to serious and the focus only is on results. This leads to lack of motivation if the athletes don’t get the results they want. Only the best skiers can today participate in elite associations on senior level. To give more athletes an opportunity to train and compete in a high level as a senior the clubs can be more active with sponsorship so the resources expands.

  • 10.
    Assarsson, Hannes
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Skillnader och likheter i fartstrategi hos manliga- och kvinnliga- samt unga- och gamla skidlöpare i Vasaloppet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Astrakos, Alexander
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Kadergran, Robin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Articles from Google rarely contains high qualityinformation about rapid weight loss for martial artsperformers: Critical review of articles on rapid weight-loss in martial artsperformers2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the quality and credibility of the articles collected from Google - describing fast weight loss methods as well as diets for martial arts.

    Method

    The method started with five search phrases related to weight loss pre-competition at martial arts. The five phrases where applied to the Google search engine and for each phrase the first five search results were selected. Search results were analysed with content analysis criteria analysing Credibility, Accuracy, Reasonability and Support. Detailed descriptions of how these quality parameters were assessed can be found below in text

    Result

    The results from the study showed that the articles analysed in this study with content analysis criteria do not have the desired credibility because only 12 % of the articles are based on facts. The results also showed that 35 % of the authors claimed to be experts and 41 % of the websites associated with the articles have a responsible publisher. Furthermore the study showed that the articles have low accuracy because no article is peer reviewed and only 6 % of the authors use scientific structure in their articles. Some of the articles even included contradictions. The study showed that the web pages have a low reasonableness because 53 % of the articles and web pages have a partial message to promote their products and education. The study shows that web sites associated with the articles has more than 76 % support.

    Conclusion

    Martial art athletes should understand that not all of the rapid weight loss information that appears in Google search results is based on science or facts, most of the information is no more than opinions that lack reference. None of the articles in the study were previewed by peers and few articles were written by experts. This means that accuracy and credibility are low according to the study's criteria. In addition, many authors try to sell either their products or training through their articles, but this is not a standard indicator that makes the quality low.

  • 12.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Development of outdoor education in Sweden2017In: The Changing World of Outdoor Learning. European reflections. / [ed] Becker, Peter; Humberstone, Barbara; Loynes, Chris & Schirp, Jochem, London: Routledge , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Forskning om friluftsliv i Norge: reproduktion av det nationella eller nyfikenhet på det globala?2017In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Friluftsliv i fjällen: Fjällsäkerhetsrådets läromedel för åk 7-92017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    ”Tell us what to do and how to assess!”: Swedish PE teachers’ experiences of the implementation of Support For Assessment in outdoor education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as in many European countries, Outdoor Education (OE, or its Scandinavian equivalent as friluftsliv) is in the formal school setting positioned within the subject Health and Physical Education (HPE). In the curriculum for compulsory school, implemented in 2011, OE is organized as one of three areas of knowledge along with Health and Lifestyle, and Movement. In order to meet the increasing call for a more equal assessment and grading in Swedish Schools, the Swedish National Agency of Education (SNAE) completed the curriculum in HPE with a material (text and film) named Support For Assessment (SFA) in 2012. As responsible for the construction of OE in SFA the author followed up the implementation of the SFA with several presentations and workshops for teachers in HPE during 2013 and 2014. The purpose of this presentation is to describe how OE was constructed in the SFA in Swedish HPE for compulsory school and further to analyse and discuss reactions from Swedish HPE teachers expressed in evaluations after the mentioned presentations and workshops. The results suggest that while a part of the HPE teachers found the SFA useful and effective, another part called for more concrete advices on what to assess in OE and how to assess it. Drawing on Basil Bernstein’s theories of how pedagogical messages are communicated and evaluated in school systems, the results will be discussed in relation to the classification of OE within Swedish HPE.

  • 16.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undervisning och bedömning i friluftsliv2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Undervisning och bedömning i ämnet friluftsliv i ämnet idrott och hälsa2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrotthögskolan, Stockholm.
    What should a physical education teacher know?: An analysis of learning outcomes for future physical education teachers in Sweden2016In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has only limited impact on how physical education (PE) is taught in schools. This paper offers possible explanations for the difficulties of influencing subject traditions in PE through analysing PETE curriculum documents. The purpose is show how knowledge is expressed through learning outcomes in local curriculum documents at six PETE institutions in Sweden. Inspired by Fenstermacher’s ideas about teacher knowledge, our ambition is to discuss the potential educational consequences of the epistemological assumptions underlying specific learning outcomes. From the total number of 224 learning outcomes described in the curriculum documents, different types of knowledge were identified and clustered together into the following themes: Teaching PE, Interpreting curriculum documents, Physical movement skills, Science, Social health, Pedagogy, Critical inquiry, and Research methods. In most of the identified themes, learning outcomes are formulated with an integrated perspective on so called performance knowledge and propositional knowledge. However, particularly in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, two very influential themes, the concept of knowledge is limited and unilateral in relation to ideas of different forms of teacher knowledge. Drawing on the work of Tinning, we offer an explanation as to how teacher knowledge in the themes Science and Physical movement skills, emanating from behaviouristic and craft knowledge orientations, is formulated.

  • 19.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Assessment of movement in Swedish PETE: A matter of learning or just ticking a box?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general knowledge base of Health and Physical Education Teacher Education (HPETE) is growing stronger. As a part of that knowledge base there is an ongoing discussion of the meaning of HPETE students’ movement capabilities (Brown 2013, Capel et al 2011, Johnson 2013, Siedentop 2009, Tinning 2010). Lee Shulman’s (1987) framework of Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) have been used by scholars to examine how students’ ability to move and their ability to teach are valued in HPETE (Backman & Pearson 2016, Herold & Waring 2016, Ward et al 2015). However, the students’ own voices about these issues have rarely been acknowledged. The aim with this paper is therefore to examine how HPETE students at one university in Sweden experience the assessment of movement knowledge in and about aquatics, dance and ice-skating. Semi-structured interviews with two groups including a total of seven students were performed by the one researcher at three different occasions. The interviewing researcher’s regularly work is not at the same university as the participating students. The interviews focused specifically on the teaching and assessment of aquatics, dance and skating within the first semester of HPETE. The transcription of the six interviews was performed by external assistance and the students were all anonymized in the transcribed material. The following analysis, performed by two researchers stationed at the same university as the participating students, focused on how the transcribed material related to the aim and the concepts of Shulman. Preliminary results show several expressions of that the students in our study were not sure of what kinds or what level of movement knowledge were expected of them as they entered HPETE. Further, several students expressed limited possibilities to develop movement ability merely through HPETE teaching but at the same time, practicing unfamiliar movements outside HPETE teacher-led teaching was rare. Although assessment of movement knowledge were most commonly expressed as a qualitative process, some students mentioned that they occasionally experienced assessment of movement knowledge as “a-tick-in-a-box”. Interestingly, the cognitive aspects of movement knowledge (i.e. describe, observe, analyse, discuss, etc.) were on the one hand expressed as vital, but on the other as less characterized by learning compared to the practice of movement skills. The results will be analysed and discussed in relation to research within the field and in relation to Lee Shulman’s framework of CK and PCK. Although making no claims to generalize the results in this study based on the limited number of participants, they might contribute to the discussion of what forms of knowledge to prioritise in HPETE, and thereby also help develop HPE on a school level.

    References

    Backman, E. & Pearson, P. 2016. “We should assess the students in more authentic situations”. Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers. European Physical Education Review. 22(1): 47-64.

    Brown, T.D. 2013. “A vision lost? (Re)articulating an Arnoldian conception of education ‘in’ movement in physical education.” Sport, Education and Society 18 (1): 21-37.

    Capel, S., Hayes, S., Katene, W. and P. Velija. 2011. “The interaction of factors which influence secondary student physical education teachers’ knowledge and development as teachers.” European Physical Education Review, 17 (2): 183–201.

    Herold, F. and M. Waring. 2016. “Is practical subject matter knowledge still important? Examining the Siedentopian perspective on the role of content knowledge in physical education teacher education.” Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/17408989.2016.1192592

    Johnson, T.G. 2013. “The value of performance in Physical Education teacher education.” Quest 65 (4): 485-497.

    Shulman, L.S. 1987. “Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform.” Harvard Educational Review 57 (1): 1-21.

    Siedentop, D. 2009. “Content Knowledge for Physical Education. In The Routledge Physical Education Reader, edited by R. Bailey and D. Kirk, 243-253. Abingdon: Routledge

    Tinning, R. 2010. Pedagogy and human movement: theory, practice, research. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Ward, P., Kim, I., Ko, B. and W. Li. 2015. “Effects of Improving Teachers’ Content Knowledge on Teaching and Student Learning in Physical Education.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 86 (2): 130–139.

  • 20.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science.
    PETE students’ experiences of assessment of movement: A Shulmanian perspective2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general knowledge base of Health and Physical Education Teacher Education (HPETE) is growing stronger. As a part of that knowledge base there is an ongoing discussion of the meaning of HPETE students’ movement capabilities. Lee Shulman’s framework of Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) have been used by scholars to examine how students’ ability to move and their ability to teach are valued in HPETE. However, the students’ own voices about these issues have rarely been acknowledged. The aim with this paper is therefore to examine how HPETE students at one university in Sweden experience how movement knowledge in certain movement activities are valued in the assessment. Semi-structured interviews with two groups (3-4 students in each) with a total of seven students was performed at three different occasions focusing specifically on how aquatics, dance and skating was taught and assessed within the first semester of HPETE. Preliminary results of our first analysis of the students’ expressions of their education in aquatics show that the students experience qualitative dimension in the assessment of their performances in aquatics as well as a quantitative measurement. They also expressed a lack of teacher-led occasions for learning in and about aquatics before they assessed. Students were also uncertain of how their own practical performance was acknowledged in the assessment of aquatics in relation to their ability to observe and give feedback on their peers’ performance. The results will be analysed and discussed using Lee Shulman’s framework of CK and PCK. By extension, these results might contribute to the discussion of what forms of knowledge to prioritise in HPETE, and thereby also help develop HPE on a school level.

  • 21.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tidén, Anna
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Pihl, Lars
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Svanström, Fredrik
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Wiorek, Dan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Peer-assessment of technical and tactical skillsin invasion games - possibilities and limitations?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom idrottslärarutbildning har detutbildningsinnehåll som handlar om att utveckla studenters ämneskunskaper iidrott kraftigt reducerats under de senaste decennierna. Inte minst har den delav ämneskunskapen som handlar om studenters förmåga att delta i och undervisaom idrottsliga praktiker drabbats (Kirk 2010). När utrymmet för ett ämnesområdebegränsas aktualiseras frågor om innehåll och bedömning. Alltmedan de flestainom fältet är eniga om betydelsen för studenter att få erfarenheter av rörelseoch idrott under sin utbildning finns olika uppfattningar om huruvida man skabedöma studenters förmåga att praktiskt utöva idrott. Hur man förhåller sigdenna fråga har i hög grad visat sig vara kulturellt betingat (Backman &Pearson submitted, Herold & Waring 2009, Siedentop 2009, Tinning 2010). Isvensk idrottslärarutbildning har just den idrottsliga bedömningens vara ellerinte vara visat på en komplexitet och ambivalens (Backman & Pearson 2016).I en tid av alltmer begränsade resurser har problematiken delvis handlat omhuruvida man ska bedöma (och därigenom värdera) studentens förmåga att delta iidrott som ett mål i sig eller om man ska bedöma studentens förmåga attundervisa i och om idrott (Backman & Larsson 2016, Maivorsdotter et al2014). I de studier som belyst den idrottsliga färdighetens position ochbetydelse inom idrottslärarutbildning har studenters röst varit sparsamtförekommande. I denna studie vill vi därför, genom en implementering av eninternationellt etablerad modell för studentmedbedömning i bollspel (GamesPerformance Assessment Instrument, GPAI) (Oslin et al 1998) i kurser förblivande idrottslärare, ge röst åt studenters syn på studentbedömning avförmågan att spela bollspel. I studien har 140 studenter (N=140) pålärarprogrammet vid

    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan i Stockholm deltagit. Studien är genomförd inom ramen för en ordinarie bollspelskurs om 3 hp som motsvarar 18 lektionstillfällen med 90 minuters undervisning vid varje tillfälle. Till detta lades två extra lektioner om 90 min för att genomföra studien/datainsamlingen. Studenterna har under och efter kursen bidragit till datainsamlingen i kursen genom ifyllande av etablerade bedömningsformulär där de analyserat varandras spelförmåga. Vidare har studenterna svarat på en utvärdering av hur GPAI implementerats i kursen med hjälp av ett enkätverktyg. Syftet med kursen som studenterna deltagit i är att studenterna ska utveckla sin spelförmåga, leda målspel i skolan samt didaktiska aspekter på målspel i skolan. Studien har omfattat studentmedbedömning i spelen handboll, basket och fotboll som inte enbart ska ses som en utbildning i dessa spel utan som representation för bollspel i allmänhet. Deltagarna i studien representerar alla studenter som hösten 2016 läste den beskrivna kursen. Alla studenter fick information om att deltagandet var frivilligt och att de kunde avbryta när som helst utan att det skulle på verka deras betyg eller vara negativt för dem på något annat sätt. Alla studenter ville vara med i studien. I vår preliminära analys har vi funnit att studenternas observationer av varandra visade på stor variation avseende spelförmåga. I utvärderingen av GPAI-projektet har studenterna uttryckt att de visserligen förstod syftet med GPAI-projektet, och att de förstod hur de skulle bidra till datainsamlingen genom att analysera varandras spelförmåga, men att de var tveksamma till relevansen av GPAI i en bedömningskontext i skolan. Resultaten kommer att analyseras vidare och diskuteras i relation till Shulmans begrepp ämneskunskap (Content Knowledge) och ämnesdidaktisk kunskap (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) samt i relation till teorier om bedömning. I en diskussion där perspektiven ofta begränsas till forskarens och/eller idrottslärarutbildarens kan studenter bidra med viktig kunskap om vad de ser som relevant kunskap för sin kommande yrkesroll.

     

    Referenser

     

    Backman, E & Pearson, P (submitted) Is movement knowledge common, specialized or pedagogic? Voices of teacher educators on assessment of movement and sport courses in the preparation of Australian HPE teachers. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy

     

    Backman, E & Pearson, P (2016) “We should assess the students in more authentic situations”. Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers. European Physical Education Review. 22(1), 47-64.

     

    Backman, E & Larsson, H (2016) What should a Physical Education teacher know? An analysis of learning outcomes for future Physical Education teachers in Sweden. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. 21(2), 185-200.

     

    Herold F and Waring M (2009) Pre-service physical education teachers’ perceptions of subject knowledge: Augmenting learning to teach. European Physical Education Review 15(3): 337–364.

     

    Kirk D (2010) Physical Education Futures. Abingdon: Routledge.

     

    Oslin, J.L., S.A. Mitchell, & L.L. Griffin. (1998). The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI): Development and preliminary validation. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 17(2) p. 231–243.

     

    Siedentop D (2009) Content Knowledge for Physical Education. In: Bailey R and Kirk D (eds) The Routledge Physical Education Reader. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 243-253.

    Tinning R (2010) Pedagogy and human movement: theory,practice, research. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • 22. Bakkman, L.
    et al.
    Sahlin, K.
    Holmberg, H-C.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Quantitative and qualitative adaptation of human skeletal muscle mitochondria to hypoxic compared to normoxic training at the same relative work rate2007In: Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6772, E-ISSN 1365-201X, Vol. 190, no 3, p. 243-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate if training during hypoxia (H) improves the adaptation of muscle oxidative function compared with normoxic (N) training performed at the same relative intensity.

    Method: Eight untrained volunteers performed one-legged cycle training during 4 weeks in a low-pressure chamber. One leg was trained under N conditions and the other leg under hypobaric hypoxia (526 mmHg) at the same relative intensity as during N (65% of maximal power output, Wmax). Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis before and after the training period. Muscle samples were analysed for the activities of oxidative enzymes [citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] and mitochondrial respiratory function.

    Results: W max increased with more than 30% over the training period during both N and H. CS activity increased significantly after training during N conditions (+20.8%, P < 0.05) but remained unchanged after H training (+4.5%, ns) with a significant difference between conditions (P < 0.05 H vs. N). COX activity was not significantly changed by training and was not different between exercise conditions [+14.6 (N) vs. -2.3% (H), ns]. Maximal ADP stimulated respiration (state 3) expressed per weight of muscle tended to increase after N (+31.2%, P < 0.08) but not after H training (+3.2%, ns). No changes were found in state four respiration, respiratory control index, P/O ratio, mitochondrial Ca2+ resistance and apparent Km for oxygen.

    Conclusion: The training-induced increase in muscle oxidative function observed during N was abolished during H. Altitude training may thus be disadvantageous for adaptation of muscle oxidative function.

  • 23.
    Barkegren, Hanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sunesson, Minna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Att tävla eller inte tävla, det är frågan: En studie om varför unga längdskidåkare i Dalarna slutar tävla2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This study aimed to investigate at what age young adolescence in Dalarna stops competing in cross-country skiing. Furthermore, to explore possible reasons to why they decide to stop competing.

    Method

    To answer the aim a mixed-method was applied. The data collection comprised a quantitative statistical study of when young adolescence from five different teams stopped competing. Additionally, 10 qualitative interviews were conducted with six young adolescence, three coaches and Dalarnas ski associations head of management training.

    Results

    The results show that most young adolescents in Dalarnas association stops competing when they reach the age of 12-13. Furthermore, the results suggest that there isn’t just one specific reason to why young adolescence in Dalarnas stops competing. Instead five reoccurring themes: performance, other sports, parents, interpersonal relationships and physical prerequisites were found.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the age where most young adolescents stops competing is 12-13 years. Additionally that here is no simple answer to why young adolescent in Dalarna stops competing. Instead the reasons why they decide to stop competing consists of many different factors. With background from the result a conclusion can be made that there is need of improvement, from the association as well as the teams, concerning how to make competition more attractive to youth in Dalarna. The two most common areas to talk about amongst the interview subjects were performance and interpersonal relationships. Therefore those two areas might be a good starting point in the process of keeping youth in competition context.

  • 24.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bergentoft, Helen
    Göteborgs universitet.
    What would physical educators know about movement education? A review of literature, 2006-20162017In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 419-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper identifies the conceptual underpinnings of current movement research in Physical Education. Using a hermeneutic approach, four analogies for movement education are identified: the motor program analogy, the neurobiological systems analogy, the instinctive movement analogy, and the embodied exploration analogy. Three issues related to logical consistency and its relevance for movement education are raised. The first relates to tensions between the analogies and educational policy. The second concerns differences among the four analogies. The third issue relates to the appropriateness of specific analogies for dealing with certain movement contexts. In each case, strategies for improvement are considered. The paper is concluded with a brief summary along with reflections on issues that require further attention.

  • 25.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Henriksson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Bra och enkla fystester2013Book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Senior Power - Styrketräning för äldre2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Senior power: styrketrening for eldre2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Styrketräning för barn: del 2: rekommendationer i andra länder2009In: Svensk Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bellardini, Helena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mckee, Kevin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    The effect of gender on strength training in older people: a Swedish population study2012In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 27, no s1, p. 155-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical exercise contributes to healthy ageing, and strength training has beenshown to improve independence in older people.

    Method: Six hundred older people wererandomly selected from the Swedish population, and sent a self-completion questionnaire(57% response rate, n¼343) examining exercise history, current strength training, andperceived benefits and barriers to strength training.

    Results: Gender was associated with aperceived positive effect of strength training on quality of life (Women 42% vs. Men 27%).The most commonly reported benefits of strength training were better mobility (71%), energy(70%), and muscle strength (69%), with most benefits endorsed more commonly by womenthan men. The most commonly reported barriers to strength training were believing otherforms of exercise more suitable (49%) and cost (20%; Women 31% vs. Men 13%).

    Discussion:To better promote healthy ageing, interventions should be embedded in an understanding ofthe effect of gender on exercise behaviour.

  • 30.
    Bergkvist, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    5-årig åldersklassindelning är inte optimal för triathlon: En deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Bergman, Stefan
    et al.
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden. Primary Health Care Unit, Dep of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Universtiy of Gothenburg, Sweden. Dep of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund.
    Ann, Bremander
    FoU Spenshult, Halmstad, Sweden. Dep of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund. School of Busiess, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden..
    Anna-Carin, Bergman
    Sannarpsgymnasiet, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Chronic widespread pain in adolescents is highly associated to stress and anxiety2015In: Meeting abstracts: 2015 ACR/ARHP Annual Meeting, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Bergström, Julia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Särnö, Felicia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Inkludering av nya motionärer på motionsanläggningar: Motionärers föreställningar om människor som inte motionerar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The main purpose of this study was to research the practitioners of physical exercise (PPE)

    opinions about non-practitioners of physical exercise (NPPE), regarding their health, lifestyle

    and characteristics.

    Method

    To enable inclusion of NPPE to training facilities where PPE attend, knowledge of the PPEs’

    opinions about NPPE are needed. NPPE often mention that the opinions of PPE discourage

    them from start to perform physical exercise at training facilities. Therefore, it was necessary

    to research if these opinions make an actual barrier for the start of exercise in NPPEs. To

    contribute this knowledge of opinions this study was a qualitative interview study with semi

    structured interviews.

    Result

    The respondents described health as a state of experienced balance between physical and

    physiological health. Unhealthiness was described by the opposite; imbalance. The

    consequences of this described imbalance are mentioned as fatigue, lack in concentration,

    overweight, high risk in diseases and decreased quality of life. What the respondents

    mentioned about a NPPE as an individual, were that they only did what's necessary, are

    unhealthy, lead an unbalanced lifestyle and suffer a higher risk of afflict the consequences

    mentioned above.

    Conclusion

    This study shows that the PPE do have opinions about NPPE. What is shown most clearly is

    that the respondents are more confident describing unhealthiness or the lifestyle choices

    associated with an unhealthy lifestyle, rather than describing the characteristics of unhealthy

    individuals. The study examines that the PPEs’ opinions about NPPE could be an actual

    barrier for NPPE to start performing physical exercise at training facilities where PPE

    perform their physical exercise. If these opinions are reflected in the environment of the

    training facilities, is not defined through this study and would require further research.

  • 33.
    Bergström, Max
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Glader, David
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Betydelsefulla faktorer för framgångsrika idrottskarriärer inom längdskidåkning och skidskytte2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cross country skiing is one of the most demanding endurance sports where the duration of physical effort during a competitive event usually lasts from three minutes up to four hours, or sometimes even longer. To reach national or international elite level, an athlete generally needs to invest 20 to 30 hours of training a week over many years. In biathlon, an athlete not only has to be a good skier, but also be able to carry a rifle and shoot on targets during high intense work load. The aim of this study was to identify athletes' own experiences of the crucial factors that allow for long and successful sport careers in cross country skiing. The study was qualitatively orientated, where semi-structured interviews were used to collect the athlete's perceptions. In total, nine individuals with at least 10 years of competitive cross country skiing or biathlon experience as adults at national or internationallevel participated. The interviews revealed several factors that athletes believe are crucial for achieving long and successful careers. These factors were: 1. Training and organization, 2. Socioeconomic factors, 3. Talent and genetic potential and 4. Recovery. To maintain long and successful careers in cross country skiing, athletes perceive that in addition to factors associated with the training process, support from family, their team and sponsors play important roles.

  • 34. Bishop, David J.
    et al.
    Thomas, Claire
    Moore-Morris, Tom
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Sahlin, Kent
    Mercier, Jacques
    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to training improves mitochondrial adaptations in rats2010In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 299, no 2, p. E225-E233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested the hypothesis that reducing hydrogen ion accumulation during training would result in greater improvements in muscle oxidative capacity and time to exhaustion (TTE). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups (CON, PLA, and BIC). CON served as a sedentary control, whereas PLA ingested water and BIC ingested sodium bicarbonate 30 min prior to every training session. Training consisted of seven to twelve 2-min intervals performed five times/wk for 5 wk. Following training, TTE was significantly greater in BIC (81.2 +/- 24.7 min) compared with PLA (53.5 +/- 30.4 min), and TTE for both groups was greater than CON (6.5 +/- 2.5 min). Fiber respiration was determined in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), with either pyruvate (Pyr) or palmitoyl carnitine (PC) as substrates. Compared with CON (14.3 +/- 2.6 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)), there was a significantly greater SOL-Pyr state 3 respiration in both PLA (19.6 +/- 3.0 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)) and BIC (24.4 +/- 2.8 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)), with a significantly greater value in BIC. However, state 3 respiration was significantly lower in the EDL from both trained groups compared with CON. These differences remained significant in the SOL, but not the EDL, when respiration was corrected for citrate synthase activity (an indicator of mitochondrial mass). These novel findings suggest that reducing muscle hydrogen ion accumulation during running training is associated with greater improvements in both mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial respiration in the soleus.

  • 35. Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Nordenskiöld, Ulla
    Lindstrand, Jane
    Brodin, Nina
    Rosengren, Jenny
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Development of measuring devices for evaluating hand force in rheumatoid arthritis2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Björkholm, Nicole
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Finn, Camilla
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Fem veckors träningsintervention utankostreglering påverkar intekroppssammansättningen hos överviktiga vuxna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe purpose of the present study was to investigate whether relatively cheap and simpletraining intervention without food adjustments in a realistic environment can positively affectbody composition in only five weeks. The training methods the present study intended toexamine were high intensity interval exercise (HIIT) and low intensity walks.Methods14 adults with a body mass index between 25-35 kg/m2 completed a five-week trainingintervention without food adjustments. Relative and absolute fat mass and lean mass wasmeasured before and after the intervention with dual-energy X-ray absorbation (DXA). Thestudy subjects were divided into two groups where one group was instructed to complete HIITfor 30 minutes three times/week and the other group was instructed to complete three 60minutes low intensity walks three times/week at an intensity of 65% of their maximal heartrate.ResultsThe results did not show any significant differences in relative fat mass, absolute fat mass orlean mass in HIIT or low intensity walks after five weeks of training. p>0,05 for each value.ConclusionThe results of the present study show that a five week training intervention consisting of HIIT30 minutes three times/week or low intensity walks 60 minutes/week without foodadjustments does not affect the body composition in overweight adults.

  • 37.
    Björner, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Stjernqvist, Hanna
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Musik – en outnyttjad resurs inom hälsofrämjande arbete: Musikens potential att understödja arbetsmetoden FaR®2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The inactivity in society contributes to increased illness and so-called lifestyle- and welfare diseases which can lead to overweight, obesity and premature death. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether music can act as a motivator and work as an effective support to the physical activity referral (PaR®) Method: Literature study with systematic analysis. Results: PaR® is a work method within the health care system which aims to promote physical activity. The method has potential for development and there is adequate evidence that music can be an effective support to PaR®. We have identified limitations and therefore developed the method by adding music as a motivating component. Conclusion: Music has shown positive qualities in terms of increased motivation and adherence to physical activity. Music has therefore the potential to act as a motivating component in the working method PaR®. Increased adherence to the prescriptions is essential to improve the health for insufficiently active patients. In the long term benefit the public health.

  • 38.
    Blom, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Musikens inverkan på prestationen hos Trumslagare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    the purpose of this study was to see if the performance in the form of number of arrests of drummers were influenced with the help of music. Since the year 2000 so is it a sport that goes under the epithet" Extreme sport drumming" World’s Fastest Drummer (WFD) where it is at in 1 minute to make as many raids as possible on a snare drum. During these competitions used music as a tool without the participants perform the operation only to the sound that d that they do by the gambling. Method: The Method used in this study is of kvasiexperiment design in which the dependent /independent variable measured. In the study, eight adult professionals entered their experience ranges between 15 and more than 40 years’ total in the exercise of drumming. All participants used the same music where the song was" the Living dead" with Entombed and from the album Clandestine that gave out in 1991. Initially, participants were to perform step 1 without music to in subsections 2 to repeat the procedure again with the music. After completed the test answered the participants on how they experienced the music: Motivating, Annoying, or indifferent. Results: During this study was no significant difference detected between the conditions, some of the participants performed better without music than with. Conclusion: in Order to achieve an adequate effect of the music, so it seems that it has the best effect during the working hours where it then goes to draw the focus towards the music, and thus perform better.

  • 39.
    Boqvist, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Varkki, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Mitt barns fysiska aktivitet: En enkätundersökning om föräldrars inställningar och attityder till sitt barns fysiska aktivitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this survey was to examine parents approach and attitude against their children’s physical activity.

    Method

    The survey has been chosen as the method in the study and has been distributed online. The survey has been developed by validated questionnaires and via a newsletter from a school sent to parents whose children are in grade eight. A municipality in central Sweden has been contacted by a convenience sample and then recommended the chosen school. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and in quantitative data the numbers of participants were compiled.

    Result

    Parents mostly believed that their children should be physically active and readily outside organized sports. The results have also shown that parents believe that the school is important in the promotion of varied physical activity.

    Conclusion

    Nine out of ten parents felt that their children should be physically active. The parents felt that children mainly should be active outside of organized sports and made it clear that they are the mainstay when children are active. The parents felt that their children should be introduced to physical activity through the school or by the child’s own interest. Further research should aim to examine what the obstacles and opportunities are in the parents' preferences and attitudes to a child to be physical active. Because of the low number of participants the validity were considered inadequate and the result is only representative of the group that participated.

  • 40.
    Brelin, Rickard
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Färnström, Joel
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Fenomenet Timeouter inom Idrotten Ishockey: Sammanställning av matchstatistik från SHL säsongen 2017/18 & spelare, samt tränares och spelares erfarenheter på fenomenet timeouter inom ishockey.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of the study is to analyze match statistics of timeouts from the 2017/18 season of the Swedish Hockey League (SHL) and based on the analysis obtain coaches and players approach experiences off timeouts.

    Method

    Method during the study was a mixed method, whit both a qualitative and a quantitative research through interviews and statistical compilation of statistics from SHL seson 2017/18. The study's selection to the interviews was coaches and players at the elite level in the sports ice hockey and match statistics was taken and compiled from the Swedish Ice Hockey Association's database from the 2017/18 season in SHL.

    Results

    The result of the study shows that during the SHL season 2017/18 less than half of possible timeouts were taken and most of the timeouts were taken in the third period of teams in lower positions in games. During the timeouts, the trainers are most active and the interviewees' overall experience is that the powerbreak has a major impact on numbers of timeouts and that coaches are waiting to take their timeouts to the end of the matches.

    Conclusion

    The conclusions of this study are that the powerbreak has a major impact on that less than half of the timeouts being use. Powerbreaks has become an extra timeout when teams gets a longer break one time per period during the matches. This means that teams save their timeout to the end of the matches. Most timeouts are taken by teams in lower positions and by teams at the bottom of the table. Which is logical since teams at the bottom of the table are more often in lower position at the end of matches when most timeouts are used.

  • 41.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Two different sets of hand exercises improved grip strength after eight weeks in patients with arthritis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Herö, Johan
    Lundgren, Lina
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Increasing Activation of the Gluteus Medius using a New Training Device2012In: Journal of Sport and Health Research, ISSN 1989-6239, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 311-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The gluteus medius (GM) is a strong abductor and medial rotator of the thigh, and plays an important role in stabilizing the pelvis and controlling the knees during athletic activities.Weakness in the GM can have adverse effects onperformance and increase the risk of lower extremityinjuries. The aim of this study was to validate a newtraining device by comparing the activation of theGM when performing a squat with and without thedevice. Methods: Thirty-two female athletes (mean age 20 ± 3) performed body weight squats on and offthe device, while surface electromyography wasrecorded bilaterally on the GM. Results: All testsubjects were able to perform the squat and toactivate the GM. The activation of the GM was significantly higher when using the new device than when performing squats on the floor (Z=-4.9,P<0.001). Correlation tests between a complete sequence of three squats and one selected repetition revealed that activation was consistent throughout theexercise (right GM: rs=0.93, P<0.001, left GM:rp=0.92, P<0.001). No differences in activation were found between the right and left GM when squatting on the device. Conclusion: The newly developed training device increases muscle activity in the GM during squats. Moreover, the results showed thatsquatting on the device activates the left and rightside of the body equally, and that the GM was activated during the whole hip flexion exercise. This information and the new training device can be usedin training programs to improve stabilization of the pelvis and lower extremities during dynamic exercises.

  • 43.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Boustedt, Cecilia
    Nordenskiöld, Ulla
    A grip force over 104 Newton is associated to less activity limitations and pain in women with hand ostheoarthritis2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lunds universitet.
    Qualitative differences in the muscle activity in the forearm flexor and extensor muscles in healthy men and women in different ages2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, no s3, p. 755-755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Medical Science.
    A new electronic grip force measurement device for hand evaluation2013In: Abstracts of the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology EULAR. June 12-15, 2013. Madrid, Spain, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hand grip force is a good indicator of general muscle strength and can also be used to predict multiple outcomes such as changes in activities of daily living (ADL), disability, mortality and general upper extremity strength. Hand grip force is often measured as the amount of static grip force a subject can produce when measured with a hydraulic dynamometer such as the Jamar or with an electronic device such as the Grippit. The Grippit device measures an average grip force, a peak grip force and force over a set time period. Grippit has shown good reliability for healthy subjects. Grippit, which was developed over 20 years ago in Gothenburg, Sweden is no longer manufactured. Therefore, the need for anewly developed and modernized measurement instrument for use in evaluating hand rehabilitation has arisen.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the newly developed instrument GRIP-it and to describe and validate the relationship between grip force measurements from GRIP-it and the original Grippit device.

    Methods: Healthy controls (n=43) were included in the study. Two devices were used to evaluate grip force (Newton, N), (i) GRIP-it a newly developed device and (ii) Grippit. Both instruments were used to measure mean and maximal force over 10 seconds.

    Results: GRIP-it displayed a mean measurement error of -1.7 ± 0.5% and the corresponding error for Grippit was -1.6 ± 1.9%. All subjects completed the grip force tests and the results for three attempts for each hand. The test-retest reliability was excellent for both pieces of equipment, with ICCs ranging from 0.963 to 0.947 (CI 95% between 0.103 and 0.041) for GRIP-it and from 0.979 to 0.968 (CI 95% between 0.087 and 0.042) for Grippit.

    Relationships between Grippit and GRIP-it

    There was a significant difference between the measured values derived from Grippit and GRIP-it for both the dominant hand (P < 0.001) and the non-dominant hand (P < 0.01). Grippit gives in general a higher grip force measurement than GRIP-it which is also indicated by the slope (β1) of the regression lines that deviates from 1. However, there were no substantial differences in the grip force when comparing the measurements for the dominant hand with the non-dominant hand for either Grippit (P = 0.071) or GRIP-it (P = 0.404). Based on these non-significant differences between hands and the fact that the model estimates for the intercept (β0) and the slope (β1) are contained within the confidence intervals of the model estimates for the opposite hand, a combined model was derived. The linear regression analysis, with grip force measurements for both hands included, gives: GRIP-it = 49.0 + 0.779 · Grippit. This explains 89.6% of the variance in grip force analyzed by GRIP-it (P < 0.001) see Figure 2. To enable an estimation of grip force measured by Grippit based on GRIP-it values a regression analysis with Grippit as dependent variable gives: Grippit = -18.1 + 1.15 · GRIP-it, which explains 89.6% of the variance in grip force analyzed by Grippit (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: This study showed that GRIP-it has excellent test-retest reliability. Measurements of grip force with GRIP-it are strongly related to those from the original Grippit. The newly developed GRIP-it shows great potential for use in the assessment of hand function and the evaluation of hand rehabilitation.

  • 46.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. School of Business and Engineering, Department of Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics and Health, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad County Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bremander, Ann
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden 7 Research and Development Center, Spenshult, Oskarstrom, Sweden.
    Differences in muscle activity during hand dexterity tasks between women with arthritis and a healthy reference group2014In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 15, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Impaired hand function is common in patients with arthritis and it affects performance of daily activities; thus, hand exercises are recommended. There is little information on the extent to which the disease affects activation of the flexor and extensor muscles during these hand-dexterity tasks. The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation during such tasks in subjects with arthritis and in a healthy reference group.

    Methods. Muscle activation was measured in m. extensor digitorium communis (EDC) and in m. flexor carpi radialis (FCR) with surface electromyography (EMG) in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n = 20), hand osteoarthritis (HOA, n = 16) and in a healthy reference group (n = 20) during the performance of four daily activity tasks and four hand exercises. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) was measured to enable intermuscular comparisons, and muscle activation is presented as %MVIC.

    Results. The arthritis group used a higher %MVIC than the reference group in both FCR and EDC when cutting with a pair of scissors, pulling up a zipper and—for the EDC—also when writing with a pen and using a key (p < 0.02). The exercise “rolling dough with flat hands” required the lowest %MVIC and may be less effective in improving muscle strength.

    Conclusions. Women with arthritis tend to use higher levels of muscle activation in daily tasks than healthy women, and wrist extensors and flexors appear to be equally affected. It is important that hand training programs reflect real-life situations and focus also on extensor strength.

  • 47.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nilsdotter, Anna
    Department of Research and Education, Halmstad Central Hospital.
    Thorstensson, Carina
    Lunds universitet.
    Bremander, Ann
    Lunds universitet.
    Hand flexor and extensor muscle activity in daily activities and hand exercises in women with rheumatoid arthritis or hand osteoarthritis2012In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 71, no s3, p. 754-754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Parker, James
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Grip force and muscle activity are associated with kinematics in the golf swing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Petersson, Johan
    Riggberger, Kenneth
    Olsson, Charlotte
    Unilateral Strength Training With Maximal Velocity Improves Lower Body Power Outcome And Movement Velocity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Brorsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Thorstensson, C.
    Nilsdotter, A.
    Bremander, A.
    Two different sets of hand exercises: improved grip strength after eight weeks in patients with arthritis2014Conference paper (Other academic)
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