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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Mohamed Kheyr
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Taylor rule and monetary policy: Does the Taylor rule describe the monetary policy in Sweden?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1993, economist JB Taylor (1993) observed that the monetary policy in the USA is described by a simple rule, which today is known as the Taylor rule. Since then, many studies were conducted to determine whether Taylor rule explains the monetary policy of central banks all over the world. This study aims to investigate whether the Taylor rule can describe monetary policy in Sweden as initially specified by Taylor (1993). Monetary policy in Sweden from 1995: Q1 to 2018: Q2 is compared to the monetary policy of the USA during the Greenspan years ( 1987: Q4 to 2006: Q1). An ordinary least squares regression method (OLS) is used to estimate the reaction function of the monetary policy of both Sweden and the USA. The results of this study show that the Taylor rule does no describe Monetary policy in Sweden. In contrast, the results show that the US monetary policy during the Greenspan years can be described by the Taylor rule.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Sadeq Mohamed
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Vaziri, Kamran
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes: The Case of Sweden2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to health problems and the negative externalities associated with cigarette consumption, many governments try to discourage cigarette consumption by increasing its price through taxation. However, cigarette, like the other addictive goods, is viewed as that it is not sensitive to demand rules and the market forces. This study analyses the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. We used Swedish time series data from 1970 to 2010.

    Our results reveal that though cigarette is addictive substance its demand is sensitive to changes in the price. Estimates from this study indicate short-run price-elasticity of -0.29 and the long run price elasticity of -0.47.

  • 3.
    Akbulutgiller, Kazim
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Applicatiion of Almost ideal demand system for a pharmaceutical2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen)Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an application of the Almost Ideal Demand System approach of Deaton and Muellbauer,1980, for a particular pharmaceutical, Citalopram, in which GORMAN´s (1971) multi-stage budgeting approach is applied basically since it is one of the most useful approach in estimating demand for differentiated products. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug that is used in the treatment of major depression. As for most other pharmaceuticals whose the patent has expired, there exist branded and generic versions of Citalopram. This paper is aimed to define its demand system with two stage models for the branded version and five generic versions, and to show whether generic versions are able to compete with the branded version. I calculated the own price elasticities, and it made me possible to compare and make a conclusion about the consumers’ choices over the brand and generic drugs. Even though the models need for being developed with some additional variables, estimation results of models and uncompensated price elasticities indicated that the branded version has still power in the market, and generics are able to compete with lower prices. One important point that has to be taken into consideration is that the Swedish pharmaceutical market faced a reform on October 1, 2002, that aims to make consumer better informed about the price and decrease the overall expenditures for pharmaceuticals. Since there were not significantly enough generic sales to take into calculation before the reform, my paper covers sales after the reform.

  • 4.
    Akram, Muhammad
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Do crude oil price changes affect economic growth of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh?: A multivariate time series analysis2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes empirically the effect of crude oil price change on the economic growth of Indian-Subcontinent (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh). We use a multivariate Vector Autoregressive analysis followed by Wald Granger causality test and Impulse Response Function (IRF). Wald Granger causality test results show that only India’s economic growth is significantly affected when crude oil price decreases. Impact of crude oil price increase is insignificantly negative for all three countries during first year. In second year, impact is negative but smaller than first year for India, negative but larger for Bangladesh and positive for Pakistan.

  • 5. Andersson, Mats
    et al.
    Blomberg, H
    Ingelsson, M
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Wiklund, Eva
    Östlund, Bo
    Utvärdering av alternativa taxesystem för lokal kollektivtrafik: Införande av nolltaxa i Kristinehamn1999Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6. Ankarhem, Mattias
    et al.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Quoreshi, Shahiduzzaman
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Do Regional Investment Grants Improve Firm Performance?: Evidence from Sweden2010Ingår i: Technology and Investment, ISSN 2150-4059, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 221-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of Swedish regional investment grants during 1990-1999 on firm performance, in terms of returns on equity and number of employees, were studied using a propensity-score matching-method to control for sample selection. Firms that received grants did not perform better in terms of returns on equity when compared to matched firms in the control group. In most years, recipient firms also did not hire more employees. The results thus cast doubt on the use of regional investment grants as a general policy instrument to improve firm performance.

  • 7.
    Anna, Klerby
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Osika, Ingrid
    Intersektionalitet och psykosomatik: Sociala positioners roll i relation till psykisk ohälsa2013Ingår i: Psykosomatik i teori och praktik / [ed] Walter Osika, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1, s. 59-80Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här kapitlet handlar om hur kön och andra sociala kategorier som t.ex. klass, ålder, etnicitet, religiös tillhörighet och sexualitet, påverkar processerna som skapar psykosomatiska problem, liksom för vägen till tillfrisknande. De nu mest tongivande teorierna beskrivs, liksom de specifika utmaningar forskare inom detta område möter, samt framtida forsknings- och utvecklingsområden. Exempelvis saknas konsensus för hur psykosomatiska tillstånd ska dokumenteras och klassificeras vilket medför svårigheter i att beräkna förekomsten av tillstånden, och därmed även att exempelvis göra hälsoekonomiska analyser. Vi som skriver detta kapitel är nationalekonomer och hoppas att du som läsare kan se vårt tvärvetenskapliga synsätt som en möjlighet att berika och utveckla medicinsk diagnostik, klinisk tillämpning och forskning.

  • 8.
    Anna, Klerby
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Osika, Ingrid
    Jämställdhetsintegrering av offentliga budgetar2011Ingår i: Jämställdhet i verksamhetsutveckling / [ed] Kristina Lindholm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2011, s. 95-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det saknas ofta ett genusperspektiv när man ska fördela samhälleliga resurser och besluta om investeringar. En viktig fråga är därför hur vi kan integrera ett genusperspektiv när vi synar samhällsekonomin och de offentliga budgetarna. I detta kapitel kommer vi att ge exempel på hur en verksamhet kan genomföra genusmedvetna budgetanalyser. Vår budgetanalys bygger på insamlad statistik från två förvaltningar i Botkyrka kommun under 2008, 2009 och 2010. Det är omsorg- och serviceinsatser till äldre samt kultur- och fritidsverksamhet. Förutom att beskriva analysens olika steg visar vi vilka resultaten kan bli och hur man kan tänka kring förändring av den ojämställdhet som framkommer.

  • 9.
    Areflykt, Lucas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Löne – och sysselsättningseffekter genererade av återinförandet av ROT-avdraget 2008: En undersökning av svenska aktiebolag med Difference-in-Difference metod2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att analysera eventuella löne- och sysselsättningseffekter generade av återinförandet av ROT-avdraget 2008. Återinförandet sågs som en permanent åtgärd med målet att motverka så kallade svartarbeten och öka byggandet i Sverige. Vi vill med denna undersökning utvärdera vilka löne- och sysselsättningseffekter som ROT-avdraget bidragit till. En difference-in-difference metod kommer att användas för att analysera data insamlade från aktiebolag i Sverige, aggregerat till branschnivå. Aggregeringen görs för att våra resultat skall vara direkt jämförbara med tidigare studier, samt för att inte exkludera den effekt som orsakas av att nya företag i dessa branscher kan ha startats på grund av reformen. Difference-in-difference metoden går ut på att en behandlad grupp bestående av de byggbranscher som påverkats av ROT-avdragets införande jämförs med en kontrollgrupp bestående av övriga branscher före och efter reformen. Våra resultat visar att den genomsnittliga lönesumman per anställd inte påverkats av reformen, medan reformen givit en ökning i det genomsnittliga antalet anställda i ROT-branscherna.

  • 10.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Nilsson, Jan-Erik
    Intelligenta försäkringar för person- och lastbilar2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Smarta försäkringar ger färre trafikolyckor2006Ingår i: Ekonomisk debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, nr 6, s. 6-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att uppnå högt ställda trafiksäkerhetsmål måste trafikanterna förmås att sänka hastigheten. Artikeln argumenterar för att smarta försäkringspremier som belönar dem som kör trafiksäkert kan bli ett viktigt instrument för detta ändamål. Försäkringsbolagen blir därmed samhällets agenter i kampen för att successivt minska antalet olyckor.

  • 12.
    Axelsson, Sandra
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Sysselsättningseffekter i svenska aktiebolag av införandet av RUT-avdraget: En Difference-in-Differenceanalys2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har gjorts med syftet att utvärdera sysselsättningseffekterna i svenska aktiebolag av införandet av RUT-avdraget. RUT-avdraget infördes 2007 och innebär att privatpersoner kan få göra skattereduktion för olika typer av hushållsarbeten. Datamaterialet som används i denna studie är bokföringsdata för alla Sveriges aktiebolag mellan 2000 – 2010, aggregerat till tresiffriga SNI-koder för alla de svenska kommunerna. Utifrån datamaterialet har RUT-avdragets sysselsättningseffekter analyserats med hjälp av en Difference-in-Differencemodell. Resultatet visar att RUT-avdraget gjort att 6930 nya arbeten har skapats i de svenska aktiebolag som ingår i RUT-sektorn. Detta innebär alltså att RUT-avdraget har haft en positiv effekt på sysselsättningen.

  • 13. Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    Lundgren, Jens
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Market power in the expanding Nordic power market2011Ingår i: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, nr 9, s. 1035-1043Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine if the Nordic power market, Nord Pool, has been competitive or if electricity suppliers have had market power. Specifically, since the evolution from national markets to a multi-national and largely deregulated power market has taken place stepwise, we also examine how the degree of market power has evolved during this integration process. The Bresnahan-Lau method together with weekly data during 1996-2004 are used in the analysis, which shows that electricity suppliers have had small, but statistically significant, market power, but that the market power has been reduced as the Nord Pool area has expanded

  • 14.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Econ, Dept Inst Environm & Expt Econ KIE, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Res, Stockholm, Sweden.;Dalarna Univ, Dept Econ, Borlange, Sweden..
    Hellstrom, Jorgen
    Umea Univ, Umea Sch Business & Econ, Umea, Sweden..
    Does social trust speed up reforms?: The case of central-bank independence2016Ingår i: Journal of Institutional Economics, ISSN 1744-1374, E-ISSN 1744-1382, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 395-415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries have undertaken central-bank independence reforms, but the years of implementation differ. What explains such differences in timing? This is of interest more broadly, as it sheds light on factors that matter for the speed at which economic reforms come about. We study a rich set of potential determinants, both economic and political, but put special focus on a cultural factor, i.e. social trust. We find empirical support for an inverse u-shape: Countries with low and high social trust implemented their reforms earlier than countries with intermediate levels. We make use of two factors to explain this pattern: the need to undertake reform (which is more urgent in countries with low social trust) and the ability to undertake reform (which is greater in countries with high social trust). Overall, our findings imply that culture matters for institutional change.

  • 15.
    Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Institutional Economics, Faculty of Economics, University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Social trust and central bank independence2014Ingår i: European Journal of Political Economy, ISSN 0176-2680, E-ISSN 1873-5703, Vol. 34, s. 425-439Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Central banks have become more independent in many countries. A common rationale has been the existence of a credibility (or lack-of-trust) problem for monetary policy. This indicates a possible and until now unexplored link between social trust and central-bank independence. Our empirical findings, based on data from 149 countries, confirm such a link, in the form of a u-shaped relationship. We suggest that two factors help explain this finding: the need for this kind of reform and the ability with which it can be implemented. At low trust, the need for central-bank independence is sufficiently strong to bring it about, in spite of a low ability to undertake reform. At high trust, the ability to undertake reform is sufficiently strong to bring high independence about, in spite of a low need for it. At intermediate trust levels, lastly, neither need nor ability is strong enough to generate very independent central banks.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå Universitet.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Reforming the Swedish pharmaceuticals market: Consequences for costs per defined daily dose2016Ingår i: International Journal of Health Economics and Management, ISSN 2199-9023, E-ISSN 2199-9031, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 201-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies’ purchase prices). The empirical results suggest that the cost reductions were caused by the introduction of a price cap, an obligation to dispense the lowest-cost generic substitute available in the whole Swedish market, and the introduction of well-defined exchange groups. The reforms thus reduced the cost per defined daily dose for consumers while being advantageous also for the pharmacies, who saw their retail margins increase. However, pharmaceutical firms supplying off-patent pharmaceuticals experienced a clear reduction in the price received for their products.

  • 17.
    Bergman, Mats A
    et al.
    Södertörn University .
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Squeezing the last drop out of your suppliers: An empirical study of market-based purchasing policies for generic pharmaceuticals2017Ingår i: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 969-996Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 18.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Nationalekonomi, Södertörns högskola.
    Granlund, David
    Nationalekonomi, Umeå Universitet.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Apoteksmarknadens omreglering: Effekter på följsamhet, priser och kostnader per dygnsdos2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Apoteksmarknadens omreglering: Effekter på följsamhet och priser2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Biedrzycki, Remigiusz
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Sports venues’ effect on social welfare: Cost-Benefit analysis of infrastructure investments within Lugnet area in Falun.2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic analysis and evaluation of sport events and sports infrastructure is a widely

    researched topic, especially when it comes to mega-sports events. As many of major and

    mega events require large amount of resources, governments and municipalities worldwide

    have to make decisions regarding support for the events. To determine whether and to what

    extent events should be subsidised with public resources, a thorough analysis of potential

    impacts of the event has to be conducted. Most of the studies within this field choose

    Economic Impact Analysis as a method, while many researchers point out a need for costbenefit

    analysis, as only a comprehensive analysis of costs and benefits for society can justify

    public subsidies for sport events and sports infrastructure. This paper presents a cost-benefit

    approach of sports venue evaluation. A cost-benefit analysis made in this paper, on the case

    of Swedish outdoor area of Lugnet, Falun, presents possible effects of sports infrastructure

    investments on social welfare. Analysis was aimed towards investments made prior to

    hosting 2015 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Falun. Presenting results for three

    alternative scenarios, this study compares different effects on social benefit. This research

    paper highlights areas that need to be investigated to ensure the better quality of the results,

    thus it can be beneficial for further studies of the topic. Results presented in this paper can

    also be beneficial for policy makers, as many of the potential welfare effects were described.

  • 21.
    Biedrzycki, Remigiusz
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Eriksson, Sebastian
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Är det samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt att byta material från impregnerat trä till träkomposit givet att en renovering av Långbryggan i Rättvik är planerad?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    För närvarande är Långbryggan i Rättvik gjord av impregnerat trä. Förr eller senare kommer

    det behövas en renovering och då står kommunen inför ett val. Denna studie presenterar två

    av de möjliga alternativen - renovera i impregnerat trä eller träkomposit. Frågan har

    studerats ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv med extra fokus på samhällsekonomisk

    effektivitet. Vi använde oss av en kostnadsnyttoanalys för att bestämma vilket projekt av de

    två som är det lönsammare. I vår analys inkluderade vi kostnader för den initiala

    investeringen, underhållskostnader samt kostnader för olycksfall. Vi testade våra resultat i

    en känslighetsanalys där vi använde oss av Monte Carlo-simulering med avseende på

    diskonteringsräntan och olycksfallskostnader. I vår studie har vi visat möjliga effekter som

    de båda projekten kan ha på trä- och träkompositsmarkander, arbetsmarknaden, Rättviks

    kommun, Långbryggans säkerhet och miljön. Resultatet av våra analyser visade att båda

    projekten har ett negativt nettonuvärde, dock är träkompositprojektet mer

    samhällsekonomiskt lönsamt eftersom det har ett lägre negativt värde.

  • 22. Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Johansson, Dan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Sjögren, Hans
    A note on employment and gross domestic product in Swedish family-owned businesses: a descriptive analysis2011Ingår i: Family Business Review, ISSN 0894-4865, E-ISSN 1741-6248, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 362-371Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government gathers information that helps identify family-owned businesses and enabled us to analyze every business in the economy over a longer period than has heretofore been reported. Using these data, we found that family-owned businesses account for up to one fourth of total employment and one fifth of GDP in Sweden. These shares have increased over time, due in part, to economic policy. We compare our findings with other studies and suggest how Sweden and other governments might make family firm data more readily available for researchers.

  • 23.
    Bjuggren, Carl Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Johansson, Dan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    IFN, Stockholm.
    Using self–employment as proxy for entrepreneurship: some empirical caveats2012Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ISSN 1476-1297, E-ISSN 1741-8054, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 290-303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self–employment is the most frequently used measure of entrepreneurship. However, its definition varies between countries, which makes comparisons difficult. We present an analysis of Swedish self–employment data and show that even within one country, the depicted development differs greatly depending on the source used. Unlike previous claims in cross–country studies, we find that there is no basis for categorising Sweden as having increased its self–employment rate more than others. This demonstrates a need to carefully specify the characteristics of the data, and their advantages and disadvantages, before drawing conclusions about the frequency of entrepreneurship in different countries.

  • 24. Björklund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Influences of infrastructure and attitudes to health on value of travel time savings in bicycle journeys2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how attitudes to health and exercise in connection with cycling influence the estimation of values of travel time savings in different kinds of bicycle environments (mixed traffic, bicycle lane in the road way, bicycle path next to the road, and bicycle path not in connection with the road). The results, based on two Swedish stated choice studies, suggest that the values of travel time savings are lower when cycling in better conditions. Surprisingly, the respondents do not consider cycling on a path next to the road worse than cycling on a path not in connection to the road, indicating that they do not take traffic noise and air pollution into account in their decision to cycle. No difference can be found between cycling on a road way (mixed traffic) and cycling in a bicycle lane in the road way. The results also indicate that respondents that include health aspects in their choice to cycle have lower value of travel time savings for cycling than respondents that state that health aspects are of less importance, at least when cycling on a bicycle path. The appraisals of travel time savings regarding cycling also differ a lot depending on the respondents’ alternative travel mode. The individuals who stated that they will take the car if they do not cycle have a much higher valuation of travel time savings than the persons stating public transport as the main alternative to cycling.

  • 25. Blom, Carin
    et al.
    Junkka, Fredrik
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Vestin, Henrik
    Den osynliga värdeskaparens framtid2011Ingår i: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, nr 3, s. 157-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hos gemene man anses partihandel ofta vara detsamma som ledet mellan producent och detaljhandlare. Partihandeln är emellertid betydligt mer komplex än så. Partihandeln består av flera olika delbranscher som kan vara mycket olika varandra. En del partihandelsbranscher ligger närmare detaljhandeln, medan andra har mycket gemensamt med tillverkningsindustrin. I denna artikel presenteras statstik över den Svenska partihandelns betydelse i ekonomin, dess geografiska spridning illustreras grafiskt, och slutligen genomförs tre fallstudier av Svenska partihandelsföretag. I de tre fallstudierna anges några faktorer ha större betydelse än andra för partihandlarnas framtid. Dessa faktorer, som diskuteras utförligt i artikeln, är bland annat teknologisk utveckling, internationalisering, och en förändrad konkurrenssituation.

  • 26.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Örebro universitet, Handelshögskolan vid Örebro Universitet.
    Unseen job creators and firm growth barriers: the role of capital constraints and seniority rules2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of how the institutional framework affects firms’ hiring decisions.

    The first article focuses on a group of firms, called sleeping gazelles, that do not grow despite having high profits. Sleeping gazelles constitute a much larger share of the firm population than that of high-growth firms. If it is growth barriers that are hindering these firms from hiring more employees, many new jobs could be created if these barriers were removed. To investigate the effects of one of the suggested growth barriers in the literature, the second article, focuses on whether small-firm growth is hampered by lack of capital. Using survey data from business owners matched with register data, we find that firms may face a capital constraint paradox, whereby the supply of external capital might be sufficient, but firm owners might refrain from accessing it due to fear of losing control of their companies. The third article investigates whether employment protection acts as a growth barrier in Sweden. Using a reform of the Swedish last-in-first-out (LIFO) rule, we estimate the causal effects from a liberalization of the employment protection. We find that firm growth increased because of the reform and that a more expansive reform could provide new job opportunities and increase overall employment. The LIFO rule was introduced to protect older workers. The fourth article investigates whether the reform weakened the labor market position of these workers. It is found that more young individuals who were unemployed or previously not in the workforce were hired as a consequence of the reform, showing that the reform lowered youth unemployment. There is no indication of older workers leaving the workforce or becoming unemployed to any greater extent after the reform. The fifth article show that the positive effects of the reform were limited to native workers, with no effects on the labor market position of immigrants. The effects depend on the relative insider-status of employees, so that groups of employees who are closer to being insiders benefit more from less-strict employment protection legislation than groups that are further from being insiders.

  • 27.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Örebro University.
    Unseen Job Creators and Seniority Rules: Two essays on firm growth barriers2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Örebro universitet; HUI Research .
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research .
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Osynliga jobbskapare: En tillväxtpotential för svensk detaljhandel?2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den stora merparten av alla detaljhandelsföretag karakteriseras av ingen eller en marginell tillväxt av antalet anställda. Dessa företag betraktas ofta som en homogen grupp bestående av företag med inga tillväxtambitioner och som näringspolitiken inte bör inriktas gentemot. I denna rapport visar vi dock att de företag som inte växer i själva verket är mycket heterogena. Mer än tio procent av alla detaljhandelsföretag som inte växer under en treårsperiod kännetecknas av en relativt hög lönsamhet. Dessa företag kallar vi för de sovande gasellerna eftersom tidigare studier har visat att hög lönsamhet är en viktig faktor för en långsiktigt hållbar framtida tillväxt av antalet anställda. Andelen sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln är cirka 1,5 till 2,35 procentenheter fler än i ekonomin som helhet. Hälften av dessa detaljhandelsföretag kommer inte heller att öka antalet anställda i kommande perioder, trots att de fortsätter att ha en hög lönsamhet eller en lönsamhet i paritet med det genomsnittliga företaget. Detta visar att det finns en dold tillväxtpotential inom detaljhandeln i Sverige som inte har realiserat. Resultaten från studien visar också att de sovande gasellerna inom detaljhandeln inte är slumpmässigt dragna ur företagspopulationen, utan att det framförallt är små företag som väljer att inte expandera verksamheten mellan två treårsperioder. De sovande gasellerna är inte heller slumpmässigt fördelade geografiskt i Sverige. De kommuner som har en hög andel sovande gaseller inom detaljhandeln under en tidsperiod tenderar att även ha det i kommande tidsperioder, vilket indikerar att det finns geografiska förklaringar till varför vissa företag inte växer trots att de har en god lönsamhet. Avsaknaden av tillväxt hos dessa företag kan antingen förklaras av att de inte har några tillväxtambitioner, oavsett villkoren för företagande; alternativt att de vill växa, men inte under rådande förutsättningar. Om den senare förklaringen är giltig kan reformer som minskar tillväxtbarriärer för detaljhandelsföretagen generera många nya arbetstillfällen.

  • 29.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Employment protection legislation and firm growth: Evidence from a natural experiment2017Ingår i: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 169-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish reform in 2001 made it possible for firms with less than 11 employees to exclude two from the last-in-first-out principle in case of layoffs. The reform increased employment growth with over 4000 additional jobs per year among firms with five to nine employees. Firms with 10 employees became 3.4 percentage points less likely to increase their workforce, indicating that the introduced threshold kept them from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small firms.

  • 30.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Employment Protection Legislation and Firm Growth: Evidence from a Natural Experiment2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A natural experiment is used to identify the causal relationship between employment protection legislation and fi…rm growth. The natural experiment occurred in Sweden in 2001, when an exemption made it possible for fi…rms with less than eleven employees to exclude two workers from the last-in-fi…rst-out principle when dismissing personnel. The estimated average treatment effect of the reform show that the number of employees increased with 0.135 percent in fi…rms with 5-9 employees relative to fi…rms with 10-15 employees, which corresponds to over 5,000 additional jobs per year created by the reform. Firms with ten employees, just below the size threshold, became 3.4 percent less likely to increase their workforce to a level surpassing the threshold, indicating that the last-in-…first-out rule prevented these …firms from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small fi…rms.

  • 31.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Sleeping gazelles: High profits but no growth2014Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 0740-7416, Vol. 34, nr 17, s. 1-16, artikel-id 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability firms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997- 2010, almost 10% did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profits. Nearly half of these firms continued to have high or medium profits in the next threeyear period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these firms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profit-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more beneficial to focus policy towards these firms instead of towards a few high-growth firms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 32.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Sleeping gazelles: The unseen job creators?2015Ingår i: Entrepreneurial growth: Individual, firm, and region / [ed] Corbett, A.C., Katz, J.A., and McKelvie, A, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, s. 161-185Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-growth firms have recently received considerable attention in the firm growth literature. These firms might have grown despite the existence of growth barriers, and evidence also suggests that, having already grown exponentially, they may not be in the best position to grow further. Policies targeting high-growth firms may therefore be misdirected. We argue that entrepreneurship researchers should concentrate more on firms that are not hiring, despite having high profits. We call these firms “sleeping gazelles,” and demonstrate that they represented almost 10% of all limited liability firms in Sweden from 1997 to 2010. Nearly half of these firms continued to earn high or moderate profits in subsequent three-year periods, while still displaying no growth. Regression analyses indicate that these firms were significantly smaller, older, more likely to be active in industries with high profit uncertainty, and more likely to be located in less densely populated municipalities than were corresponding growing firms.

  • 33.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Örebro university.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-olov
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    The unseen job creators: Growth potential among non-growing …firms2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability fi…rms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997-2010, almost 10 % did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profi…ts. Nearly half of these …firms continued to have high or medium pro…fits in the next three-year period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these fi…rms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profi…t-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more benefi…cial to focus policy towards these …firms instead of towards a few high-growth fi…rms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 34.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Örebro universitet; HUI Research.
    Johansson, D.
    Palmberg, J.
    The capital constraint paradox in micro and small family and nonfamily firms2016Ingår i: Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, ISSN 2045-2101, E-ISSN 2045-211X, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 38-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of the entrepreneur’s quest for independence and control over the firm for governance and financing strategies with a special focus on family firms and how they differ from nonfamily firms.

    Design/methodology/approach – The analysis is based on 1,000 telephone interviews with Swedish micro and small firms. The survey data are matched with firm-level data from the Bureau van Dijks database ORBIS.

    Findings – The analysis shows that independence is a prime motive for enterprises, statistically significantly more so for family owners. Family owners are more prone to use either their own savings or loans from family and are more reluctant to resort to external equity capital. Our results indicate a potential “capital constraint paradox”; there might be an abundance of external capital while firm growth is simultaneously constrained by a lack of internal funds.

    Research limitations/implications – The main limitation is that the study is based on cross-section data. Future studies could thus be based on longitudinal data.

    Practical implications – The authors argue that policy makers must recognize independence and control aversion as strong norms that guide entrepreneurial action and that micro- and small-firm growth would profit more from lower personal and corporate income taxes compared to policy schemes intended to increase the supply of external capital.

    Originality/value – The paper offers new insights regarding the value of independence and how it affects strategic decisions within the firm.

  • 35.
    Bostedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Magdalena
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    RUT-avdragets påverkan på löner ochsysselsättning inom sektorn för hushållsnäratjänster2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att studera vad RUT-avdragets införande 2007 har

    inneburit för anställda inom befintliga svenska aktiebolag inom RUT-branschen. RUTavdraget

    är en skattesubvention som innebär att privatpersoner kan få hushållsnära tjänster

    utförda till ett reducerat pris. Undersökningen har gjorts genom att empiriskt studera hur

    genomsnittlig lönesumma per anställd och genomsnittligt antal anställda i befintliga svenska

    aktiebolag har förändrats inom RUT-branschen mellan åren 2006 och 2008, allt annat lika.

    För att studera detta användes en difference-in-difference-metod med fixa effekter och

    robusta standardfel. Datamaterialet som användes till undersökningen var bokföringsdata från

    aktiebolag som samlats in av PAR. I undersökningen ingick 2 506 företag inom RUTbranschen

    och totalt 74 798 observationer. Resultatet visar att i genomsnitt har det inom de

    befintliga aktiebolagen inom branschen skapats 1,4 nya jobb per företag och årslönerna för de

    anställda i dessa företag har i genomsnitt ökat med 10 931 kronor per anställd. Totalt innebär

    det att 3 065 nya jobb har skapats i dessa befintliga aktiebolag, vilket kan sättas i relation till

    tidigare undersökningar som visat att den totala ökningen av antal anställda i genomsnitt varit

    ca 5 700 personer. Tidigare har inte löneeffekter till följd av RUT-avdraget studerats, vilket

    innebär att detta arbete bidrar med ny forskning inom ett område som inte studerats tidigare.

  • 36.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Sabah, Azhar
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Turismvetenskap.
    Turism och besöksnäring i Dalarna: Storlek, struktur och lokalisering2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Potential research areas for big data in tourism2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?2014Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 703-717Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

  • 39.
    Bruset, F
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Hagberg Andersson, M
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Konsumentöverskott på Peace & Love-festivalen: En jämförande undersökning av betalningsvilja och konsumentöverskott på Peace & Love-festivalen 2011 och 20162018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att uppskatta betalningsvilja och konsumentöverskott

    för Peace & Love-festivalen 2016 för att sedan jämföra resultatet med en tidigare

    studie av betalningsviljan och konsumentöverskottet för Peace & Love-festivalen

    2011. Den tidigare studien är skriven av Dahlqvist och Laham (2016). Ämnet

    undersöks med hjälp av en regressionsanalys. Analysen på festivalen 2016 bygger

    på data från en enkätundersökning som insamlats under festivalen. Besökarnas

    självrapporterade

    totala budget, vilket är den beroende variabeln, likställs i studien

    med deras maximala betalningsvilja. Den oberoende variabeln kön visade sig inte

    statistiskt signifikant,

    ceteris paribus, medan inkomst påverkar den totala budgeten

    positivt med i genomsnitt 281 kronor per ökad inkomstgrupp om 10 000 kronor

    bruttoinkomst per månad. Vidare spenderar en turist i genomsnitt 652 kronor mer

    än en icke-turist. Om personen betalat biljetten själv påverkar det den totala

    budgeten negativt med ett snitt på 1 695 kronor, medan antalet dagar de spenderat

    på festivalen ökar den totala budgeten med i genomsnitt 413 kronor för varje dag.

    Ålder påverkar den totala budgeten negativt med ett snitt på 17 kronor per år äldre

    respondenten är. När sambandet mellan den beroende variabeln och en oberoende

    variabel beskrivs så antas resterande oberoende variabler vara konstanta,

    ceteris

    paribus

    . Besökarnas genomsnittliga betalningsvilja uppskattades till 2 223 kronor

    per besökare och 31 122 000 kronor för alla 14 000 besökare. Den genomsnittliga

    konsumtionen uppskattades till 2 444 kronor per besökare och

    34 211 965 kronor

    för samtliga besökare. Vidare uppskattas konsumentöverskottet till -221 kronor per

    besökare och för samtliga besökare uppskattas konsumentöverskottet till

    -3 089

    965

    kronor, vilket innebär en minskning med 130 procent från år 2011 då

    konsumentöverskottet uppskattats till drygt 37 miljoner kronor.

  • 40.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 41.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 42.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Measuring transport related CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 40, s. 28-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 43.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports2017Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 97, s. 47-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 44.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 45.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimal retail location and CO2 emissions2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2 emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2 emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2 emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25percent. 

  • 46.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimal retail location and CO2-emissions2013Ingår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, nr 14, s. 1357-1361Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2-emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2-emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2-emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25 per cent.

  • 47.
    Chaudhry, Sajjad Mahmood
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    The Difference Between De Jure and De Facto Central Bank Independence2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, many central banks of the world over have been made independent. This paper empirically analyzes the difference between de jure and de facto independence; examining the concept of central bank independence (CBI) and with a focus on social trust, and the effectiveness of these two variables with regard to reducing the rate of inflation. Countries are grouped into four categories in line with Arnone et al’s (2007) index. The categories are i. All countries, ii. Advanced countries, iii. Emerging countries and iv. Developing countries. The results are obtained by simple correlation and the ordinary least square (OLS) regression analysis. The results indicate that both CBI and social trust have a significant effect on inflation in all countries while social trust also has a significant effect on inflation in advanced countries to reduce inflation. It seems social trust plays a more critical role than CBI in affecting inflation. Developing countries with high levels of social-trust usually also have fewer independent central banks, which could be an indication that such countries feel no need to implement CBI-reforms. For more developed countries, it appears trust is not as important for the level of CBI. That being said, in low-trust countries, social trust does not seem to have any effect.

  • 48.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Umeå university.
    CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 193-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960–2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bidirectional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

  • 49.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    CO2 Emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data sets spanning the period 1960-2008: one for 150 countries and the others for sub-samples comprising OECD and Non-OECD economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries

  • 50.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Economic growth and environmental quality: an econometric and a decomposition analysis2007Ingår i: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 568-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the emissions of CO2 in Italy during 1861 to 2002.The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is applied to explore the relationship between CO2 emissionand Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. An Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA) is also appliedto investigate changes in emissions between 1990 to 2002. Several factors contribute to change in theemission of CO2. These factors generally include a scale effect, a technological effect and a compositioneffect.

    Design/methodology/approach – The main discussion in the paper is about the exiting of EKC in Italy and how a decomposition analysis can be used to look behind the time series of the environmentalaccounts.

    Findings – The findings in the paper indicate the typical inverted “U” form of EKC is not confirmedwith our data set for Italy. According our econometric results, there is a positive relationship betweeneconomic growth and CO2; following the trend, the maximum emission of CO2 per capita in Italy wouldbe reached when the GDP per capita will be about 26900 US$ (turning point). Basically, two majorforces have determined the increase of CO2 pollution in Italy over time: eco-efficiency (pollution permonetary unit of output) and volume effect (volume growth of Value Added).

    Practical implications – The decomposition method performed in this paper allows us to analysewhich sectors are responsible for CO2 emissions and quantify the magnitude of the theoretical factorsexpected to influence the emission. The method used for the decomposition analysis can also beapplied by countries with lack of time series Input-Output data.

    Originality/value – The investigation in the paper of the existing of EKC allows to know at whichlevel of income the CO2 emissions will start decreasing in Italy. The analysis is based on a long timeseries (141 years). Decomposition analysis can be considered a tool, which helps to detect whether theincrease of CO2 is mainly due to economic growth or technological change.

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