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  • 1. Miljan, Goran
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Anders E. B.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, History.
    The unwanted citizens: The ‘Legality’ of Jewish destruction in Croatia and Romania during World War II2023In: Comparative Legal History/ Hart Publishing, Oxford, ISSN 2049-677X, E-ISSN 2049-6788, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 226-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the establishment of the legal framework that led to the destruction and elimination of Jewish communities in Croatia and Romania during World War II. It argues that both regimes, supported by domestic fascist ideologies, evolving antisemitism, and inspired by the Nazi regime, promulgated anti-Jewish legal norms to present and establish new political, ideological, and social values and categories to their citizens. This article employs the theoretical framework of norms developed by Paul Morrow, whereby norms are seen as practical prescriptions, permissions or prohibitions. We argue that these destructive norms served as guidelines for individuals within the fascist new worldview and new reality. As such, these norms received state authorisation and implementation, serving as the ‘legal’ basis for the institutional destruction of unwanted citizens. This gave local and state actors a ‘legal’ pretext for the persecution and murder of Jews, who were stripped of their rights, assets, properties and right to life. The article concludes that the two legal frameworks enacted the process by which Jewish communities in Croatia and Romania faced a devastation of unseen proportions, which testifies to the importance and impact of legal norms on individuals, be they victims, bystanders or perpetrators.

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