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  • 1.
    Boluk, Karla
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Exploring the discourses used to sell heritage in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage tourism is a form of niche tourism which has emerged as an alternative to mass tourism. However the discourses used to market some heritage products generally appeal to an elite group in society who are demanding. Thus heritage tourism is marketed and packaged in a way to appeal to an exclusive group who are interested in tailor-made products that provide some entertainment value. The aim of this paper is to investigate the marketing strategies and goals for tourism development, from the perspective of two World Heritage Sites (WHS) in Sweden including the Great Copper Mountain in Falun and the Old Church Town in Luleå. Accordingly, the discourses used to sell heritage in the context of Sweden are discussed. A mixed-methods approach was used by the authors to carry out this investigation. The results of the analysis revealed that the heritage presented in the two cases are marketed as exclusive and as such, preclude the participation of some individuals. Furthermore, it was established that enhanced communication between WHS products and Sweden and other tourism products would improve visitation.

  • 2. de la Barre, Suzanne
    et al.
    Maher, Patrick
    Dawson, Jackie
    Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin
    Huijbens, Edwards
    Lamers, Machiel
    Liggett, Daniela
    Müller, Dieter
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Stewart, Emma
    Tourism and arctic observation systems: Exploring the relationships2016In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS) contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  • 3.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heritage tourism and inherited institutional structures: the case of Falun Great Copper Mountain2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 11, no 1, 54-75 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the local resource that a mine represents and analyses the role of stakeholders and institutions during the development of heritage tourism. The paper aims to examine the role of stakeholders and their interpretation of heritage in the management process in the case of the Great Copper Mountain World Heritage Site in Falun, Sweden. The paper focuses on local strategies for developing heritage tourism in which concepts of institutions and path dependency in terms of inherited social and economic structures can shed light on more general local development processes. The empirical material consists of interviews, official documents and marketing material. While the goal of many of the interviewed stakeholders is to promote tourism development, a common view is often lacking in terms of what the tourist product is or how the role of the World Heritage Site can be interpreted with regard to tourism activities. There are also sceptical voices regarding the development of activities and attractions devoted to entertainment without educational purposes. The marketing texts focus on the landscape and the 17th century system of production, which further supports the view that the preservation of the remnants from this period will be prioritised in contemporary management policies. The present paper interprets this concept as an indication of the strength of the institutions and ideas that promote the importance of education and historical facts related to mining communicated by former mining-related stakeholders as well as by heritage organisations, including UNESCO.

  • 4.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mine as a resource for regional development: mining and cultural tourism institutions and landscapes in Falun and Kiruna2006In: Conference ”World heritage – current research questions”, Falun, 16-17 November, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A mine is not only a site for the production of minerals. The industrial landscape surrounding the mine with the large slag heaps and typical buildings and environments have for hundreds of years been a symbol of production processes, profitable business and hard work. The very same landscape is now interpreted and given quite different meaning depending on the role of the mine in place specific contexts and a global system of production and consumption processes. In the mines of Falun and Kiruna the industrial landscapes are used and given meaning in different ways. One of the reasons for this is that the mine in Falun has been closed since 1992 and the mine in Kiruna is still in use. The landscape as a symbol for the history of the mining and its surrounding activities in Falun are now developed for different types of experience-related activities. The mine in Falun is also classified as a world heritage by UNESCO which gives the mine a special status as an important cultural heritage site. In Kiruna the industrial landscape of the mine is not primarily a landscape of experiences and cultural preservation. The mining company, Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) is planning to expand the production with enormous consequences for the town of Kiruna and its cultural heritage. At the same time the industrial landscape of the Kiruna mine is also a potential resource for experiences both in terms of the historical mining town with its old church but also the spectacular mountains of waste stones and the sound of the ongoing production under ground.

  • 5.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mines and places in transition: The production and consumption of industrial landscapes in Falun and Kiruna2006In: Världsarvskonferens - forskning om världsarvet, Falun, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mines and places in transition: The production and consumption of industrial landscapes in Falun and Kiruna.2007In: Session: Geographies of Cultural Industries and Tourism, Bergen, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays a mine is seeing not only as a site for the production of minerals. The very same landscape is now also interpreted and given quite different meaning depending on the role of the mine in place specific contexts and a global system of production and consumption processes. Depending on this perspective there are two localities of Falun and Kiruna where the industrial landscapes are used and given meaning in different ways. In Kiruna the iron ore production in response to the external markets demand is expanding. It is a reality that the central parts of the city will be relocated in order to avoid the risk of damage due to the operations in the mine. The latter way of using the natural resource is looked upon as a traditional and thus of an unquestionable matter. Transition to the post-industrial society in Europe made it clear that even mines should be given a different role or face. The transition from one type of industrial production system to more consumer-oriented and highly of a cultural/historical importance is one the way in Falun. Are these ways of seeing the mine contradict with each other? How do they contribute to the overall economic development in these two localities? Our project aims to examine the similarities/differences between the two production systems in order to get deeper understanding of processes that generate regional growth.

  • 7.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tourism development in the Russian Arctic: Reproducing or challenging the hegemonic masculinities of the frontierIn: Tourism, Culture & Communication, ISSN 1098-304X, E-ISSN 1943-4146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    World Heritage and tourism innovation: institutional frameworks and local adaptation2014In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 22, no 8, 1625-1640 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in heritage as a tool for destination development has recently been substantial in Sweden, especially when it comes to receiving World Heritage (WH) status. The possibility of using the WH brand in developing tourism products and marketing destinations has great potential for many heritage destinations. The aim of this paper is to discuss innovation processes within heritage tourism. The focus is on the role of WH status as a factor influencing innovative practices at different Swedish WH sites. This study uses qualitative methods, such as interviews and analysis of written material from five selected Swedish WH sites, with in-depth analysis of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun. To what extent does WH status change the preconditions for tourism development at WH destinations? What is the role of institutional frameworks in this process? This paper will show how WH may facilitate tourism innovation mainly through developing new products and marketing strategies, but also by institutional innovations concerning new forms of collaboration and networks.

  • 9.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Hinnerth, Andreas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The quest for snow: Adaptation strategies of alpine skiing destinations in Sweden2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of climate change is considered one of the major challenges that the winter sport tourism industry faces today. Sälen, one of the major skiing destinations in Sweden, is situated in the southernmost part of the Swedish mountain range and is therefore one of the most vulnerable destinations when it comes to the effects of climate change. The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss adaptation strategies to climate change that have been implemented in Sälen, with a special focus on increased snowmaking. We discuss snowmaking in relation to alternative adaptation strategies such as increased summer tourism, and relate the adaptation strategies encountered in Sälen to how destinations in the Austrian Alps, which have warmer temperatures, have approached the situation. Those that we interpret as adaptation strategies are mainly focused on maintaining the mass touristic character of winter sports destinations and even extending the production of downhill skiing. These strategies of adaptation and development demand continued intensive snowmaking and an even accentuated quest for snow. However, Sälen is trying to overcome its dependence on downhill skiing as its sole and dominant activity. The strategy of developing summer tourism is problematic, however, not least in relation to the parallel advance in increased snowmaking. 

  • 10. Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jansson, Bruno
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Effects of climate change and extreme events on forest communities in the European North2008In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 87, no 1-2, 235-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European north is increasingly affected by changes in climate and climate variability. These changes and their causes are global in scope but specific impacts vary considerably between different regions. Recent incidents and events show that forest-resource based regions have difficulties in alleviating adverse effects of these changes. Also, the future socio-economic impact is to date unexplored. Norrbotten in Sweden, Lappi in Finland and Arkhangelsk oblast in Russia are regions that differ significantly in terms of their socio-economic characteristics and capacities. A modified employment multiplier model is used to predict future changes. Scenarios of changing forest resources provide quantitative estimations of the sensitivity of regional employment. These estimates are used to assess and discuss the adaptive capacities of the regions. Results show that Arkhangelsk oblast is more vulnerable to climate variability than Norrbotten and Lappi. This is due to the continued dependency on natural resources in combination with different capacities to counteract negative effects or to take advantage of the opportunities offered by climate change in this region

  • 11.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Arctic Tourism: Realities & Possibilities2014In: Arctic Yearbook 2014: Scholarly Articles, Section II: Regional Economy & Properity / [ed] Dr. Lassi Heininen, Arctic Portal , 2014, 1-17 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses human capital in the Arctic in relation to tourism. More specifically, with an ever-increasing number oftourists recognizing the attractiveness of the Arctic, tour companies are increasingly recognizing the opportunities. The media(typically southern media) sells the image, either before or after the tourists arrive, and communities are often left to deal with therepercussions – whether those are social, economic, environmental, or the like. Many of the repercussions are negative; however,even when perceived as positive they can create tensions within small communities and showcase a variety of capacity issues.This paper focuses on the realities and possibilities of tourism in the Arctic. It offers an up-to-date descriptive overview of tourismnumbers and valuations. In addition, ‘realities’ also focuses on the current suite of challenges and ‘possibilities’ addresses criticalquestions that need to be asked as tourism grows. We are in an uncertain age and academic critique of the Arctic tourismphenomenon is growing as quickly as the numbers. This paper is almost fully circumpolar in outlook, written by individuals fromthose jurisdictions, and aims to intersect with other sectors active in the Arctic.

  • 12.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Circumpolar Indigenous Tourism and Empowerment in a Context of Russian Arctic Territories2012In: 3rd Conference of the International Polar Tourism Research Network (IPTRN) From talk to action: How tourism is changing the Polar Regions, Nainm Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador), Canada, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian Arctic territory is an area which significantly influences Russian socio-economic development. It is considered as an important element for the future development of the whole nation, with the hope to utilise its natural wealth discovered during the last decades. Moreover, these considerations are now placed into the context of the faith of the indigenous people inhabiting this vast territory. In contemporary society, both national and regional policies have been influenced in an effort to find alternative ways of engaging the indigenous people in the process of development. This paper aims to identify and analyse the issues influencing process of general tourism development in the Russian Arctic. This done by the re-evaluation of regional tourism planning process and existing products, as well as the marketing strategies of the eight administrative units of the territory of the Russian Arctic, including Murmansk, Arkhangelsk (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) and Tumen oblasts (Jamal-Nenets Okrug), Krasnoyarsk Krai (Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets municipal rayon), Sakha Republic, Chukotka autonomous okrug. Although these territories possess unique natural and cultural characteristics suitable for the development of unique tourism products this potential is either not utilised or only partly utilised. It is possible to identify clear losers as well as the leaders in this process. This situation is often dependent on the level of the engagement of the public organisations, as well as private companies within the natural resource extraction sector. It is an important condition for a successful implementation of the desired tourism development, as well as for the indigenous tourism product development.

  • 13.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Cruise tourism development on the territory of Russian Arctic National Park: realities and future possibilities2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Problems and future potentials for the further development of cruise tourism development on the territory of National Park 'Russian Arctic' is a focus for the keynote speech. Current development of the cruise ship tourism in Northwestern Russia (Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions) is characterized by a great level of institutional instability. Number of controlling authorities on state and regional level has grown dramatically over the past decade during the 2000s. However, the stakeholders on the local and regional level proved to be active and flexible agents of change which contributes to the valuable process of knowledge transfer among the destinations, for example Svalbard and National Park ‘Russian Arctic’. AECOS’s led project concerning the development of site-specific guidelines initiated several years ago resulted in the set of guidelines applied onto the sites on Franz Josef Land. These initiatives along with other actions taken by local and regional authorities of both Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions towards further development of cruise tourism allow for careful optimism.

  • 14.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Cultural heritage of the northern territories: some aspects of its preservation and use: Examples from Kiruna, Northern Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Developing Nenets Indigenous Tourism: Institutional Settings and Every Day Realities2014In: ICASS VIII: Book of Abstracts, Prince George, University of Northern British Columbia: International Arctic Social Sciences Association (IASSA) , 2014, 75-75 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Development of the marginal forested areas of the Russian European North2004In: CyberGeo: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1278-3366, Vol. 289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the development of the forest sector in the marginal forested areas of the Russian North based on the utilisation of the river basins providing raw material and serving as the natural link between the previously established core and periphery. The forest sector is an important factor in the economic development often serving as the only source of the human subsistence and well-being of these areas. The role of the marginal areas remaining the source of a continuous raw material supply to the main manufacturing centres is crucial. The period of recent Post-Soviet development has showed that marginal areas are becoming increasingly active and concerned with promotion of their economic development by restructuring, rationalising and modernising the forest-based activities.

  • 17.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Falun Copper Mine a World Heritage Site. Disparate contentions regarding the Ways of Use2007In: Researching Destination Management, Policy and Planning:Linking Culture, Heritage and Tourism, Riga, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays a mine is seen not only as a site for the production of minerals. The very same landscape is now also interpreted and given quite different meaning depending on the role of the mine in place specific contexts and a global system of production and consumption processes. Depending on this perspective there are two localities of Falun and Kiruna where the industrial landscapes are used and given meaning in different ways. In Kiruna the iron ore production in response to the external markets demand is expanding. It is a reality that the central parts of the city will be relocated in order to avoid the risk of damage due to the operations in the mine. The latter way of using the natural resource is looked upon as a traditional and thus of an unquestionable matter. Transition to the post-industrial society in Europe made it clear that even mines should be given a different role or face. The transition from one type of industrial production system to more consumer-oriented and highly of a cultural/historical importance is one the way in Falun. Are these ways of seeing the mine contradict with each other? How do they contribute to the overall economic development in these two localities? Our project aims to examine the similarities/differences between the two production systems in order to get deeper understanding of processes that generate regional growth.

  • 18.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heritage for Sale?: Representations of the Swedish World Heritage Sites2009In: Association of American Geographers, Las Vegas, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in heritage as a tool for development has been substantial in recent years in Sweden, especially when it comes to the importance of receiving a World Heritage status. Most of the Swedish World Heritage sites were accepted on the UNESCO’s World Heritage Convention list during a very short period of time during the 1990s. Since then the ambitions of the local actors have still been strong and has resulted in five additional nominations during the beginning of the 2000s. There are two more sites that are on the tentative list of properties that could be considered for future nomination by the Convention. How can this interest in receiving the status of World Heritage be analysed and understood? Is it a reflection of the contemporary commodification of culture within a global tourism system? The process of commodification and promotion of heritage for commercial needs is driven by a notion of global competition between places and destinations and a need for development measures in peripheral locations. It is also a process that is closely related to national, regional and local politics and policies of identity formation and economic development. This study is an attempt to examine the role of world heritage sites in the local and regional development practices and the way in which heritage resources are used to communicate specific place identities. How are the World Heritage sites communicated through advertisements and information texts on the Internet? The study is conducted as an analysis of marketing and information material on the Internet from the 14 existing World Heritage sites in Sweden. A classification and comparison of the strategies adopted by each site are also included in the study. The creation of the heritage should not be seen as a simple construction of the past for the means of preserving and consuming the results of this commodification, but as multileveled process driven by several notions, with the prevailing issues of local development and tourist consumption. The existence of these contested views on heritage representation is supported by analysis of the promotional texts from the Swedish World Heritage sites.

  • 19.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heritage for sale: Sweden’s World Heritage sites as local development projects2009In: Assosiation of American Geographers, Las Vegas, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An interest to the production of heritage in Sweden has been substantial, especially when it comes to the importance of receiving a world heritage status. Most of the Swedish heritage sites were accepted on the UNESCO’s World Heritage Convention list during a very short period of time of the 1990s. Since than the ambitions of the local actors have not being put to rest but resulted in five additional nominations during the beginning of the 2000s. There are two more sites that are on the tentative list of properties that could be considered for future nomination by the Convention. Is this a feature of a contemporary society focused on the commodification of culture being connected to the recent developments in a global tourism system? This process has certain connections to the issues of globalisation that affecting the needs for reassertion of cultural identity. There are several other factors associated with this tendency, meaning in all cases that the appearances of the heritage sites serve more than one goal. It is a combination of a less implicit national and local politics together with the more obvious commercial aims. This study is an attempt to rediscover these multiple identities with the heritage sites being a resource. How are they communicated to the user through the advertisement and information texts put up on the Internet? The creation of the heritage should not be seen as a simple construction of the past for the means of preserving and consuming the results of this commodification, but as multileveled process driven by several notions, with the prevailing issues of local development and tourist consumption. The existence of these contested views on heritage representation is supported by analysis of the promotional texts from the Swedish World Heritage sites.

  • 20.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    How to brand Tourism on the Territory of russian Arctic Regions?2012In: Bulletin of the Institute of Economics and Social Technologies, ISSN 2304-2435, Vol. 2, 37-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of the tourism activities on the territory of the Russia’s Arctic regions seems to receive increasing attention. The number of specialized conferences, forums, meetings and other gatheringsorganized by different state and federal tourism agencies, as well as private actors has increased drastically.However, it is clear that most of the tourism development has quite often unplanned, spontaneous characterand needs to be considered on a more long-term basis when it comes to planning. The level of service, tourismproducts and tourism infrastructure in most of the Russia’s peripheral regions vary considerably in comparison tothe leading administrative centres of the country, such as Moscow and St. Petersburg. One of the obvious problemswhen it comes to the fast developing market of tourism products is a lack of cooperation among its actors.Tour operators from neighboring regions are often in a state of the PR-war with each other and this leaves verylittle room for the cooperation. This means that bringing together these actors and a creation of common brandingstrategy could improve and strengthen the position of these peripheral regions nationally, as well internationally.

  • 21.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Maritime tourism in Russia: Current stage of development of Russian coastal tourism2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    No place left?: Realities of the indigenous tourism development in the Arctic Russia2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism experiences based on the culture and traditional lifestyle of the indigenous people of Russian Arctic regions promoted more frequently nowadays. Nenets Autonomous okrug, northwestern Russian Arctic territory is one of the examples where this development were underway since the beginning of 2000s. Official version of this development often highlights role of tourism development not only in preservation of Nenets heritage, but also as a mean of modern reinterpretations and revitalization of ancient traditions and practices. How accurately the official version of the role played by tourism corresponds to the reality in Nenets? What are the preconditions for this development and how well the members of the indigenous community incorporated into the process of tourism development and planning? The chapter reviews the results from the participant observations, key informant interviews and content analysis of the published material conducted under the period 2011-2014 on the territory of the okrug. Realities of the development of the indigenous tourism show a clear disparity between the actions undertaken by regional authorities and local entrepreneurs utilizing indigeneity in their tourism operations. Almost a decade of development in tourism sector did not result a development of operational system for participatory decision-making, quality assurance or safety of tourism operations, but characterized predominantly by the ad-hoc arrangements connected to the shifts in regional government or decisions taken by central government in Moscow. It becomes clear that development of alternative paths for indigenous development given a low priority, as region's economic base is dominated by oil and gas exploration.​

  • 23.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Processes of reinterpretation of mining heritage: the case of Bergslagen, Sweden2017In: Almatourism, ISSN 2036-5195, Vol. 8, no 7, 107-123 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    Mining heritage is often used as a powerful tool in maintaining a sense of place and national identity and Sweden is not different in this respect. Another important underlying motive for the revival of the mining past is an opportunity of the economic revitalisation of the space marked by the deindustrialisation process. The aim of this paper is to investigate how the mining heritage is interpreted and used for the goals of tourism destination development based on the five provinces in the middle part of Sweden – area called Bergslagen. The first decade of 2000s was characterised by the prevailing top-down approach to the regeneration process of mining landscape of Bergslagen, as it was led by the cultural elite. Thus, resulting in the absence of a diverse and innovative thinking in terms of touristic development of these destinations. Municipalities in the region ended up with the multiple mining sites trying to attract visitors with the similar types of experiences based on limited representations of regional mining heritage. Furthermore, it is suggested that enhancing communication between managers of the mining sites and other tourism experiences would help to improve visitation. Additionally, the alternative representations of the heritage may allow for a wider representation of local people, as well as an awareness of local or regional heritage of Bergslagen. 

  • 24.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Projecting Images: Marketing in the case of two World Heritage Sites in Sweden2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cultural tourism is increasingly used as a tool for the development within the medium-sized municipalities in Sweden. The World Heritage Status is looked upon as a quality stamp giving considerable destination development possibilities. Most of the Swedish World Heritage sites were accepted on the UNESCO’s World Heritage List during a very short period of time in the 1990s. Since then the ambitions of the local actors were strong and resulted in five additional nominations during the beginning of the 2000s. Several other destinations are on the tentative list of properties that could be considered and nominated by the Convention in the future. Previous studies have indicated that managing cultural sites has not always being an easy task. The institutions which role lies in promoting the development on the local arena could in fact become an obstacle. These different interest groups involved in the formation of the heritage make it difficult to form a joint promotion strategy covering a wider audience of users. Cultural or heritage tourism is an example of niche tourism, which is highly specialised and targeting only a certain limited group. Marketing strategies adopted by World Heritage Sites help to identify and support this notion adopted by destinations. This study helps to gain a deeper understanding in how these different heritage sites are promoted to the specific interest group. Are these promotional strategies inclusive or exclusive? The research is based on the text analysis of the marketing and information material on the Internet from the 14 existing World Heritage sites in Sweden. There were some 700 pages of written material analysed in total. The texts were organised into groups related to place description and tourist activities, for example shopping, and dining. The preliminary results support the notion of the tourism industry adjusting itself towards more sophisticated and experienced travellers in their search for small-scale and unique activities. Heritage tourism is a good example of a small-scale niche product. The heritage for sale has to be presented in the way that is going to fit the new niche which has replaced the conventional industrial type of tourism. In order to maintain tourist flows to the heritage sites, involved actors have to diversify and scale down their business strategies. The concept of a place as being unique or of exceptional value with the help of the World heritage status is going to increase its attraction power. The study material allows for a classification (typology) of the World Heritage Sites according to the use of heritage as it promoted to the tourists.

  • 25.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rejuvenation of tourism space: myth or reality?: Looking at the examples from the Russian Arctic Communities2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic regions are increasingly dominating global debates concerning the range of effects of the climate changes, especially when it comes to the new possibilities for the natural resource exploitation. Rapid changes in the Arctic open up for a series of discussions connected to the political stability, control and cooperation in this region. At the same time, further exploitation of the considerable natural wealth of the territories of the Russian Arctic calls for a discussion on the role of alternative pathways, especially when it comes to the impacts on the indigenous communities of the region. Tourism activities, if developed, could provide an alternative path for the development of local communities. Central government has recently announced a new development strategy for the Russian North where the sustainable tourism development is named as one of the possible alternative ways for developing marginalised indigenous communities, as well as the part of more open attitude towards foreign visitors in this area. This region is believed to become “an important cultural and economy centre in a Barents region and on the Russian North” already year 2030. However, since the Russian Arctic is facing an increased environmental degradation due to the massive oil and gas exploration operations it is unlikely that a sustainable development of tourism is possible without other sectors of economy following in the same direction. The purpose of this paper is to investigate a current state of the development of the tourism sector in the Nenets autonomous okrug (NAO), as well as to identify primary stakeholders in the context of the tourism development in the region. What are the institutional and political conditions affecting tourism development nowadays? How the system of resource management is organised when it comes to the utilisation and the access to the natural resources, at the same time claimed by other industries? The identification of the primary stakeholders is made through analysis of official documents, as well as web-pages of relevant organisations (governmental, public and private), textual material from daily press sources relevant to the case study are analysed and interpreted. The semi-structured interviews with several actors from different levels of authority will be conducted in order to obtain in-depth insights concerning the present development of the tourism sector. In line with previous research it is possible to conclude that considerable marketing efforts, including investments on basic infrastructure to facilitate tourist flows are necessary in order to fulfil some of the visions towards the role of tourism sector for the Russian Arctic communities. The peculiarities of the highly centralised administrative structure of the Russian resource management system make it highly improbable to ease a burden of the regional and local governmental organisations when it comes to opening up for alternative uses of natural reserves and natural parks by private actors. Rejuvenation of the tourism space in case of NAO is highly questionable due to the strong presence of the hydrocarbon sector in the region and without serious state interventions will remain rather a myth then a reality.

  • 26.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Russian Arctic Ports: Problems with the development and management of tourist flows2012In: Опыт и перспективы развития туризма в крупных приморских городах [Текст] : сборник материалов II международной научно-практической конференции, 6 декабря 2011 года / М-во образования и науки Российской Федерации, Федеральное гос. бюджетное образовательное учреждение высш. проф. образования "Санкт-Петербургский гос. ун-т экономики и финансов, St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential changes to the territory of the Russian Arctic open up unique possibilities for the development of tourism. More favourable transport opportunities along the Northern Sea Route (NSR) create opportunities for tourism development based on the utilisation of the extensive areas of sea shores and river basins. A major challenge for the Russian Arctic sea and river ports is their strong cargo transport orientation originated by natural resource extraction industries. A careful assessment of the prospects of current and future tourism development is presented here based on the development of regions located along the shores of the Arctic ocean (including Murmansk and Arkhangelsk oblast, Nenets Autonomous okrug (AO), Yamal-Nenets AO, Taymyr AO, Republic of Sakha, Chykotsky AO). An evaluation of the present development of tourism in maritime cities suggests that a considerable qualitative and quantitative increase of tourism activities organised by domestic tourism firms is made virtually impossible. There are several factors contributing to this. The previously established Soviet system of state support for the investments into the port facilities as well as the sea fleet were not effectively replaced by creation of new structures. The necessary investments for reconstruction could be contributed by the federal government but the priorities are not set towards the increased passenger transportation. Having in mind, increased environmental pressures in this highly sensitive area it is especially vital to establish a well-functioning monitoring and rescue system in the situation of ever increasing risks which come not only from the increased transports along the NSR, but also from the exploitation of the offshore oil and gas reserves in the Arctic seas. The capacity and knowledge established in Nordic countries (Norway, Finland) concerning cruise tourism should not be underestimated and the already functioning cooperation in Barents Region should expand towards this particular segment of the tourism industry. The current stage of economic development in Russia makes it clear that tourism development is not able to compete with the well-needed increase in the cargo transportation, which means that Russia’s fleet is going to be utilised by other industries. However, opening up this area to both local and international visitors could contribute to the economic prosperity of these remote areas and if carefully managed could sustain already existing maritime cities along the shores of the Arctic Ocean.

  • 27.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Territory for brave man: Gendered tourism practices in the Arctic2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote territories of the Russian Arctic have been subjects of conquest and exploration. Historically men dominate the stories connected to these events. Analysis of recent tourism trends suggests that tour operators continue to utilise it rather than challenge this notion. Russian Arctic ‘snowscapes’ that tourism products and services present reinforce the masculinity of these experiences and thrive on visitors’ ability to overcome the Arctic’s extreme conditions. This trend corresponds to previous development in the region during the Soviet period, which exploited the area and led to environmental degradation and resource depletion in some areas. To gain a better understanding of the current situation, it is vital to address the relationships between men and women and their connections within this landscape that provides visitors with the chance for a ‘snowscape’.

     

    This paper examines the images created by tourism providers in one of Russia’s Arctic regions. For whom are these images created? Do they target and attract both female and male consumers? The existing images of these territories are imbedded in the Soviet past. Operations connected to nature-based and indigenous tourism development are case studies. Service operations in these regions predominantly employ women (hotels, restaurants, shops, and so on); however, in the tundra, men predominate in service functions. Men also serve as guides and own tourism operations dealing with hunting and fishing trips. Studies of gender issues connected to tourism development in Russia’s peripheral regions provide valuable insights regarding the overall image of Arctic areas.

  • 28.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tourism development governance in the Russian Arctic: examples from Nenets AO and Sakha Republic2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenges in the roles played by public and private sector organizations in the sustainable tourism development are identified for two of the Russian Arctic regions: Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Sakha Republic. A review on the existing institutional arrangements is made including the public sector (regional and local levels), private entrepreneurship, local communities and the ways the participatory decision-making process is promoted. The evaluation of the outcomes of the present institutional framework prove to be unbalanced in order to facilitate coordinated tourism development. Furthermore, the issues arising from the unclear institutional setting influencing the creation of an integrative system of tourism distribution channels. This situation weakens the roles played by all stakeholders and gives fewer incentives for the private businesses and local communities to be involved in the tourism development activities.

  • 29.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tourism development planning and product development in the context of Russian Arctic territories2013In: From Talk to Action: How Tourism is Changing the Polar Regions / [ed] Raynald Harvey Lemelin, Patrick Maher and Daniela Ligget, Thunder Bay: Lakehead University, 2013, 41-60 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Russian Arctic territory has a significant influence on Russia’s present socio-economic development. It is considered an important component of Russia’s economic future, which is connected to the utilisation of the natural wealth discovered there during the last decades. In addition, the Russian Arctic coast is also expected to become a vital transport route between Europe and Asia. In the outlines of the state policy of Russian Federation in Arctic until 2020, tourism is seen as a tool for the sustainable development of the local communities of the Arctic, which would make it possible to safeguard the indigenous cultural heritage, language and handcrafts. However, the plans concerning the implementation of these specific goals are less detailed. The last few years have been marked by a considerable increase in interest towards tourism development of this area. Furthermore, various stakeholders in this part of Russia have already engaged in this process, which has resulted in increased visitation to the area. This paper aims to identify these stakeholders, as well as to analyse the issues influencing the process of general tourism development in the Russian Arctic. This is achieved by re-evaluating the regional tourism planning processes and existing tourist products/profiles of the seven administrative units of the territory of the Russian Arctic from west to east. These are: Murmansk and Arkhangelsk Oblast (Nenets Autonomous Okrug), Jamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets Municipal Rayon (Krasnoyarsk Krai), Sakha Republic, and Chukotka Autonomous Okrug.Although these territories possess unique natural and cultural characteristics that are suitable for the development of distinctive tourism products, this potential has either not been utilised or has been under-utilised. The analysis identified the clear losers and the leaders in this process. The situation often depends on the level of the engagement of the public administration, cooperation among the tourism providers, as well as private companies within the natural resource extraction sector. The system of integrated planning within the tourism sector, as well as deepening collaboration among the involved stakeholders are important conditions for a successful implementation of the desired tourism development, especially when it comes to indigenous tourism product development.

  • 30.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Uses of the Arctic heritage as a teaching material at the advanced level in high education: Round table discussion ”Improving the System of Training Managers for Tourism and Hospitality Sector”2011In: International Tourism Forum ”Tourism Development in the North”, UNWTO, Ministry of Youth Affairs, Sports and Tourism of the Arkhangelsk region, Arkhangelsk, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    With or without?: Realizing the benefits and risks of the increased tourism flows in the Russian Arctic2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote areas of the Russian Arctic has being increasingly utilized as pleasure peripheries for the more affluent residents of the Russian urban areas during the past decade of the 2000s. Even previously closed military settlements along the coast of the Barents and Kara Seas are now being open to the tourists. The study is based on the qualitative analysis of the experiences of two tourist companies specializing on the development of the adventure tourism experiences. The participants shared their stories on how the representatives of local political elite are trying to oppose themselves to the changing realities of the tourism development. The arguments put forward by the local residents are, however, in favor of this development claiming that tourists’ visits represent a necessary addition to their ordinary life and as one of the forces for further revitalization of the service provision and facilities that would benefit local community at first place. These opposing views should be taken into account in order to develop a strategy allowing the consolidation of the stakeholders’ viewpoints. Another serious concern, is the absence of the functioning system for the community planning that is both socially and environmentally sensitive. The reliance on nature as the source for the adventure tourism development needs to be reconsidered and adjusted to the pressures of changing climate and realities of every-day life of the Arctic rural communities.

  • 32.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    World Heritage sites as arenas for interpretation and experience production2016In: Beyond the Great Beauty: Rescaling heritage and tourism / [ed] University of Bolonga, Center for Advanced Studies in Tourism, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    World Heritage sites (WHS) are often regarded as preservation projects aimed at preserving valuable natural and cultural heritage. Lately these sites have been re-evaluated as being important arenas for experience based production. This development raises important questions regarding the commodification process of heritage. Planners need to decide what artefacts, milieus and stories to include and decide how they should be related to each other in a meaningful way. These processes are complex and involve stakeholders from different planning organizations. 

    The study utilises an example from destination development connected to the WHS in Falun, Sweden. Preliminary results show that initial focus in the establishing phase of the WHS has been driven by preservation goals. This focus has often leads to the hampering of commercial initiatives. Experience based products are always dependent on strong interpretation. The interpretation has to be done in a way to connect the visitor in sensuous and imaginative ways to the heritage. This has not been in the innitial  focus of the development in this particular case. One of the reasons for this lies in the criteria set up by UNESCO, which focuses on preservation and education. In a situation where preservation prevail there is often no space left to incorporate tourism industry’s concerns. 

  • 33.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Суррвая территория для сильных мужчин. Гендерные аспекты развития туризма в Арктических регионах Россиию2015In: Туризм среди снегов и льдов Северных регионов. Актуальная ситуация, цели и задачи.: Пятые Европейский Диалоги и Эвиане / [ed] Вероника Антонмарк, Allonzier-la-Calle: EURASIA, Universtite Paris 1, Pantheon Sorbonne , 2015, 61-77 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [ru]

    Освоение и развитие Арктических территорий России неразрывно связано с аспектом первооткрывательства и преодоления. Суровые природные условия северного края всегда как казалось, противоречили самому присутствию здесь женщины. Это становится особенно заметным при знакомстве с обстоятельствами проведения самых известных арктических экспедиций, состоявшихся в советский период освоения Севера. Вот, например, известнейшая эпопея экспедиции на пароходе «Семен Челюскин» (руководитель экспедиции О.Ю. Щмидт, капитан судна В.И.Воронин), перед которой была поставлена задача за одну навигацию пройти Северным морским путём. После гибели затёртого льдами парохода и героического спасения коллектива экспедиции имена челюскинцев стали известны всей стране. Любопытно, что в этом злополучном рейсе принимали участие   и женщины, в том числе и мама первого в мире ребенка, родившегося на пароходе в Карском море в честь которого девочку звали Кариной.

     Интересно оценить состояние современного информационного арктического пространства России по отношению к женщине, в особенности в условиях, когда большинство программ социально-экономического развития заточены на необходимость активного развития туристского сектора. Этот аспект развития индустрии туризма в Арктике, можно сказать, ещё не изучен. Развитие сферы услуг диктует необходимость активного вовлечения женщин в туризм в качестве основного рабочего агента. Однако в условиях Севера, туристические предложения официальных турфирм, явно не стремятся к активному привлечению женщин в качестве своих клиентов. Сознательно создается ли эта ситуация или она является логическим продолжением уже существующих традиций? Доклад, предлагаемый на ваше осуждение, посвящен более подробному описанию этого и ряда других вопросов связанных с общим имиджем Арктических регионов, создаваемым участниками туристической деятельности.

  • 34.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Att skapa tillgänglighet. Destinationer, marknader och transporter.2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer. Ett svenskt perspektiv. / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus; Elbe, Jörgen, Uppsala: Uppsala Publishing House , 2007, 273-288 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Dawson, Jackie
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Stewart, Emma
    Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand.
    Governance of Expedition Cruise Ship Tourism in the Arctic: A Comparison of the Canadian and Russian Arctic2015In: Tourism in Marine Environments, ISSN 1544-273X, Vol. 10, no 3-4, 225-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expedition style cruise tourism represents a significant proportion of shipping activity across the Arctic. This article compares and contrasts governance structures that manage the cruise sector from case studies located in the Canadian (Nunavut) and the Russian Arctic (Murmansk and Arkhangelsk regions). Analysis of sources, including interviews with key stakeholders, strategic tourism plans, and an inventory of institutional governance reveals that in both these locations there is no central authority to govern the growth of the industry, no specific cruise or yacht management plans, and no site guidelines for highly visited shore locations (other than in protected areas). The article concludes that under current conditions there are significant barriers to supporting development of the expedition cruise sector in both these Arctic regions.

  • 36.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Creation and re-creation of mining heritage: lessons from Kiruna in Northern Sweden2011In: Well-being in Tourism and Recreation : Book of Abstracts, Rovaniemi: University of Lapland , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several conflict arenas and differing views concerning the future development of tourism in Kiruna are discussed in this study. The necessity of relocation of parts of the town centre has attracted a considerable media attention and has been utilized to further strengthen the image of Kiruna as a unique destination, especially among international visitors. Parallel to this rather speculative development a local cultural organisation asks for careful considerations regarding preservation of heritage and buildings that symbolises the history of the mine. The study is based on interviews with principle stakeholders together with an analysis of the debate on mining heritage and tourism development in local, regional and national press between the years 2000-2010.

  • 37.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Gender relations in tourism in the Russian arctic: representations and practices2014In: Conferences at Copenhagen Business School, 23rd Nordic Symposium on Tourism and Hospitality Research: Value of Tourism for Destination, Copenhagen, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote territories of the Russian Arctic have historically been subject to conquest and exploration and depicted as a periphery for resource extraction and male adventures. Tourism has recently been introduced as an alternative source of income for indigenous groups that previously lived solely on reindeer herding. However, the tourism sector is still very small and under-developed in the area despite public policies and different national and regional projects to promote tourism. This study analyses how tourism operations in Northwestern Russia use representations of the Arctic and of gender identities in the production and promotion of tourism experiences. The representation and practices of nature- and indigenous tourism operations studied through participant observations made during field trips to the territories of Nenets Autonomous Okrug. The observations complemented with tourism stakeholders’ interviews and content analysis of promotional material from the tourism businesses in the area. The purpose of the study is to get an understanding of the content and meaning of representations and practices of tourism in the Russian Arctic.

    We analyse the cultural constructions of places shaped by gendered representations of people and indigenous culture. In what ways are indigenous men and women depicted and what types of place identities are constructed through representations and practices in tourism operations?  We follow Roy (1997) and Edensor (2000) allowing the hosts to speak and become agents in the portrayal of the contemporary tourist practices accommodating the demands of modern tourists. We find that there is a strict gender division of tasks and responsibilities within tourism in the case study area. Service operations in villages and in this region predominantly employ women (hotels, restaurants, shops, and so on); however, out in the tundra, men predominate in high status service functions such as guides within hunting and fishing trips. The results show that the promotion and tourism offers in the area strengthening the notion of (re)production of colonial representations and experiences of the place and its peoples as exotic and the “Other”. The marketing of the area stresses the possibilities to explore unspoilt and remote areas (“snowscapes”). The tourism practices in the Russian Arctic are focused on physical endurance and masculine coded activities and behaviour. 

  • 38.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tourism experiences for some of for many?: Examples From the Destination Development of Kiruna, Northern Sweden2011In: Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Seattle, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Destinations in the Arctic has been trying to position themselves in the areas of niche and small-scale tourism often claiming that this type of tourism is more sustainable and thereby also could be labelled and promoted as eco-tourism. This study focuses on Kiruna, Sweden, as an example of a destination with a unique profile that is used to attract a specific group of tourists. There are several factors attributing to the type of image that has been created and actively promoted for the tourists searching for both traditional and rather special tourism, such as polar light, midnight sun, indigenous Sami culture, nature tourism, film and music festivals, one of the deepest ongoing underground iron ore mines and space tourism. The latest developments show the signs of the destination specifically targeting more affluent visitors. The focus of this paper is to analyse the marketing strategies of the main actors at the destination and gain knowledge on how small and medium size enterprises actively choose their target groups and how they relate to the marketing of the destination of Kiruna. What are the consequences of these strategies for the businesses and for the destination as a whole? The study utilises qualitative interviews as well as secondary data available from different published and electronic sources.

  • 39.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Muller, Dieter
    Lundmark, Linda
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Role of tourism development for the sustainable development of the indigenous communities of Arctic2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Keskitalo, E. C. H.
    Representations and uses of indigenous areas in tourism experiences in the Russian Arctic2017In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, no 2, 85-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the representation of indigenous tourism experiences in advertisement materials with representations gathered from site visits and tourism sector interviews in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in northern Russia. The study shows that a majority of the visual images and text used for marketing of the area construct a picture of an indigenous people living ‘in harmony’ with nature, representing a romanticized and historical image of indigenous communities. In contrast with these marketing images, large variations exist in everyday practices and among the numerous practical considerations related to the recent and limited development of tourism in the NAO.

  • 41.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Lamers, Machiel
    Environmental Policy Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Short-circuiting cruise tourism practices along the Russian Barents Sea coast?: The case of Arkhangelsk2015In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth and popularity of polar cruise tourism in the Arctic region have raised expectations about the opportunities in this part of the world. However, the existing academic literature has never ventured further than to recall these expectations and opportunities, which means that there is hardly any insight into what is actually happening in Russian Arctic cruise tourism. This paper aims to provide a practice-based perspective with a special focus on performed and integrated practices in the production of cruise tourism along the Russian Barents Sea coast. Semi-structured interviews with key actors involved in the production of cruise tourism serve as the main source of information along with observations made during fieldwork in the Arkhangelsk region. Cruise tourism practices are facing a number of challenges in their reproduction and lack both consistency and regularity. The practice-based perspective helps to reveal how groups of actors collectively produce activities and itineraries for cruise tourists despite the structural constraints. Moreover, the paper shows how local private entrepreneurs are actively trying to configure and connect the constituting cruise tourism practices.

  • 42.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Stjenström, Olof
    Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Making Russian Arctic Accessible for Tourists: Analysis of the Institutional Barriers2014In: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 37, no 2, 137-156 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in nature protection in the European territory of Russia’s Arctic islands and archipelagoes – such as the creation of the Russian Arctic National Park – have also resulted in an increase in visitation to this area. This study uses the Key Informants’ Technique to analyze Russian tourism planning and development of this territory since 2011. The majority of the principle stakeholders identified for this study agreed that these areas have great potential for tourism development and are already attracting both foreign and Russian tourists. At the same time, impediments to foreign cruise companies and individual travelers spell rather gloomy prospects for further destination development in the area. The contradictions of the current stage of tourism development support the assumption that Russia’s territorial interests still prevail. Tourism development appears to be a top-down enterprise, organized by less experienced tourism developers and bureaucrats and without consideration for the long-term perspective.

  • 43.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå university.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå university.
    Nature-based tourism, conservation and institutional governance: a case study from the Russian Arctic2016In: The Polar Journal, ISSN 2154-896X, E-ISSN 2154-8978, Vol. 6, no 1, 112-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses current institutional arrangements connected to the protection of natural resources in developing nature-based tourism in the territories of the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Examples from two regions, the Arkhangelsk Oblast and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, illustrate how the different methods of nature conservation – national parks and nature reserves – are promoting or constraining the development of nature-based tourism activities. The study is based on 14 semi-structured interviews with representatives from state organisations as well as representatives from non-governmental organisations, and reviews of planning and policy documents. This paper discusses the factors shaping present institutional arrangements connected to environmental protection and the capability to establish planning schemes. The agencies responsible for nature-based tourism development often suffer from rudimentary tourism planning, inadequate tourism infrastructure and a lack of service management skills. In addition, there is evidence that mistrust and a lack of collaboration among governmental agencies and private stakeholders also limit development opportunities. Despite the difficulties experienced by authorities responsible for the measures of conservation and nature protection in the remote Arctic territories (Nenetsky State Nature Reserve), pockets of success are identifiable (e.g. Kenozersky National Park). The reality of the nature conservation efforts and the ability to develop nature-based activities is heavily dependent on individual engagement and interpersonal collaboration, which makes the best practices non-transferable to other contexts. So far, the current system of institutional governance limits the possibilities to increase the economic impact of nature-based tourism in the Russian Arctic.

  • 44.
    Stjernström, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Who owns this land?2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the Arctic region there is plenty of space for various activities. The Arctic region is increasingly interesting from many perspectives on different geographical levels. Exploitation of natural resources such as minerals, oil, gas and timber has over the last decades put Arctic region in focus since the global warming increases the accessibility to the Arctic but also due to the fact that the region is rich of unexploited natural resources. This development challenges or threatens to environment, local population and indigenous populations rights. It also challenges the governance of the Arctic region. In the Nordic countries local governance is a natural part of the political system. Local governance includes local population and local economic interest in the governance and planning of the local and regional level. The focus on the arctic regions also involves geopolitical interests (by security reason but also by trade reason and natural resources). This means that in many cases supranational geopolitical and or global resource interests coincide with local interests and environmental interest. This study is focused on how these interests on different geographical levels relates to each other on a specific location. The location is here Franz Josephs Land in the very far north Arctic. The study focuses three main interests. International tourism in the area, environmental issues, interests and legal framework in Franz Josephs Land, and the geopolitical interest of Franz Josephs land. The latter  relates both the strategic localization of the study area but also the proximity to natural resources.

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