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  • 1.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Drivers’ beliefs about exceeding the speed limits2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 376-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine drivers’ view on their own speeding behaviour by focusing on belief based measures as suggested by the theory of planned behaviour. A sample of car owners (N = 162) completed a questionnaire including both direct and belief based measures of the latent variables in the theory of planned behaviour. The results showed that indices constructed with direct measures of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control made a larger contribution to the prediction of drivers’ intention to exceed the speed limits in both urban and rural environments, than did indices constructed with belief based measures. An extensive set of belief composites was produced and standard multiple regressions showed which of these contributed to the prediction of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, as well as intention. The use of these findings is discussed.

  • 2.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Driver's decision to speed: a study inspired by the theory of planned behavior2006In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 427-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.71), drivers' everyday speeding behavior was predicted using the theory of planned behavior as a frame of reference. One hundred and twelve test drivers had a device installed in their vehicles that continuously logged their speeding behavior in a large area under an extended period of time. The test drivers also completed a questionnaire including questions inspired by the theory of planned behavior. It was found that the independent variables stipulated in the theory afforded a level of prediction of drivers' self-reported speeding as well as of their logged speeding. Attitude towards speeding, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were significant determinants of self-reported speeding. Self-reported speeding, and subjective norm, but not perceived behavioral control, did then contribute to the prediction of drivers' logged speeding. The fact that perceived behavioral control did not directly contribute to the prediction of drivers' logged speeding may be due to the possibility that drivers with several years of experience already take into account the actual control they have over the target behavior. As the theory of planned behavior can be used as a frame of reference to predict drivers' everyday speeding behavior, it is suggested that the drivers might decide on a target behavior and in living up to this decision they continuously monitor their target speed during everyday driving. 

  • 3.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    The long term effects of an ISA speed-warning device on drivers’ speeding behaviour2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 96-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different systems of intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) have already been tested in the field and large-scale implementation is being discussed. But do we really know how these systems affect drivers during long-term use?Between 2000 and 2003 a total of 61 test drivers had an ISA speed warning device installed in their vehicles. Data from these trials show that,initially, the device greatly reduced the amount of time the majority of test drivers spent above the speed limit, and to some extent also reduced their mean speeds, but this effect decreased with time. Further analyses of 27 of the 61 test drivers then showed that the activation of the warning system affected different drivers in quite a homogenous way, with regards to attitude, subjective norm and self-reported behaviour, but not with regards to perceived behavioural control. After activation,long-term use did, however, affect the test drivers in a homogenous way with regards to attitude, subjective norm and self-reported behaviour, as well as perceived behavioural control. When considering these results it must be remembered that the device tested was a first generation ISA speed-warning device and with more research we think that different ISA-systems could be improved and the effects made more stable during long-term use.

  • 4.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Factors influencing drivers’ speeding behaviour2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as frames of reference. The behavioural data used is obtained from field trials with intelligent speed adaptation and the speed reducing potential of this system is also examined. The results show that attitude towards exceeding the speed limits, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and moral norm from the theory of planned behaviour, but also violations and inattention errors from the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire, can be used to predict drivers’ everyday speeding behaviour. These two models can also be combined in order to gain further knowledge about the causes of speeding. Identification of drivers’ beliefs about exceeding the speed limits gives further insight into the underlying cognitive foundation of their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. This provides valuable information for future design of speed reducing measures. Regarding intelligent speed adaptation, the results show that the ISA speed-warning device greatly reduces the amount of time drivers spend above the speed limits, and to some extent also reduces their mean speeds, but that this effect decreases with time. Although the drivers are not totally satisfied with the experience of the ISA speed-warning device, they like the idea and can see its usefulness. As the device tested is a first generation ISA speed-warning device, further research has the potential to greatly improve the system.

  • 5.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    ISA i mobiltelefonen: Utvärdering av användaraspekter2010In: Transportforum, Linköping, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    The theory of planned behaviour within traffic psychology2007In: International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety (ICTCT) Workshop, Valencia, Spanien, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of planned behaviour is a well-known theory within social psychology. According to this theory people’s attitude towards the behaviour, their subjective norm and their perceived behavioural control determine their behaviour (a defined action) indirectly via their intention (a willingness to try to perform the behaviour). Attitude towards the behaviour is determined by behavioural beliefs, which are beliefs about the likely consequences of the behaviour (behavioural belief strength), weighted by the evaluation of how good or bad these outcomes would be (outcome evaluation). Subjective norm is determined by normative beliefs, which are beliefs about what important others think of the behaviour (normative belief strength), weighted by the motivation to comply with these important others (motivation to comply). Perceived behavioural control is determined by control beliefs, which are beliefs about factors that may facilitate or impede performance of the behaviour (control belief strength), weighted by the perceived power of these factors (control belief power). A positive attitude and subjective norm together with a large perceived behavioural control results in a strong intention to perform the behaviour. Given enough actual control over the behaviour, people are expected to carry out their intention as soon as an opportunity is given. For behaviours over which people have incomplete volitional control it is also useful to consider perceived behavioural control as a codeterminant (together with intention) of the behaviour. The relationship between perceived behavioural control and behaviour is however dependent on the accuracy of people’s perception of their control over the behaviour. Within traffic psychology the theory of planned behaviour has been successfully used as a frame of reference to predict and explain behaviours such as drinking and driving, dangerous overtaking, close following, lane discipline and speeding. A short review of different studies using the theory of planned behaviour will be presented and pros and cons with the theory will be discussed.

  • 7.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Varför kör man för fort?2005In: Transportforum, Linköping, Sweden, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Sandin, Jesper
    The intercoder agreement when using the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method in road traffic accident investigations2010In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 48, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many different classification schemes have been used in the analysis of road traffic accidents but the agreement between coders using the same classification scheme is rarely tested and/or reported. As a high intercoder agreement is a prerequisite for a study’s validity, this is a serious shortcoming. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to test the intercoder agreement of the Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method (DREAM) version 3.0 by letting seven coders from different European countries analyse and classify the causes of the same four accident scenarios. The results showed that the intercoder agreement for genotypes (contributing factors) ranges from 74% to 94% with an average of 83%, while for phenotypes (observable effects) it ranges from 57% to 100% with an average of 78%. The results also showed that weaknesses in classification schemes, methods, training of coders as well as in presentation of accident information can be identified by testing the intercoder agreement.

  • 9.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Türker, Özkan
    Lajunen, Timo
    Tzamalouka, Georgia
    Cross-cultural comparison of drivers’ tendency to commit different aberrant driving behaviours2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 390-399Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the present study was to identify key items which are rated differently by drivers from Finland, Sweden, Greece and Turkey. The second aim was to examine how these key items relate to drivers’ self-reported accident involvement. Similar comparisons have previously been conducted in Europe but these have only included items classified as violations and errors, but not lapses. A sample of Finnish (N = 200), Swedish (N = 200), Greek (N = 200) and Turkish (N = 200) drivers completed the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) and reported their accident involvement during the previous 3 years. The results showed that nine key items (which drivers from different countries rated differently) could be identified. These items included two aggressive violations, four ordinary violations, three lapses, but no errors. Out of these nine items, five items (Become angered by a certain type of driver and indicate your hostility by whatever means you can, Disregard the speed limit on a motorway, Overtake a slow driver on the inside, Pull out of a junction so far that the driver with right of way has to stop and let you out and Get into the wrong lane approaching a roundabout or a junction) could explain differences in drivers’ self-reported yearly accident involvement when all four countries were taken together. At the same time, none of the items could explain differences in self-reported yearly accident involvement in Finland and Sweden while one of the items (Overtake a slow driver on the inside) could explain differences in self-reported yearly accident involvement in Greece and two of the items (Become angered by a certain type of driver and indicate your hostility by whatever means you can and Disregard the speed limit on a residential road) could explain differences in self-reported yearly accident involvement in Turkey. This shows that different countries have different problems with regard to aberrant driving behaviours which need to be taken into account when promoting traffic safety interventions and the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) can be used to diagnose risk areas and to better inform road safety practitioners within and between countries.

  • 10.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Why do drivers speed?2004In: the 3rd International Conference on Traffic & Transport Psychology (ICTTP), Nottingham, UK, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Åberg, Lars
    Sjögren, Susanne
    Thorsén, Sanna
    Okpokam, Tony
    A comparison between Swedish and Nigerian taxi drivers2007In: Proceedings of the International Cooperation on Theories and Concepts in Traffic Safety (ICTCT) Workshop, Beijing, Kina, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 approximately 1.2 million people were killed in road traffic accidents and as many as 50 million were injured according to the World Health Organization. Vulnerable road users (e.g. pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists, rickshaw- and cart-drivers) in low- and middle-income countries shoulder a large proportion of the global burden of road traffic deaths and serious injury. The elderly, children and disabled are especially vulnerable. While road traffic accident deaths in high-income countries are projected to decrease by 27% between 2000 and 2020, they are projected to increase by 83% in low- and middle-income countries. One of the World Health Organization’s concluding recommendations for the future was therefore to “enhance programmes of law enforcement with public information and education campaigns”. One problem with this is, however, that we know very little about how road users in low- and middle-income countries perceive the traffic environment and why they make the decisions they do. This is because much research focuses on European or American road users while, for example, African road users are hardly ever represented. Research findings from high-income countries can sometimes be successfully used even in low- and middle-income countries but this is far from always the case. One reason to why research findings in road safety are not always globally applicable is that the traffic environment is very different in different parts of the world, but also because of ideological bias in research. While most accident literature is based on “rational” approaches where accidents are seen as preventable many people in low-income countries have a completely different worldview where predestination plays an important role. In an attempt to further the knowledge about African road users a small pilot study was conducted comparing Nigerian and Swedish taxi drivers. The study was based on the theory of planned behaviour and addressed behaviours such as exceeding the speed limits and not using seat belts. This pilot study is the first in a series of studies. The results as well as their implications for the future studies will therefore be discussed.

  • 12.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Öskan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Swedish and Turkish drivers’ willingness to install intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) in their cars2009In: 11th European Congress of Psychology (ECP), Oslo, Norge, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) aims to help drivers keep to the speed limit. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine if there are differences in drivers’ propensity to install intelligent speed adaptation systems due to the drivers’ country of residence, their aberrant driving, and the technical solution used. Methods: 224 Swedish and 316 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including the DBQ and questions about the drivers’ propensity to have different ISA systems installed. Results: Swedish drivers were less positive than Turkish drivers towards installing ISA systems. Drivers who frequently commit violations were less positive towards installing ISA systems, while drivers who frequently make errors were more positive towards installing the systems. Both Swedish and Turkish drivers were most positive towards installing the speed limit information system, followed by the advisory system, the supportive and lastly the intervening system.

  • 13.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Özkan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Can the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale be successfully used to predict Swedish drivers’ speeding behaviour?2010In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, p. 1113-1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of the traffic locus of control (TLOC)scale in a Swedish sample of drivers. The second aim was to examine if this scale can be used to predict drivers’ speeding behaviour. A sample of Swedish car owners (N= 223) completed a questionnaire including questions based on the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale as well as questions about their speeding behaviour. The results showed a five factor solution including own skills, own behaviour, other drivers, vehicle/environment and fate. Own behaviour and vehicle/environment could be used to predict drivers’ speeding behaviour on roads with a 90 km/h speed limit while none of the variables included in the traffic locus of control (T-LOC) scale could be used to predict drivers’ speeding behaviour on roads with a 50 km/h speed limit. On 90 km/h roads own behaviour was positively related to drivers’ speeding behaviour while vehicle/environment was negatively related to their speeding behaviour.

  • 14.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Özkan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Cross-cultural differences in drivers’ speed choice2009In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, p. 816-819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are any cross cultural differences between Swedish and Turkish drivers’ rating of the variables in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with regard to complying with the speed limit. A sample of 219 Swedish and 252 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the theory of planned behaviour (i.e. regarding attitude, subjective norm,perceived behavioural control, intention and behaviour). The results show that country differences in drivers’ intention to comply with the speed limit as well as their self reported compliance could be explained by differences found in their attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Furthermore,drivers who live in a country with fewer road traffic fatalities (i.e. Sweden), compared with driverswholive in a country withmore road traffic fatalities (i.e. Turkey),reported amore positive attitude towards complying with the speed limit, a more positive subjective norm, a higher perceived behavioural control, a higher intention and a larger proportion of the time spent complying.

  • 15.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Özkan, Turker
    Lajunen, Timo
    Drivers’ propensity to install different types of intelligent speed adaptation systems in their cars2010In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine if there are differences in drivers’ propensity to have different types of intelligent speed adaptation installed in their cars depending on the sample of drivers (i.e. Swedish or Turkish), their aberrant driving behaviours (i.e. violations and errors), and/or the technical solution used (i.e. speed limit information, advisory, supportive and intervening systems). A sample of 224 Swedish and 316 Turkish drivers completed a questionnaire including questions based on the driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) as well as questions about the drivers’ propensity to have different types of intelligent speed adaptation installed in their cars. The results showed that the Swedish sample of drivers was less positive than the Turkish sample of drivers towards having the advisory, supportive and intervening systems installed. Furthermore, drivers who frequently commit violations were less positive towards having any of these systems installed than were drivers who commit violations less frequently, while drivers who frequently make errors were more positive towards having the systems installed than were drivers who make errors less frequently. Both the Swedish and the Turkish sample of drivers were most positive towards having the speed limit information system installed, followed by the advisory system on second place, the supportive system on third place and lastly the intervening system on fourth place.

  • 16.
    Åberg, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Speeding: deliberate violation or involuntary mistake?2008In: Revue europeenne de psychologie appliquee, ISSN 1162-9088, E-ISSN 1878-3457, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power of two different theoretical frameworks, the theory of planned behaviour (expanded to include moral norm) and the driver behaviour questionnaire, to predict and explain drivers' speeding behaviour are compared and a combined model is suggested. One hundred and seventy-five test drivers, participating in a large-scale ISA-evaluation, answered a questionnaire in spring 2000. Based on the questionnaire data, logged speeding in autumn 2001 was predicted and LISREL-analysis was used for structural equation modelling. According to the results the two frameworks, alone or in combination, could explain between 38 and 53% of self-reported speeding and between 24 and 26% of logged speeding. A combination of the theory of planned behaviour and the driver behaviour questionnaire is presented and implications for the understanding of driver speed control are discussed.

  • 17.
    Åberg, Lars
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Warner, Henriette Wallén
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Psychology.
    Stability of drivers' attitudes, norms and evaluations2004In: the 3rd International Conference on Traffic & Transport Psychology (ICTTP), Nottingham, UK, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 17 of 17
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