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  • 1.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia. MIA.
    Abessinienkampanjen i svensk press 1935-362017Ingår i: Svenska historikermötet 2017 / [ed] Svenska historiska föreningen, Sundsvall, 2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Abessinienkampanjen i svensk press 1935-36 handlar om hur svensk allmänhet genom media för första gången möter och, på grund av det brutala italienska angreppskriget, kommer att identifiera sig med ett samhälle och en kultur långt bortom det kända Västerlandet. Men det handlar också om att nyansera och fördjupa bilden av svensk identitet och Sverige som en medveten del av det internationella samfundet – före kalla krigets bipolära värld och 1960-talets politiska radikalism.

  • 2.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia. MIA.
    Den bortglömda Afrikasolidariteten: Svenska manifestationer inför det Italiensk-etiopiska kriget 1935–362016Ingår i: Kulturell reproduktion i skola och nation: En vänbok till Lars Petterson / [ed] Urban Claesson och Dick Åhman, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, s. 149-168Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1935, Fascist Italy invaded independent Ethiopia, a member of the League of Nations. To a small and neutral country like Sweden, without a direct colonial heritage and largely isolated from the affairs of the colonized world, the war served as a touchstone for the quality of the League and received extensive attention in the press. It gave rise to great indignation in public opinion, further spurred by Swedish citizens’ half a century history of involvement in the Ethiopian modernizing project. Swedish sympathies for the Ethiopians developed to an extent which hitherto had not existed with regard to any other African or Asian people, long before the anti-colonial movements of the 1960s. The article is limited to giving an outline of a research proposal, seen against the backdrop of the massive popular manifestations in Sweden in the late summer of 1935, immediately before the outbreak of the war in October. It argues that the Italo-Ethiopian conflict and identification with Ethiopia brought Sweden into a new, international and global community and thereby contributed to a self-image of Sweden as a modern and democratic society, as reflected in the formation of public opinion. The source material, the Swedish press, is remarkably rich and hitherto not used in research. The conflict animated a plurality of networks, contributing to the rise of an anti-colonial public opinion in the Swedish press. The conflict brought Sweden closer to world events and introduced to Swedish readers a debate about the colonial world order.

  • 3.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Divided loyalties: an African christian community during the 1906 uprising in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2013Ingår i: Themes in modern African history and culture: festschrift for Tekeste Negash / [ed] Berge, Lars & Taddia, Irma, Padova: Libreriauniversitaria.it , 2013, 1, s. 103-123Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Ethiopia in Swedish press during the Italo-Ethiopian conflict 1934-362015Ingår i: The State and the Study of Africa: African Studies Association 58th Annual Meeting, November 19-22. 2015, San Diego, California. / [ed] D. A. Masolo, Derek R. Peterson, 2015, s. 96-97Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1935, Fascist Italy invaded independent Ethiopia, a member of the League of Nations. To a small and neutral country like Sweden, without a direct colonial heritage and largely isolated from the affairs of the colonized world, the war served as a touchstone for the quality of the League and received extensive attention in the press. It gave rise to great indignation in public opinion, further spurred by Swedish citizens’ half a century history of involvement in the Ethiopian modernizing project. Swedish sympathies for the Ethiopians developed to an extent which hitherto had not existed with regard to any other African or Asian people, long before the anti-colonial movements of the 1960s. The objective of the planned research project is to demonstrate that the Italo-Ethiopian conflict and identification with Ethiopia brought Sweden into a new, international and global community and thereby contributed to a self-image of Sweden as a modern and democratic society, as reflected in the formation of public opinion. This will be done by analysing the image of Swedish-Ethiopian relations in the press during the conflict. The present article is limited to giving an outline of a research proposal, seen against the backdrop of the massive popular manifestations in Sweden in the late summer of 1935, immediately before the outbreak of the war in October. The source material, the Swedish press, is remarkably rich and hitherto not used in research. Instead of a state-centred perspective, the article emphasises that the conflict animated a plurality of networks, contributing to the rise of an anti-colonial public opinion in the Swedish press. The conflict brought Sweden closer to world events and introduced to Swedish readers a debate about the colonial world order. At the same time there was an intensified production and reproduction of new knowledge: Ethiopia came much closer. In September, one month before the war broke out; Swedish cities saw some of the hitherto largest demonstrations in modern Swedish history against war, fascism and in support of Ethiopia.

  • 5.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Ethiopia in Swedish Press during the Italo-Ethiopian Conflict 1934-362019Ingår i: Locating the Global: Spaces, Networks and Interactions from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century / [ed] Holger Weiss, Leiden: Brill , 2019, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia. MIA.
    Identity-based conflicts surrounding the 1906 Zulu uprising in Kwazulu-Natal: The case of Church of Sweden mission African evangelists: A paper read at the IV Congress of Association of African Historians Addis Ababa, May 23-25, 20072007Ingår i: Society, State and Identity in African History/Société, Etat et Identité dans l'Histoire africaine.: IV Congress of Association of African Historians Addis Ababa, May 23-25, 2007, Addis Ababa: Addis Ababa University , 2007, s. 33-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1906 Zulu uprising against British colonial power and white settler rule in Kwazulu-Natal marks an important turning point in the modern history of South Africa. Inspired by the centralising tradition of the Zulu kingship, history and religion, the uprising was essentially “tribal”. It was the last armed uprising in that part of Africa, preconditioning capitalist expansion in colonial Natal and the opening up of Zululand, conquered by the British in 1879. Initially the uprising appeared as a serious threat to white supremacy but was later, in the encounter between assegais and maxim guns, defeated. The uprising had two important results. On the national level, the need for white unity seemed urgent and in 1910 the South African Union was formed. Among blacks, the losses suffered by the armed rebels gave an impetus to a new, more modernist and pan-African nationalism. The African National Congress (ANC) was founded in 1912 by representatives of the small, mission educated African Christian middle class élite. In Kwazulu-Natal itself the aftermath of the uprising and the aggressive “mopping-up” operations by colonial troops, brought fundamental restructuring and traumatic change among African communities. The self-sufficiency of the homestead economy was eroded, chiefly power and traditional religious authority weakened and an increasing amount of men forced into labour migration.

    The African Christians, some ten per cent of the black population, were often caught in between a hostile non-Christian surrounding, to whom they often were seen as traitors, and the contempt of a white racist society. Most of them were first generation converts living in the rural areas. To many of the Christians the uprising and its consequences became a test of loyalty and resulted in a questioning of the hitherto accepted identity and world view. This was particularly true for the black evangelists, the real pioneers of mission Christianity, caught between the loyalties to their white missionary employers and their followers in the African Christian congregations.

    The Zulu evangelists of the Church of Sweden Mission (CSM) prove in this respect an interesting case because of the CSM object of folk Christianisation, i.e. the conversion of entire ethnic groups, and the establishing of folk, or national, churches on the mission field. An ethnic group, with its national identity and distinctive character, was not to be suppressed by the mission. In South Africa this implied an acceptance of polygyny and lobolo (bride wealth). In Kwazulu-Natal, where the CSM had been present since the 1870s, missionaries strongly supported the study of Zulu history and language and encouraged their evangelists in fostering a Zulu national identity among the members of their congregations. In the years around 1906, however, the CSM nationalist agenda for the Zulu became much more problematic in relationships between Zulu evangelists, church members and white missionaries. Increased tensions between black and white before the uprising, the eventual outbreak of violence and the settler government’s suppression of the rebel forces created a social and moral disruption. A number of identity-based conflicts were at hand in CSM congregations, e.g. in regard to attitudes towards African medicine and diviners or herbalists, Zulu historiography and spirit possession. In this respect the Zulu evangelists tried to appear both as leaders and spokesmen of their people and representatives of their employers, the CSM missionaries.

    The purpose of this paper is to review the role of CSM African evangelists as mediators between the old and the new in the identity-based conflicts surrounding the 1906 Zulu uprising. Clearly it was among the evangelists that the future leadership of the evolving Zulu church was to be found. Many of the African evangelists, representing a new political consciousness, were furthermore, in due time, to be counted among the local leaders of the future ANC.

  • 7.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Swedish and Norwegian nationalism exposed among Lutheran missionaries during the 1906-07 Uprising in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2019Ingår i: Global and Local Perspectives on Nationalism in Modern and Contemporary History: Limits and Challenges of Nationalist Movements / [ed] Andrea Kökeny and Jan Záhořík, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press , 2019, 1Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia. MIA.
    Swedish Evangelical Mission and Ethiopian Intellectuals (1930’s): Westernization and Nationalism before war with Italy in 19352017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Swedish Evangelical Mission Educational Policies and Schooling in Ethiopia 1868-19352019Ingår i: Journée d’étude internationale / International Workshop 9 Mai 2019. Université Paris Diderot: Politiques scolaires, écoles et publics scolaires de la colonisation aux indépendances / [ed] Pierre Guidi, Jean-Luc Martineau, Florence Wenzek, Paris, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fairly large number of the social reformers and vital intelligentsia that emerged in Ethiopia in the decade before the 1936 Italian occupation – according to Bahru Zewde one of the most articulate groups of intellectuals that Ethiopia has ever seen – had a background in the Swedish Evangelical Mission (SEM) in Eritrea and Ethiopia. Not less than one third among those of the first generation, those who came of age before 1925, were Swedish-educated or, in one way or another, associated with the SEM. The second generation was much larger in 1934, amounting to some 200 individuals, mostly educated abroad. The proportion of Swedish-educated among them is not as remarkable as with the first generation but they nevertheless stand out, if not in numbers then in prominence. After 1936, during the Italian occupation, the resistance to Italian rule appears to have been most intense among those with an Anglo-Saxon and Protestant educational background. Bahru notes “the prominent role played by the Eritrean educated elite in the course of the war. Most of these tended to have a Swedish evangelical background.” Neither Bahru, nor Gustav Arén’s in his two volumes on the history of the SEM in Eritrea and Ethiopia however, do explain what would have been so special about the Protestant background in general or the particular Swedish evangelical setting, do analyse why and how the SEM education may have contributed to and interplayed with contemporary modernist and nationalist ambitions and how SEM followers may have had special reasons to participate in the nation-building project of the pre-war regime. The aim of the present presentation is to fill this gap by focusing on the SEM educational policies and schooling, examining if and to what extent it gave support for the modernizing policies in the decades before the Italian invasion. More broadly, it investigates how the historical background of the SEM in Eritrea and Ethiopia may have played a role in this respect. What characterized the SEM education and schooling and how did the coming to power of the modernizing ruler Täfäri-Haylä Sellasé affect the SEM educational efforts in Ethiopia? What were the push and pull factors behind Eritrean and Ethiopian SEM-followers in the support of the Ethiopian nation building policies before the war? In providing the empirical sources, my research shall draw on Arén’s two volumes and foremost the huge collection of source materials provided by the SEM archives and periodicals. My attempt is to demonstrate that the SEM-factor is an essential component that has been left out and that it can contribute with a more comprehensive understanding of the how a Swedish Evangelical mission education interplayed with the pre-war Ethiopian nationbuilding process.

  • 10.
    Berge, Lars
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    The Swedish Evangelical Mission and the formation of Reformist Elite in Ethiopia. 1868-19352017Ingår i: State Institutions and Leadership in Africa / [ed] Irma Taddia and Tekeste Negash, Padova: Webster srl , 2017, 1, s. 75-105Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The central theme of this book is the role of education in the formation of a political class during and after the European colonial period in Africa. The volume focuses on the various actors that informed and were part of this process, such as African intellectuals and political leaders, colonial troops, European missionaries and administrators. At the same time, the collection analyses the historical processes connected to the emergence and development of a new African leadership, such as the creation of a colonial school system, the transformation of urban spaces, the development of new environmental policies and the processes of nation-building after independence. The volume is made up of twelve contributions: four on Ethiopia, two on Eritrea, two on the Sudan, one on Somaliland, two on Tanzania and one on Ghana.

  • 11.
    Berge, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning och humaniora, Historia.
    Cederlöf, G
    Political visions and social realities in contemporary South India2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Berge, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Historia.
    Taddia, IrmaUniv. Bologna.
    Themes in modern African history and culture: festschrift for Tekeste Negash2013Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1 - 12 av 12
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