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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalen University.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalen University.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency2014Ingår i: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014 / [ed] Mirko Meboldt, Sven Matthiesen, Petra Badke-Schaub, Quentin Lohmeyer, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    How gaze time on screen impacts the efficacy of visual instructions2018Ingår i: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, nr 6, artikel-id e00660Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores whether GTS (gaze time on screen) can be useful as an engagement measure in the screen mediated learning context. Research that exemplifies ways of measuring engagement in the on-line education context usually does not address engagement metrics and engagement evaluation methods that are unique to the diverse contemporary instructional media landscape. Nevertheless, unambiguous construct definitions of engagement and standardized engagement evaluation methods are needed to leverage instructional media's efficacy. By analyzing the results from a mixed methods eye-tracking study of fifty-seven participants evaluating their visual and assembly performance levels in relation to three visual, procedural instructions that are versions of the same procedural instruction, we found that the mean GTS-values in each group were rather similar. However, the original GTS-values outputted from the ET-computer were not entirely correct and needed to be manually checked and cross validated. Thus, GTS appears not to be a reliable, universally applicable automatic engagement measure in screen-based instructional efforts. Still, we could establish that the overall performance of learners was somewhat negatively impacted by lower than mean GTS-scores, when checking the performance levels of the entire group (N = 57). When checking the stimuli groups individually (N = 17, 20, 20), the structural diagram group's assembly time durations were positively influenced by higher than mean GTS-scores.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Sverrisson, Arni
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Bildproduktion.
    New design process models for the audio visual industry: a design science approach2010Ingår i: DS 60: Proceedings of DESIGN 2010, the 11th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia: Modelling and Optimization of Engineering Design Processes / [ed] Marjanovic D., Storga M., Pavkovic N., Bojcetic N., Dubrovnik: FSB-The Design Society , 2010, s. 223-232Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial design processes have several common denominators regardless of the actual design. This is to say that the production of moving images is a kind of design process. Even though every single film- or TV-production is unique, the production processes as such are often similar. Therefore we suggest that a Distributed Creativity Workflow Model will be useful in film- and TV-production. This model will facilitate the design process and make the production of contemporary audio-visual material more cost effective. Hopefully more time can be spent on creativity within the process.

  • 4.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    A film editor’s visual intentions and use of perceptual phenomena in designing film edit: an observational study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 1-17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the role of perception in film editing, considered as audiovisual design work. The study is an observation of a film editor editing a documentary film sequence, where the perceptual phenomena at stake at edit points are scrutinized, with reference to perception theory. The results show that the film editor’s design goal is to achieve perceptual precision for each edit, either for continuity or for discontinuity, accordingly. The more perceptual phenomena per edit, the more time and the more processing the editor has to spend on the edit until satisfied with the result. This knowledge is of importance to inexperienced film editors in order to make the editing process faster and more precise and thus shorten production time. In the wider design context, other design activities are indicated to find inspiration for future research in this study, regarding perceptual phenomena and gaze framing during design processes.

  • 5.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Agents, design and creativity: a postproduction analysisManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify major issues in production planning and collaboration in the making of assemblies of moving images and soundtracks (postproduction of film, TV-programs et cetera). We argue that worker creativity in the making of such assemblies is constrained by the digitalization of production technology. We also argue that the members of each craft that collaborate in the process have their own set of aesthetic and technical problems that need to be solved and that the possible solutions are constrained by the creative space accorded to each craft. Participants do not necessarily subscribe to this idea and any theoretical understanding of the process must also account for the variety of notions put forward by the agents. We give examples from the Swedish TV show, Värsta Språket, from interviews and technical writing in order to clarify and support these arguments.

  • 6.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Complex design data joined in audiovisual representation: Benefits and issues in analysis2018Ingår i: PIN-C Conference Proceedings 2018, Eskilstuna, 2018, s. 319-323Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory methods in design or innovationresearch can require several different kinds of datain order to cover the object or process of interest tothe study. This paper addresses the potential anddifficulties of joining and analyzing several datacategories into a unified observational video, whereall data is represented in either audio, visual oraudiovisual form. The core problem of such acomplex body of data is that the analysis requiresefficient tools and/or methods to match the datacomplexity. The current case regards a participatorystudy on film editing, its method and datacomplexity, and discusses analytical approaches.

  • 7.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: An audiovisual methodology for studying film editing and eye movements2016Ingår i: Visual Methodologies. A postdisciplinary journal., ISSN 2040-5456, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 13-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an audio-visual methodology, VOSMET, designed to address activities of the craft of film editing, with a focus on the use of perception, and its implications. The methodology employs 13 different visual aspects and five different audio aspects, starting with video-recording observations of an editor, and ending with the analysis of eye-tracking data from film viewers. Craft research needs methodologies that address craft activities and cognitive approaches. Design practices share a similar need for reaching deeper understanding. It is neither established how film editors achieve perceptual precision in continuity editing in practice. The VOSMET methodology simultaneously captures bodily actions, utterances, software events, and keystrokes, along with the audiovisual material under processing, and uses graphics to distinguish between what takes place. The methodology also contributes by grasping what a film editor attends to, how this attention functions, as well as how perceptual factors are handled by the film editor. Finally, the methodology can evaluate editorial intentions against film viewer perceptions.

  • 8.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: Audiovisual methods for studying film editing and eye movements2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes the methods used in a research project on continuity film editing and its effects on viewer perception.  Film editing is considered a form of audiovisual design work in which visual perception plays a significant role. The study analyzes audiovisual design work in terms of nine different visual aspects and four different audio aspects. The audio aspects are the making of a soundtrack to a documentary film sequence, recordings of conversations during observations, and the viewing of the film sequence, as well as an analysis of those recordings. The visual aspects include the editing of the documentary film sequence, recordings of the editor at work (together with an observing researcher) generating video images of the work, and a continuous screen-recording including computer keystrokes. An altered second version of the film in which the edits were altered was created, and both versions were used as stimuli in an eye tracking study with 30 participants. Finally, eye-tracking data was analyzed in terms of eye-movements, and areas of interest, in order to determine the importance of perceptual precision. When perceptual precision is poor, the viewer’s eyes make extra movements to adjust or miss the area of interest, or the viewer’s cognitive load increases. Examples are given in the presentation, and it is suggested that these methods make it possible to identify key audiovisual factors that a film editor considers, which constitute viewer-friendly and viewer-challenging (i.e. ’smooth’ and ‘harsh’) moving image editing. This knowledge has not been documented experimentally before, and understanding how perceptual precision determines viewer-friendly or viewer-challenging film editing is a key factor in helping inexperienced film editors learn how to achieve their audiovisual intentions. It also contributes to the academic understanding of perceptual considerations in design work.

  • 9.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Framing the Gaze: (Audio-) Visual Design Intentions and Perceptual Considerations in Film Editing2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Temat för denna doktorsavhandling är hur det går till när en filmklippare aktivt strävar emot att perceptuellt fånga in och styra sin filmtittares blick över filmklipp. Klipparens (audio-)visuella intentioner med filmtittandet motsvaras av perceptuella överväganden som klipparen gör under klipparbetet.

    Klipparbetet motiveras i denna avhandling som ett designarbete, främst för att ett designperspektiv på filmproduktion har möjligheter att bidra med många nya infallsvinklar, frågeställningar och svar, som sträcker sig bortom vad tidigare tillämpade perspektiv gör.

    De forskningsfrågor som ställs, och de svar som presenteras, diskuteras sedan gentemot designteori, etablerad filmproduktionskunskap och perceptionsforskning. Utöver att audiovisuell perception beaktas inom filmklippningskontexten, diskuteras även filmklippning som audiovisuell design, och kopplingar görs till annat designarbete och möjliga implikationer för perceptionens roll i dessa sammanhang.

    Data om klipparbetet har skapats via videoinspelade deltagande observation där även fortlöpande skärminspelningar skett, medan en filmklippare färdigställde en dokumentärfilmsekvens. Utifrån dessa inspelningar har sedan en elicitering med filmklipparen skett. På så vis har klipparens intentioner och möjliga beaktande av perceptuella faktorer fångats in.

    Klipparens intentioner avseende filmtittare har sedan testats via ögonrörelsestudier där tittarnas ögondata samlats in medan de tittat på den skapade filmsekvensen.

    Resultaten av mina analyser är att det finns skäl att betrakta delar av filmproduktion som designarbete, att audiovisuella materialegenskaper påverkar det kreativa utrymmet, att perceptuella hänsyn ingår som en väsentlig del av filmklipparens bearbetning av det audiovisuella materialet, att filmtittares respons på filmklipp varierar med hur klippen är utformade, samt att man kan koppla denna variation till filmklipparens intention med klippen, och graden av intentionens uppfyllelse.

    Jag drar slutsatserna att perceptuell precision i klippunkten är avgörande för att uppnå en önskad avkodning av en filmsekvens för tittarens del, samt att när den perceptuella precisionen är låg är det troligt att den upplevda kontinuiteten hos filmen fallerar.

    Doktorsavhandlingens bidrag är att den hjälper till att reda ut den faktiska tillämpningen av perceptionen som audiovisuell kunskap i filmklippning. Men den bidrar därmed även till en mera generell diskussion om perception som en del av audiovisuellt tänkande och formerandet av audiovisuell kunskap.

    Avhandlingen bidrar till området Innovation och Design genom sin blandning av metoder, eftersom huvudstudien rör skapandet av nya artefakter och tänkande som pågår inom denna process, liksom mänsklig respons på dessa artefakter. Slutligen bidrar avhandlingen med ett genomgripande exempel på hur ett designforskningsperspektiv kan bidra till att förstå delar av filmproduktion, och de yrken och aktiviteter som sker där.

  • 10.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalens högskola.
    Kvalitetsbedömning inom högre medieproduktionsutbildning2015Ingår i: Proceedings Falun 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta paper diskuteras frågan om kvalitetsbedömningar som en central fråga för ett akademiskt kunskapsområde. Förslaget är att ett kunskapsområde kan identifieras genom vilka fenomen som betraktas som centrala, vilka bedömnings-kriterier och skalor som används för att bedöma kvalitet hos fenomenen, samt vilka kompetenser som krävs för att kunna göra bedömningen. Inom Medieproduktion är både produktionsprocesser och medieartefakter centrala fenomen, liksom idégenerering, utförandekompetenser och kontextualiseringskompetenser. Dessa fenomen behöver ofta bedömas utifrån såväl vetenskapliga kriterier, konstnärliga aspekter, som beprövad produktionserfarenhet. Även bedömarkompetenser behö-ver grundas i dessa tre kunskapstraditioner. Utifrån ett antal exempel från svensk medieproduktionsutbildning på högskolenivå argumenterar jag här för hur man kan identifiera Medieproduktion som ett akademiskt kunskapsområde genom de kvalitetsbedömningar som sker.

  • 11.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Språk och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Media Production or Audiovisual Design?2013Ingår i: International Conference on Communication, Media, Technology and Design: Presentations / [ed] Ali Simsek, Agah Gumus, Fahme Dabaj, 2013, s. 128-134Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Media production includes many moments of creative work that would be best addressed as audiovisual design. The two paradigmatic understandings of design, ‘design-as-problem-solving’ (Simon, 1996), and ‘design-as-meaning-creation’ (Krippendorf, 1995), have bearing on those work-moments. The issues dealt with during those media production work-moments, as well as the problems to solve and the characteristics of the work-processes in use, resemble issues, problems and process characteristics familiar within design work (Sato & Poggenpohl, 2009).From a perspective of communication, audiovisual communication preferably is addressed as multimodal (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) where both strata, design and production, are considered to make important impact on a message.This paper discusses the theoretical implications of considering media production as audiovisual communication during its process of being created, where design is an integrated part of that process. The benefits of considering media production as audiovisual design are proposed from a design research perspective, and are compared with other perspectives.

  • 12.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Postproduction agents: audiovisual design and contemporary constraints for creativity2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Visual intention in moving image editing and eye-tracking methodology: an exploratory study2010Ingår i: Proceedings, Information Visualisation (IV), 2010 14th International Conference, London, 2010, s. 381-387Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving images production teams’ skills in directing the visual perception of viewers have been confirmed lately through eye-tracking methodology. One interest lies in explaining the use of different techniques by the production team for its realization of visual intentions. These intentions are however many in most moving images. This paper undertakes the development of a method for grasping the film or video editors’ intentions with the editing of moving images, and has been carried out as an exploratory study. The method suggested considers conventions of the trade, observational study with running screen-dump and proximate interviews with editors on specific edits, as well as the testing of moving image sequences where the intention of each edit point is known. The test is conducted on viewers, with the use of eye-tracking techniques. The findings are that the method should be useful in distinguishing between when the editors’ grip on the audience is firm, and when it is rather vague. But the method also suggests new aspects of understanding the viewers’ gazes when watching moving images.

  • 14.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Audiovisuella designprocesser och digitala verktyg2014Ingår i: Audiovisuellt: Ljud och Bild: En artikelsamling med bidrag från projektet Audiovisuella medier / [ed] Árni Sverrisson, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Creative Space in Contemporary Swedish Moving Image Production2012Ingår i: Journal of Integrated Design & Process Science, ISSN 1092-0617, E-ISSN 1875-8959, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 55-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of moving images is turning completely digital. This leads to new possibilities and new constraints for creativity within film and TV production chains.

    This paper describes professionals’ current comprehension of the consequences of the shift from celluloid to digital technologies, within the Swedish Moving Image Industry. New technologies bring new workflows, new design processes and new constraints.

    We aim to illuminate factors that affect design creativity in digital moving image production, by addressing questions about production related responses to the digital turn as well as the affects of such responses on creativity.

    Inspired by Ingar Brinck’s creativity theories (1999, 2007) we view aesthetic problem solving as a cognitive process and suggest creative spaces to be the critical phenomenon to manage. We also use organization theories, particularly the work of Katherine Miller (2011) to explain why creativity ought to be a primary management concern.

    The empirical material used is semi-structured interviews with management personnel in Swedish moving image production companies. Outcomes include that the variety of digital formats available today is hard for crafts people to overview. This has brought costly workflow constraints that largely limit creativity.

    We suggest a pre-production file format check-list as a tool to support design management.

  • 16.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Effects of continuity or discontinuity in actual film editing2018Ingår i: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 222-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A film editor’s refining of film edits at a frame-by-frame matching is an effort of perceptual precision. This paper investigates whether a failure of a few frames would jeopardize the perceived continuity of the film. 33 Swedish students, 17 female, average age 26, were eye tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence, where one version was completed to satisfaction by a film editor, and the other version had its edits altered 4-6 frames against the film editor’s intentions.

    The analysis scrutinized gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest (AoI:s) appointed by the film editor, as well as saccade frequency and pupil dilation after edit points. No significant difference was found for gaze hits in AoI:s, whereas saccade frequency increased 120-400 ms after edit points by  29.4%, and pupil sizes increased by 28% relative size, 200-500 ms after edits, both in the altered version of the film sequence.

    These results indicates that the altered film sequence constrained viewers, with possible cognitive effects, which implies that the frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

  • 17.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalen University.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion. Mälardalen University.
    Film and TV Industry Responses to Research Results in a Workshop Setting2015Ingår i: IASDR2015 Interplay Proccedings / [ed] Vesna Popovic, Alethea Blacker, Ding-Bang Luh, Nithikul Nimkulrat, Ben Kraal, and Yukari Nagai, IASDR , 2015, s. 1917-1931Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Immediate return of results to the Swedish film and TV industry from researchers conducting ongoing research within the field is rather unusual. As a design research approach we, as researchers, adopted this method in order to disseminate results and confront a wider group of interest parties than those represented by our informants.

    The results from the research project, New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Industry, revealed that the transition from recording on celluloid with analogue film cameras to using high definition video cameras presented new cruxes for the film and TV industries (Eriksson & Swenberg, 2012). These cruxes preliminary concerned the choice of proper video codecs and file formats and how to configure them, in order to reinforce efficient workflow later in the production chain.

    Members of the industry and educators were invited to participate in public workshops, held at Dalarna University, where these results were presented along with expert solutions to the problems. Questionnaires were distributed among participants before the start of each workshop, as well as at the end. Seminars and panel discussions, both consisting of question and answer sessions for participants were video-recorded.

    The responses extrapolated from industrial representatives show an urgent need for discussion regarding the situation of digital cruxes within the film and TV industry. The Q & A sessions confirmed the widespread need for understanding several of the problems that had emerged. In the questionnaires, many industrial representatives expressed their appreciation for the opportunity to understand the nature of problems, how widespread they were, how to address them, and how to fill some of the most critical prevalent knowledge gaps.

  • 18.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR Design och Visualisering / ID.
    Design Management Support for the Audiovisual Industry2013Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    Workflow management: design management support in professional audiovisual production2012Ingår i: SDPS-2012: PROCEEDINGS OF The Fifteenth International Conference on Technology of Complex Systems / [ed] Dr. Sang Suh, Dr. Wolfgang Reisig, Texas, 2012, Vol. 1, s. 144-151Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the need for design management support within the Audiovisual Industry, due to the increasing variety of video file formats and codecs available to professionals. The amount of video file formats and codecs are referred to as ‘the file format jungle’ by moving image professionals, and needs to be navigated by managerial staff that are not electronic engineers or technicians, but responsible for audio-visual design work within film and TV production.

    We have evaluated a prototype for a design management support tool that compares file formats and codecs for different production tools, with the help of Swedish moving image industry producers. The core principals of the support tool prototype are found to cohere with the needs for design management support within film and TV production, and the tool is therefore an option for commercial development.

  • 20.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    Film and TV production as audiovisual design2018Ingår i: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 39-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Kostela, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Design Matters for the Role of the University in a Regional Innovation System2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of a university in an innovation system can take on various forms. The design of that role depends on how the university enters into collaboration with other parties in the innovation system, and how they all contribute to this design. Here, we apply a social system’s design perspective, and point out some key issues and aspects that should be considered if the role of universities is to be purposefully designed, rather than formed ad hoc.

    The purpose of such a design would be to support a wide scope of mutual benefits for the university and its collaborators – a “maximum output” from the engagement. The aim here is to point out concrete matters for the system’s designer(s) to consider, in order to create a role for the university in the innovation system that embraces a range of the university’s assets and capacities. Therefore, we address a number of critical issues and aspects affecting the functioning of the university in regard to an associated regional innovation system. Why these factors are critical will also be discussed.

    The paper stems from a pilot-project, where 16 semi-structured interviews from four (4) different Swedish regions were analysed, including regional innovation system executives, university innovation officers and leaders, as well as university research group leaders. We have analysed the reason why certain issues are critical for success when designing a university’s role in a regional innovation system:

    First, a university's contribution to the support of an innovation system through expertise consultancy and resources require other factors than participation in the innovation process by knowledge involvement does. Second, within the university there is a tendency to make a distinction between the ideation part and the utilisation part of the innovation process: different units at the university tend to show more engagement in different aspects of the process. Third, research commission is at heart for both university researchers and external parties. Fourth, the university comprises multifaceted capacities and potentials to sustain core functions in the innovation processes: as a meeting place; as a strategic knowledge broker; or as a driving force. Fifth, a university’s various networks  is a resource that might be underestimated by external parties. Sixth, much of collaborative innovation is accomplished in smaller units within the university, far from centralised university administration. Centralisation supports the university’s relations to external parties, whereas de-centralised and independent involvement of university units supports direct and efficient collaboration.  

    To maximise the output from the university’s engagement in the innovation system, the university’s role must be designed to distinguish between involvement in, or support of, innovation processes, between internal and external context requirements, and between what functions are suitable for innovation collaboration for different units of the university.

  • 22.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Humaniora och medier, Bildproduktion.
    Kostela, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Disjunctive External and Internal Ideas on the University's Role in a Regional Innovation System2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional innovation systems are recurrently presented by model figures. The purpose of such figures is to monitor certain ideas regarding each presented system. The topic of this paper is the role of the University represented through such model figures, and what ideas such figures are created to promote. In analysing the models, a visual communication perspective is paired with network notions.

    The current objective is to discuss what politics can be found behind the idea promotion, when figures created within a university is compared to figures created outside of it. The aim is to clarify core differences between motives underlying the engagement of a university in its associated regional innovation system, by taking on the research question: How should we understand the disjunctions between model imagery on the University’s role in a regional innovation system used by people inside and outside of the University, respectively?

    The research method used in this pilot-project, focusing on the Dalarna region of Sweden, is an analysis of policy documents in combination with interviews. The policy documents come from universities, as well as from other institutions engaged in regional innovation systems. Primarily the model figure of the regional innovation system presented by Region Dalarna (http://www.regiondalarna.se/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Mobilisera-for-tillvaxt-Innovationsarbete-och-smart-specialisering.pdf [p.18]) is compared to Dalarna University’s model figure of its regional collaboration self-understanding (https://www.du.se/sv/Samverkan/Lägesrapport och slutrapport – Förstudie Högskolan Dalarnas roll i det regionala innovationssystemet.pdf [p.11]), and analysed in regard to policy documents on the Dalarna innovation system. Semi-structured interviews are also made with regional innovation system executives, university innovation officers and leaders, as well as university research group leaders, 14 interviews in total, spread across four (4) different Swedish regions.

    The results are several: there are commonalities in the understanding of the university’s role in the Dalarna innovation system, inside and outside of Dalarna University, but also several disjunctions:

    (1)   It is a common understanding that there could be cooperation between the university and others based on research, and/or through education.

    (2)   One disjunction regard whether the university should act as one centrally organized hub for such collaboration, or function through a more scattered and self-organized set of units, in accordance with specific knowledge areas, where collaboration takes place.

    (3)   Another disjunction appears concerning the university’s role in regard to innovation, whether it should be expected to be involved in the very innovation processes, or be an external part in support of innovation by providing resources and expertise for those that innovate.

    (4)   A third disjunction concerns the university’s regional engagement, whether its prime efforts should be focused inwards the region, or if it is more important to function as a network provider and facilitator towards other regions as well as globally.

    (5)   The fourth encountered disjunction regards weather the university should take on the intermediating role as a (strategic) knowledge broker that connects and encourages parties to innovation collaboration, or, yet again, the active role as the (leading) driving force in collective innovation processes, covering entire strategic areas of intervention.

    (6)   A more delicate disjunction, the fifth, is the different views on knowledge, where the external expectations on the university is to deliver configured pieces of knowledge, from research or education, ready to exploit into innovation and business, whereas the university’s internal understanding is that knowledge should be developed during the collaborative process, jointly with the external parties.

    The implications of these results are that (1) the common attitude of the possibility for the university to be involved in the regional innovation system which constitutes the vital starting point for such involvement to be achieved in a systematic and meaningful way. The disjunctions are in that sense topics for negotiation: (2) how much the university should centralize its innovation system involvement must be balanced against the benefits of free and active collaboration with external parties on the level of units and individuals within the organization; (3) to what degree supportive functions for an innovation system should be expected from a university, or from others, and what actual innovation activities the university should be involved in, or not; (4) weather the university should have a more operative engagement within the region, or rather emphasize its capacity as a bridge towards other regions and countries through its networks; (5) in what regards it is useful that the university has a more strategic or leading role in terms of broking knowledge, or driving innovation processes; and (6) what are the goals and terms of collaboration – exploitation of existing knowledge or mutual development of new knowledge?

    We see, as the main outcomes of this study, that the outset for a university to engage in the regional innovation system is affirmative, when involvement is recognized as possible in both research and education, from within as well as from outside the university. The existing disjunctions regarding a university’s role in the innovation system, though, present a challenge for negotiation, which, if not taken seriously, risks a collapse of collaborations and a failure of the involvement.

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