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  • 1.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Potential research areas for big data in tourism2016In: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Co-creation of IT-services to finance nature based tourism: A study on willingness to pay for cross-country skiing services in Sweden2011In: Exploring Co-creation / [ed] Clarke, Alan, London: Pearson , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Co-creation of IT-services to finance nature based tourism: A study on willingness to pay for cross-country skiing services in Sweden2010In: International conference on "Exploring Co-creation", University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Conditional cooperation in the field: Cross-country skiers' behavior in Sweden2005In: Economic Science Association, European Meeting, Alessandria, Italien, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Exploring the value of an event: comparing consumer surplus, willingness to pay and values of subjective wellbeing for the Peace & Love music festival in Sweden2014In: Proceedings of the 23st Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research: The values of tourism / [ed] Budeanu, A, Möckel, M., and Gyimóthy, S., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the values and impact for a hallmark event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers but also for the public planners of the host region.

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare values of a music event using on the one hand two non-market valuation techniques; and on the other hand individual measures of subjective well-being or happiness.  

    We use survey data collected from 716 visitors to the Peace & Love music festival held in Borlänge, Sweden, in 2011. The survey contains questions about the actual behaviour of the respondents such as expenditure patterns and travel behaviour but also questions on individuals’ subjective wellbeing (SWB) and willingness to pay (WTP) for certain features of the festival like “other people attending” and “length of the festival”. These data allow us to estimate consumer surplus for the event by applying the travel cost method but also average and individual measures of SWB. The latter can be used to explore correlations between individual’s SWB and individual socio economic characteristics but also consumer behaviour patterns.

    The preliminary findings of our study are that the consumer surplus value indicates an overall consumer value between 27 - 89 MSEK for the festival. The measure of happiness shows an average subjective wellbeing of 7.94 (likert scale 0-10) and correlations with a number of interesting variables. This paper contributes to the literature on valuation of tourism and events by highlighting the potential for using measures of consumer surplus in combination with actual visitor data on preferences to understand current and future impact and values of an event. 

  • 6.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Financing recreational infrastructure with micropayments and donations: a pilot study on cross-country ski track preparations in Sweden2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 386-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a natural field experiment in which cross-country skiers had the option to use their mobile phones to call in a donation to fund ski track preparations. This paper takes the Right of Public Access as given and investigates the extent to which donations or voluntary contributions can be used to finance recreational infrastructure. The purpose of the study was to look at how different types of bonus services and offers, as well as the introduction of a trail pass, affected the willingness of individuals to make donations to ski track preparations at a Swedish ski resort. The study’s main finding was that it is not possible to rely on a simple voluntary approach when introducing a new system for financing recreational infrastructure using micropayments and new IT services.

  • 7.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Financing Recreational Infrastructures by Micro-payments and Donations: A Natural Field Experiment on XC-Ski Preparations in Sweden2008In: 2nd International conference on “Sustainable Tourism Development”, Södertörn, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Financing recreational public goods for tourism development: Is there a case for voluntary contributions?2009In: International Conference “Central Europe and Tourism Competitiveness”, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary,, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Informal sanctions and conditional cooperation:: A natural experiment on voluntary contributions to a public good.2006In: Economic Science Association, Nottingham, UK, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a natural experiment, this paper studies the impact of an informal sanctioning mechanism on individuals’ voluntary contribution to a public good. Cross-country skiers’ actual cash contributions in two ski resorts, one with and one without an informal sanctioning system, are used. I find the contributing share to be higher in the informal sanctioning system (79 percent) than in the non-sanctioning system (36 percent). Previous studies in one-shot public good situations have found an increasing conditional contribution (CC) function, i.e. the relationship between expected average contributions of other group members and the individual’s own contribution. In contrast, the present results suggest that the CC-function in the non-sanctioning system is non-increasing at high perceived levels of others’ contribution. This relationship deserves further testing in lab.

  • 10.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Informal sanctions and conditional cooperation: A natural experiment on voluntary contributions to a public good.2008In: 16th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, Göteborg, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Institutional Factors Influencing the Size and Structure of Tourism:: Comparing Dalarna (Sweden) and Maine (USA).2000In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, no 3 (4), p. 283-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Planning for bicycle tourism: estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two Swedish regions2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development strategies. However, who should bear the cost of such infrastructure investments, the national, regional or local level authorities?      

    The starting point for this paper can be found in the conflicting interests in bicycle tourism and how these should be handled in infrastructure planning in Sweden. Who benefits from a developed bicycle trail network and how large can such benefits be? This paper aims at estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two specific destinations in Sweden; Varberg and Gotland. We use data collected on site at the two destinations using a self-complete questionnaire following a mixed-stratified sampling strategy to be able to segment the visitors spending based on lodging types. In total 483 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The main finding is that there is a surprisingly large difference in visitor spending between the two regions and that the segmenting of visitor spending based on lodging gives a more reliable estimate of the economic impact from bicycle tourism compared to the most commonly used measure “average guest night spending”.  

  • 13.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Planning for bicycle tourism: estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two Swedish regions2013In: Proceedings of the 22st Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Bodø & Lofoten Islands, Norway, 24-27 September, 2013: Innovation and value creation in experience‐based tourism / [ed] Lindberg, Frank, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in developing bicycle trail networks is in many countries seen as strategy to develop the tourism industry, especially as part of regional development strategies. However, who should bear the cost of such infrastructure investments, the national, regional or local level authorities?      

    The starting point for this paper can be found in the conflicting interests in bicycle tourism and how these should be handled in infrastructure planning in Sweden. Who benefits from a developed bicycle trail network and how large can such benefits be? This paper aims at estimating the economic effects of bicycle tourism in two specific destinations in Sweden; Varberg and Gotland. We use data collected on site at the two destinations using a self-complete questionnaire following a mixed-stratified sampling strategy to be able to segment the visitors spending based on lodging types. In total 483 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The main finding is that there is a surprisingly large difference in visitor spending between the two regions and that the segmenting of visitor spending based on lodging gives a more reliable estimate of the economic impact from bicycle tourism compared to the most commonly used measure “average guest night spending”.  

  • 14.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Sustainable Nature Tourism and the Nature of Tourists’ Cooperative Behavior: Recreation Conflicts, Conditional Cooperation and the Public Good Problem2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Tourism economic impact of a horse race venue: the case of harness racing at DalaTravet Rättvik, Sweden2015In: Proceedings of the 24th Nordic symposium in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1-3 October, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harness racing events in Sweden attracts in between 5 000 to 10 000 visitors each weekend during summertime with the Solvalla International “Elitlopp” in Stockholm as the biggest event with 50 000 visitor over two days. 

    For smaller regional harness racing venues the industry and its events is quite often used as part of destination marketing. However there are no previous examples of the overall significance of the industry at regional levels and specifically the tourism economic impact of the industry at regional level.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the tourism economic impact of harness racing at regional levels using the case of DalaTravet (DT) Rättvik, in Sweden as a case. The study uses register based data as well as data from a questionnaire study conducted at six of the DT Rättvik events during summer season 2014. In total a sample of 444 respondents are used in the analysis.

    The results of the study indicates that the turnover related to the harness racing industry at the regional level amounts to approximately 31.1 Million SEK of which 11.1 MSEK is counted as tourism economic impact.

    This paper contributes to the literature on tourism impact analysis of specific events in smaller regional areas. The results of the study may be of use for tourism and regional planners in regions with a harness racing venue. 

  • 16.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Turskidåkares värdering av externaliteter från skoter2000Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hansen, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Social Approval and Framing in the Field: Behaviour of Snowmobilers in Sweden2009In: 4th Nordic Conference on Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Oslo, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Skoterturismen och utvecklingen i Funäsdalsfjällen: En uppföljning av projektet "Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdalsfjällen"2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdalsfjällen” pågick under 1999-2001 och har både nationellt och internationellt omskrivits som ett lyckosamt och banbrytande projekt med målsättning att utveckla skoterturism i den svenska fjällvärlden utan att konflikter och störningar uppstår som kan försämra förutsättningarna för andra turismgrenar i området. Syftet med denna rapport är att redovisa resultaten från en uppföljningsstudie av projektet ”Hållbar utveckling i Funäsdals¬fjällen”. Projektets olika delmål har följts upp dels via en enkätstudie riktad till ett urval av skoter- och turskidåkare som besökt Funäsdalsfjällen, dels via ett antal djupintervjuer med företrädare för de olika lokala intressegrupperna. Dessutom har skoterturismens effekter på den lokala ekonomin specialstuderas inom ramen för ett examensarbete. Vi bedömer att projektet har varit lyckat och uppfyllt de målsättningar som satts upp för projektets verksamhet på kort sikt. En viktig förklaring till detta har varit projektets utgångspunkt i konsensusbeslut. Från intervjustudien blir det tydligt att de olika grupperna av aktörer och intressenter har olika syn på hur utvecklingen i Funäsdalsfjällen ska se ut på lång sikt. Vissa vill exempelvis fortsätta att utveckla skoterturismen medan andra anser att gränsen för skoteråkningens påverkan i området är nådd. För fortsatt hållbar utveckling i området är det sannolikt mycket viktigt att alla intressegrupper fortsätter att delta i arbetet med att utveckla Funäsdalfjällen.

  • 19.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace & Love 2010: Värderade och icke-värderade ekonomiska effekter2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till at kartlägga samt värderat och presenterat ekonomiska effekter koppladetill Peace & Love festivalen 2010. Utgångspunkten är en definition av festivalens intressenter.Uppskattningen av de ekonomiska effekter som presenterats är baserade på enkätsvar från 519festivalbesökare. Resultaten från studien pekar på att festivalbesökare definierade som turister igenomsnitt spenderar drygt 2000 kr i samband med sitt besök exklusive utgifter för resa ochfestivalbiljett. Den totala festivalkopplade konsumtionen beräknas till 154 Mkr genom attmultiplicera siffrorna för genomsnittlig festivalkonsumtion för en besökare med det totala antaletbetalande besökare. Studien visar också att det finns ett betydande läckage ur den regionalaekonomin till följd av att försäljare inom festivalområdet kommer från andra delar i Sverige.Peace & Love-festivalens bidrag till den lokala ekonomin inklusive biljettintäkter beräknas istudien till 89 Mkr. Slutligen pekar studien på att fördjupade studier innehållande en mernoggrann uppskattning över besökargruppernas andelar respektive konsumtion krävs vid nästaårs festival för att säkerställa de resultat denna studie redovisar.

  • 20.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace, love and well-being: Volunteering at the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden2014In: Event Volunteering: International Perspectives on the Volunteering Experience at Events / [ed] Smith, K. A., Lockstone-Binney, L., Holmes, K. and Baum, T., Routledge, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on research on how volunteering contributes to people’s subjective well‐being, this study uses the case of the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden, the largest music and societal cohesion city festival in Sweden, to suggest an individual, organizational, and societal cost-benefit model, including intangible values such as subjective well-being and social capital. Previous studies on the festival’s audience correlated an individual’s subjective well‐being and their voluntary engagements. Does this relationship hold for the volunteers?

     

    The festival calls for about 6,000 volunteers. Their contribution, in traditional economic terms, is about SEK 18 million (€2.1 million), corresponding to about 20 percent of the festival’s net turnover. Volunteers seem to be necessary to make ends meet financially. Volunteer motives, ranging from rational choice to pure altruism, are addressed. For a teenager, the weekly pass is quite expensive: as a result, some people only volunteer to get festival access. Such participants usually require more supervision than altruistic volunteers. However, the societal return may be large for this group considering the amount of young, first-time volunteers introduced to civil engagement. The festival volunteers report an average subjective well-being of 8.2 compared to the festival visitors averaging 7.6 on a scale 0–10, where 10 is the maximum, implying positive effects on the intangible values.

  • 21.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Klerby, Anna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Volunteering at events - motives, costs and benefits: A Peace & Love case study2012In: Developing Tourism – Sustaining Regions: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Marcus Ednarsson, Fredrik Hoppstadius, Linda Lundmark, Roger Marjavaara, Dieter Müller, Kati Pitkänen and Ulrika Åkerlund, Umeå: Department of Geography and Economic History, Umeå University , 2012, p. 71-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on research on how volunteering contributes to people’s subjective well‐being, our research uses the case of the Peace & Love festival in Borlänge, Sweden, the largest city festival (focusing on music and societal cohesion) in Sweden, to test a number of hypotheses. Previous studies on the festival’s audience have found a positive correlation between individual’s subjective well‐being and their voluntary engagements. Does this relationship hold also for the volunteers?

     

    Moreover, the festival on its own calls for about 5.000 volunteers. Their contribution, in traditional economic terms makes up to about 20 percent of the festival’s net turnover and seems to be necessary to make ends meet financially. The festival brings an opportunity to volunteer, with its positive effects of well‐being, increased social and cultural capital, but it may also have a downside. For a teenager the weekly pass is quite pricy and so far sold out before the festival starts, some people only sign up as volunteers to ascertain them access to the festival. According to the festival management such participants are more demanding to supervise than “voluntary volunteers”. However the societal return may be even larger considering the introduction of the involuntary volunteers into the world of volunteering. In this paper we also study motives for volunteering in relationship to both the individual and the festival management perspectives. 

  • 22.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Estimating and comparing demand for a music event using stated choice and actual visitor behavior data2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the demand and the economic impact for a hallmark event is crucial knowledge not only for the event managers but also for the public planners of the host region, especially from the viewpoint of welfare evaluation. The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly to estimate the demand for a music event using two non-market valuation techniques; stated choice and travel cost method (TCM), and secondly to compare the welfare measures estimated from the two methods and discuss their relevance for event policy and management. We use survey data collected from 1005 visitors to the Peace & Love music festival held in Borlänge, Sweden, in 2012. The survey contains questions about the actual behaviour of the respondents such as expenditure patterns and travel behaviour but also a stated choice experiment (SCE). The latter asks the respondents to choose between different scenarios with varying levels of price, number of visitors and length of the festival in days. These data allow us to estimate consumer surplus for the event by applying both the TCM and SCE. The findings of our study are that the price effect, as expected, is negative and significant, more people attending the festival decreases the propensity to attend while longer duration of the festival increases the propensity to attend. This paper contributes to the literature on event impact analysis by highlighting the potential for using stated choice data on visitor preferences in combination with actual visitor data to understand current and future economic impact of an event. 

  • 23.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Turismens samhällsekonomiska betydelse2007In: Utveckla turistdestinationer – ett svenskt perspektiv / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus; Elbe, Jörgen, Uppsala: Uppsala publishing house. , 2007, p. 53-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Turskid- och skoteråkning i Sälenfjällen - är "På rätt led i Sälenfjällen" ur led?2001Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Peace & Love 2011: Uppskattning av festivalens ekonomiska betydelse via segmenteringsansatsen2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att kartlägga samt värdera och presentera ekonomiska effekterkopplade till Peace & Love festivalen 2011 genom att tillämpa segmenteringsansatsen.Utgångspunkten är en uppdelning av festivalbesökarna i olika kategorier (segment) som därefteranvänds för att skatta den direkta ekonomiska effekten av festivalen. Uppskattningen av deekonomiska effekter som presenteras är baserade på enkätsvar från 1036 festivalbesökare samt1540 intervjuer vid entréerna.

    Resultatet från studien pekar på att den traditionella metoden med uppskattning av effekter via enuppdelning av konsumtion mellan turister och icke turister överskattar den totala effekten jämförtmed uppskattning via boendesegmentering med ca 10 procent. Den totala effekten viaboendesegmentering uppskattas till dryga 185 Mkr. Besökarnas konsumtion i samband medPeace & Love festivalen kan omräknas till 61,85 helårsverken. Peace & Love festivalen beräknasskapa drygt 22 helårsverken inom restaurang och handel i Borlängeregionen utöver de 23helårsverken som festivalorganisationen skapar.

  • 26.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Olofsson, Mattias
    Svenska Skidspelen 2012: Förstudie kring ekonomisk effekt- och konsumtionsmätning inför Skid-VM i Falun 20152012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ska ses som en förstudie kring metoder för insamling av information över besökarna vid Svenska Skidspelen samt för att uppskatta Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse. Resultaten baseras på insamlat material via enkäter till besökare till Skidspelen 2012. Totalt 404 svar i enkätform från besökare inom området samt från bil och bussåkande besökare har använts i analysen. Därutöver intervjuades 718 besökare vid entrén om ålder, bostadsort, vistelselängd samt färdmedel till evenemanget.

     

    Rapporten innehåller uppskattningar av Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse med hjälp av flera typer av modeller; turism-, boende- samt ålderssegmenteringsmodell. Resultat från studien visar att engångs­kostnader för boende, resor och biljett kunde uppskattas relativt bra, medan konsumtion under dagen inte fångades tillräckligt bra i någon modell. Resultaten från studien visar också att en försiktig uppskattning av Skidspelens ekonomiska betydelse mätt som direkt konsumtion kan sägas ligga mellan 14 - 18 miljoner kr för år 2012.

     

    För att få ett mer korrekt resultat vid eventuella vidare studier eller vid studier av Skid-VM 2015 i Falun så bör en samhällsekonomisk välfärds analys göras för att inkludera samtliga effekter. Beräkningen av Skidspelens ekonomiska effekt skulle kunna göras mer precis genom att tillfråga ett större urval av besökare samt utveckla insamlingen av data över besökarnas totala konsumtion kopplat till besöket vid Svenska Skidspelen. 

  • 27.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    VTI.
    Wikberg, Åsa
    VTI.
    Hållbara turistresor: En fallstudie av destinationerna Kiruna, Åre, Sälen och Vimmerby2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In conjunction with development of destinations and transport systems, tourist demands andrequirements are essential in determining measures and changes that may lead to more sustainabletravel. Different options for travel to and from destinations are of great importance, but also thegeographical accessibility to various visit points within destinations. Good accessibility within adestination without a private car may also influence the modal choice for the trip to and from thedestination.This study analysed the requirements of different categories of tourists for transport, their travelpatterns and their preferences regarding travel to, from and within four Swedish destinations: Kiruna,Åre, Sälen and Vimmerby. The aim was to develop knowledge about factors that may affect thesustainability of tourist travel. The empirical material for the analysis was collected throughquestionnaires distributed to visitors on-site in the destinations.The results show that tourism differs and has different economic potential for different destinations.Both travel patterns (such as mode choice) and economic power (measured as guest nightconsumption) are highly variable between different categories of tourists, destinations and seasons.A key conclusion from the study is that tourists want access to many different visit points withindestinations. The physical structure of destinations, i.e. the location of accommodation and visitpoints, has great significance for the accessibility and need for travel within destinations. The physicalstructure of the destination and the availability of alternative modes of transport are therefore bothimportant for increasing the sustainability of tourist travel. This means that knowledge about thegeographical accessibility for tourists is important for planning and development of sustainabledestinations and tourist travel, as is knowledge about tourists’ behaviour and preferences.

  • 28.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Thulemark, Maria
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Olofsson, Elenor
    Nätverkssamarbete och destinationsutveckling: En jämförelse av ett storskaligt och ett småskaligt turismutvecklingsprojekt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbar destinationsutveckling kräver samarbete mellan offentliga och privata aktörer. Den övergripande forskningsfrågan som genomsyrat arbetet med denna rapport handlar om hur samhällets resurser bäst kan användas för att utveckla turistdestinationer. Projekten Nordic Snowmobile Center och Projekt Entreprenörsutbildning Småland/Kronoberg, vilka har finansierats med olika mycket offentliga medel, utvärderas i denna rapport. Resultaten från utvärderingen utgör sedan grund för diskussion och analys av destinationsutveckling. Rapporten redogör också för följeforskning genomförd på Projekt Nordic Snowmobile Center (NSC) mellan åren 2004-2007. Vi konstaterar att båda projekten uppfyller sina huvudsyften. Projekt NSC kan däremot inte anses ha uppfyllt alla sina delmål. Förklaringarna till detta står att finna i faktorer som förankringen av projektets mål och delmål i projektområdet; en asymmetri i budgeterade investeringskostnader mellan projektets delområden; institutionella faktorer såsom projektadministration samt redovisningsprinciper hos EU-sekretariat och de andra offentliga finansiärerna. Följeforskningen av Projekt NSC identifierade dessutom ett antal faktorer som kan bidra till ökad förståelse för hur ett projekt av denna storlek bör organiseras och ledas samt vilka stöd som ett projekt av den här typen kräver för att åstadkomma destinationsutveckling.

  • 29.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Vail, David
    Multiple-use forest land and commercial tourism in Sweden and Maine (USA):: Networking land parcels for outdoor recreation2006In: International conference of Trends, Impacts and Policies on Tourism Development, Heraklion, Crete, GREECE, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with government strategies to counteract rural economic decline and will focus on two problems that affects the possibility to promote nature tourism in general, and nature tourism relying on a trail network in specific. First, recreational land is a multiple use resource where the tourism use may not only lead to conflicts between different tourism uses but also with other land use interests, like forestry and environmental preservation, especially when certain types of uses are viewed as mutually exclusive. Second, the demand for a recreational trail network, for example a snowmobile, biking or canoeing trail, is dependent on several factors. It has for example been showed that the recreational demand for a trail network is increasing in trail length and number of scenic sites accessible. However, under conditions of public access to private land and fragmented land ownership, the production of trail networks of high quality is complicated when the trail crosses multiple landholdings. In general, the creation of an attractive trail network requires coordinated access to multiple land parcels. The paper highlights two institutional innovations that seek to align stakeholders’ incentives and manage recreational access. They are Sweden’s snowmobile trail networks, crossing multiple ownerships and biomes; and Maine’s state acquisition of large-scale conservation and recreation easements on private forestland related to the development of a back country trail “hut-to-hut” network.

  • 30. Lindberg, Kreg
    et al.
    Fredman, Peter
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Facilitating integrated recreation management: assessing conflict reduction benefits in a common metric2009In: Forest Science, ISSN 0015-749X, E-ISSN 1938-3738, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreation management on public land often involves trade-offs. For example, cross-country skiers may experience conflict with snowmobiles. A potential management response is trail separation, which may lead to gains to skiers but also ecological and financial costs associated with creation of a new trail. If separation involves snowmobile access restrictions, there may be experiential losses for that user group. Management responses are not always based on explicit identification and integration of the gains and losses accruing across diverse stakeholders and dimensions; economics provides a criterion, a metric, and measurement tools to facilitate such integration. A Swedish case study illustrates this approach and assesses values accruing to skiers from reduced snowmobile presence. Cross-country skiers were sampled on-site in the southern Jämtland mountain region, and follow-up mail surveys included choice experiment scenarios. Conditional logit analysis of the 1,468 completed scenarios indicates that skier welfare gains from conflict reduction are substantial and reflect both direct and indirect contact. A change from sharing trails to not seeing, hearing, or smelling snowmobiles leads to gains of 185 kronor (US$23) per skier party.

  • 31.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Analysis of Visitor Expenditures at World Ski Championships 2015 in Falun - Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Economic valuation of events: combining methods based on revealed, stated and subjective preference data2017In: The Value of Events / [ed] Erik Lundberg, John Armbrecht, Tommy D. Andersson, Donald Getz, Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33. Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Competition and festival failure: Societal costs and benefits related to the rise and fall of Swedish music festivals2017In: 26th Nordic Symposium of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Book of abstract, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nordvall, Anders
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Understanding hallmark event failure: A case study of a Swedish music festival2017In: International Journal of Event and Festival Management, ISSN 1785-2954, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 172-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hallmark events can be very beneficial for host communities, not least due to their potential in attracting tourists. The Peace & Love music festival was the hallmark event of the Swedish city Borlänge. In 2013, the event organization declared bankruptcy and canceled the forthcoming festival. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the factors that caused the failure of the 2013 Peace & Love festival.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The case of the Peace & Love festival is analyzed using three data sources: interviews with the former members of the event organization; secondary data describing the Swedish festival industry; and festival visitors’ perspectives represented by comments on social media. An organizational ecology perspective frames the analysis.

    Findings

    The results of the study reveal that the failure of the event can be understood by a combination of three components: an organization in a vulnerable position, a strong new competitor entering the Swedish festival market, and uncertain visitors searching for the new place to be.

    Originality/value

    Very few studies have researched event failure, although the subject is a recommended priority within the field of festival studies. This study presents a thorough examination of a hallmark event failure, which contributes to this area of knowledge and provides relevant information for organizations and host cities.

  • 35.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Thunström, Linda
    Weiberth, Cajsa
    Märkningar och konsumentbeteende: kommer efterfrågan med Svanen?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten består av tre delar, där den första studerar hur hyllmärkningar av ekologiska produkter påverkar efterfrågan på de märkta produkterna. Studien baseras på försäljningsdata från en ICA-Maxi butik belägen i Hemlingby köpcentrum i Gävle. I del två studeras hur konsumenterna värderar hälsorelaterade livsmedelsmärkningar samt hur konsumenterna värderar kemiska livsmedelstillsatser. De märkningar som studeras är de som mest frekvent används i Sverige som indikationer på näringsrik mat respektive ekologiskt odlad mat. I rapportens sista kapitel undersöks i vilken utsträckning konsumenterna är nöjda med sina val inom dagligvaruhandeln. Då beslutssituationen innebär att konsumenterna ofta har bristfällig information om tillgängliga produkter samtidigt som man har många möjliga val är det intressant att konsumenter som ges möjlighet att i efterhand utvärdera sina val då fattar samma beslut som man gjorde vid det faktiska köptillfället.

  • 36.
    Tobias, Heldt
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Regionalekonomisk betydelse av travsporten: exemplet Dalatravet Rättvik2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att hästnäringen inklusive spridningseffekter årligen omsätter ca 46 miljarder kronor och bidrar till sysselsättning för ca 30 000 helårsverken. Motsvarande beräkningar för travsportens del av hästnäringen eller för en mindre region finns däremot inte. Denna rapport syftar till att uppskatta regionalekonomisk betydelse av travsport i Sverige med utgångspunkt i en mindre travbanas verksamhet. Dalatravet Rättvik (DT Rättvik) används som en fallstudie. Resultaten baseras dels på registerdata över faktiskt registrerade hästar med koppling till DT Rättvik dels på enkätmaterial insamlat från ett urval av besökare vid tävlingar under sommaren 2014. Totalt används svar från 444 besökare i analysen. Resultaten från beräkningarna visar att den direkta ekonomiska effekten av DT Rättviks 333 travhästar i amatör- eller proffsträning genererar 20 miljoner i travhästtrelaterad konsumtion. DT Rättviks travsportevenemang uppskattas generera ca 29 miljoner varav 11,1 miljoner ärett tillskott till den regionala ekonomin i form av turistekonomisk omsättning. Travsportens sammanlagda regionalekonomiska effekt beräknas således uppgå till minst 31,1 miljonerkronor. Inkluderas även utbildning, avel och uppfödning samt sysselsättning vid ATG-ombudså uppskattas travsporten generera ca 40 helårsverken inom DT Rättviksregionen.  

  • 37. Vail, D
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Governing snowmobilers in multiple-use landscapes: Swedish and Maine (USA) cases2004In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 469-483 Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Vredin-Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    The effects of attitudes and personality traits on mode choice2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 507-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesise that differences in people's attitudes and personality traits lead them to attribute varying importance to environmental considerations, safety, comfort, convenience and flexibility. Differences in personality traits call be revealed not only in the individuals' choice of transport, but also in other actions of their everyday lives-such as how much they recycle, whether they take precautions or avoid dangerous pursuits. Conditioning on a set of exogenous individual characteristics, we use indicators of attitudes and personality traits to form latent variables for inclusion in an, otherwise standard, discrete mode choice model. With a sample of Swedish commuters, we find that both attitudes towards flexibility and comfort, as well as being pro-environmentally inclined, influence the individual's choice of mode. Although modal time and cost still are important, it follows that there are other ways, apart from economic incentives, to attract individuals to the, from society's perspective, desirable public modes of transport. Our results should provide useful information to policy-makers and transportation planners developing sustainable transportation systems.

  • 39.
    Wikström, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A business intelligence solution of handling traveling data with R and Shiny2016In: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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