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  • 1.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Förutsättningarna för en utbyggd gränshandel i Sälen2012In: På gränsen – interaktion, attraktivitet och globalisering i Inre Skandinavien / [ed] Eva Olsson, Atle Hauge och Birgitta Ericsson, Karlstad: Karlstad University Press , 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Underlag för gränshandel och köpcentrum i Sälen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Fransson, Urban
    Institutet för byggforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Tollefsen, Aina
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Att flytta till glesbygden1993Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Population and Housing Dynamics in a Metropolitan Region: The case of Stockholm1998Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Population Concentration and Dispersion in Sweden since the 1970s1997In: Population planning and policies / [ed] Borgegård, L-E., Findlay, A.M., Sondell, E., Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 1997Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Spridning och koncentration av befolkningen i Sveriges kommuner 1973-19921995In: Då, Nu och sedan: Geografiska uppsatser till minnet av Ingvar Jonsson / [ed] Ian Layton, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 1995, p. 127-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Concentration and Dispersion of Immigrants in Sweden, 1973-19921998In: The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, ISSN 0008-3658, E-ISSN 1541-0064, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Hur förändras bosättningsmönstret när invandrarna blir fler?1995In: Invandrare & Minoriteter, no 5, p. 29-33Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Does Euclidean distance work well when the p-median model is applied in rural areas?2012In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 201, no 1, p. 83-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P centers to serve a geographically distributed population. A cornerstone of such a model is the measure of distance between a service center and demand points, i.e. the location of the population (customers, pupils, patients, and so on). Evidence supports the current practice of using Euclidean distance. However, we find that the location of multiple hospitals in a rural region of Sweden with anon-symmetrically distributed population is quite sensitive to distance measure, and somewhat sensitive to spatial aggregation of demand points.

  • 10.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Methodological issues in applying Location Models to Rural areas2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Location Models are usedfor planning the location of multiple service centers in order to serve a geographicallydistributed population. A cornerstone of such models is the measure of distancebetween the service center and a set of demand points, viz, the location of thepopulation (customers, pupils, patients and so on). Theoretical as well asempirical evidence support the current practice of using the Euclidian distancein metropolitan areas. In this paper, we argue and provide empirical evidencethat such a measure is misleading once the Location Models are applied to ruralareas with heterogeneous transport networks. This paper stems from the problemof finding an optimal allocation of a pre-specified number of hospitals in alarge Swedish region with a low population density. We conclude that the Euclidianand the network distances based on a homogenous network (equal travel costs inthe whole network) give approximately the same optimums. However networkdistances calculated from a heterogeneous network (different travel costs indifferent parts of the network) give widely different optimums when the numberof hospitals increases.  In terms ofaccessibility we find that the recent closure of hospitals and the in-optimallocation of the remaining ones has increased the average travel distance by 75%for the population. Finally, aggregation the population misplaces the hospitalsby on average 10 km.

  • 11.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Var ska sjukhusen ligga?2013In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, no 3, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel visar på en metod för att undersöka hur optimal befolkningens fysiska tillgänglighet till sjukvården är. Detta är relevant med tanke på den svenska storregionala omdaningen som säkerligen kommer provocera fram omprövningar av sjukhusens framtida placering.

    Med Dalarna som exempel fann vi att en ökning från dagens två till tre optimalt lokaliserade sjukhus skulle minska befolkningens genomsnittliga reseavstånd med 25 %.

    På basis av transportsektorns standardkalkyler för samhällsekonomisk effekter vid resande, samt av kostnader för drift av sjukvård sluter vi dessutom oss till att en komplettering av nuvarande två sjukhus i Dalarna med ett tredje vore samhällsekonomiskt effektivt.

  • 12.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 13.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 14.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Measuring transport related CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2015In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 40, p. 28-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 15.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    An empirical test of the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to it and the attractiveness of it. However regarding the location of the facility, the presumption is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility.This paradox was recently solved by the introduction of the gravity p-median model. The model is yet to be implemented and tested empirically. We implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating locksmiths, vehicle inspections, and retail stores ofv ehicle spare-parts, and we compared the solutions with those of the p-median model. We found the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 16.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Distance measure and the p-median problem in rural areas2015In: Annals of Operations Research, ISSN 0254-5330, E-ISSN 1572-9338, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 89-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population patronize the nearest facility and that the distance between the resident and the facility may be measured by the Euclidean distance. Carling, Han, and Håkansson (2012) compared two network distances with the Euclidean in a rural region with a sparse, heterogeneous network and a non-symmetric distribution of the population. For a coarse network and P small, they found, in contrast to the literature, the Euclidean distance to be problematic. In this paper we extend their work by use of a refined network and study systematically the case when P is of varying size (1-100 facilities). We find that the network distance give as good a solution as the travel-time network. The Euclidean distance gives solutions some 4-10 per cent worse than the network distances, and the solutions tend to deteriorate with increasing P. Our conclusions extend to intra-urban location problems.

  • 17.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Distance measure and the p-median problem in rural areas2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population patronize the nearest facility and that the distance between the resident and the facility may be measured by the Euclidean distance. Carling, Han, and Håkansson (2012) compared two network distances with the Euclidean in a rural region witha sparse, heterogeneous network and a non-symmetric distribution of thepopulation. For a coarse network and P small, they found, in contrast to the literature, the Euclidean distance to be problematic. In this paper we extend their work by use of a refined network and study systematically the case when P is of varying size (2-100 facilities). We find that the network distance give as gooda solution as the travel-time network. The Euclidean distance gives solutions some 2-7 per cent worse than the network distances, and the solutions deteriorate with increasing P. Our conclusions extend to intra-urban location problems.

  • 18.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Testing the gravity p-median model empirically2015In: Operations Research Perspectives, ISSN 2214-7160, Vol. 2, no 124, article id 132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.

  • 19.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2013In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 226, no 3, p. 658-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, the three arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 20.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Short Communication: A compelling argument for the gravity p-median model2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median model is used to locate P facilities to serve a geographically distributed population. Conventionally, it is assumed that the population always travels to the nearest facility. Drezner and Drezner (2006, 2007) provide three arguments on why this assumption might be incorrect, and they introduce the extended the gravity p-median model to relax the assumption. We favour the gravity p-median model, but we note that in an applied setting, Drezner and Drezner’s arguments are incomplete. In this communication, we point at the existence of a fourth compelling argument for the gravity p-median model.

  • 21.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 22.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Jia, Tao
    School of Remote Sensing and Information Engineering, Wuhan University.
    Out-of-town shopping and its induced CO2-emissions2013In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 16p. 382-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning policies in several European countries have aimed at hindering the expansion of out-of-town shopping centers. One argument for this is concern for the increase in transport and a resulting increase in environmental externalities such as CO2-emissions. This concern is weakly founded in science as few studies have attempted to measure CO2-emissions of shopping trips as a function of the location of the shopping centers. In this paper we conduct a counter-factual analysis comparing downtown, edge-of-town and out-of-town shopping. In this comparison we use GPS to track 250 consumers over a time-span of two months in a Swedish region. The GPS-data enters the Oguchi’s formula to obtain shopping trip-specific CO2-emissions. We find that consumers’ out-of-town shopping would generate an excess of 60 per cent CO2-emissions whereas downtown and edge-of-town shopping centers are comparable.

  • 23.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 97, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 24.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 25.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal retail location and CO2 emissions2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2 emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2 emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2 emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25percent. 

  • 26.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Optimal retail location and CO2-emissions2013In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 20, no 14, p. 1357-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the p-median model is used to find the location of retail stores that minimizes CO2-emissions from consumer travel. The optimal location is then compared with the existing retail location,and the excess CO2-emissions compared with the optimal solution is calculated. The results show that by using the environmentally optimal location, CO2-emissions from consumer travel could be reduced by approximately 25 per cent.

  • 27.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Lundmark, M.
    Intra-urban location of stores and labour turnover in retail2019In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse labour turnover in retail firms with stores in different city locations. This case study of a Swedish mid-sized city uses comprehensive longitudinal register data on individuals. In a first step, an unconditional descriptive analysis shows that labour turnover in retail is higher in out-of-town locations, compared to more central locations in the city. In a second step, a generalized linear model (GLM) analysis is conducted where labour turnover in downtown and out-of-town locations are compared. Firm internal and industry factors, as well as employee characteristics, and location-specific factors are controlled for. The results indicate that commuting costs and intra-urban location have no statistically significant effect on labour turnover in retail firms. Instead, firm internal factors, such as human resource management, has a major influence on labour turnover rates. The findings indicate that in particular firms with multiple locations may need to pay extra attention to work conditions across stores in different places in a city, in order to avoid diverging levels of labour mobility. This paper complements previous survey-based studies on labour turnover by using a comprehensive micro-level dataset to analyse revealed rather than stated preferences concerning job-to-job mobility. An elaborated measure of labour turnover is used to analyse differences between shopping areas in different locations within the city. The particular research design used in this paper makes it possible to isolate the effect of intra-organizational conditions by analysing mobility within firms with workplaces in both downtown and out-of-town locations. This is the first comprehensive study of labour turnover and mobility with an intra-urban perspective in the retail sector.

  • 28.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Cultural Studies.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How do different densities in a network affect the optimal location of service centers?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median problem is often used to locate p service centers by minimizing their distances to a geographically distributed demand (n). The optimal locations are sensitive to geographical context such as road network and demand points especially when they are asymmetrically distributed in the plane. Most studies focus on evaluating performances of the p-median model when p and n vary. To our knowledge this is not a very well-studied problem when the road network is alternated especially when it is applied in a real world context. The aim in this study is to analyze how the optimal location solutions vary, using the p-median model, when the density in the road network is alternated. The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a region in Sweden with an asymmetrically distributed population (15,000 weighted demand points), Dalecarlia. To locate 5 to 50 service centers we use the national transport administrations official road network (NVDB). The road network consists of 1.5 million nodes. To find the optimal location we start with 500 candidate nodes in the network and increase the number of candidate nodes in steps up to 67,000. To find the optimal solution we use a simulated annealing algorithm with adaptive tuning of the temperature. The results show that there is a limited improvement in the optimal solutions when nodes in the road network increase and p is low. When p is high the improvements are larger. The results also show that choice of the best network depends on p. The larger p the larger density of the network is needed. 

  • 29.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How does data quality in a network affect heuristic solutions?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To have good data quality with high complexity is often seen to be important. Intuition says that the higher accuracy and complexity the data have the better the analytic solutions becomes if it is possible to handle the increasing computing time. However, for most of the practical computational problems, high complexity data means that computational times become too long or that heuristics used to solve the problem have difficulties to reach good solutions. This is even further stressed when the size of the combinatorial problem increases. Consequently, we often need a simplified data to deal with complex combinatorial problems. In this study we stress the question of how the complexity and accuracy in a network affect the quality of the heuristic solutions for different sizes of the combinatorial problem. We evaluate this question by applying the commonly used

    p-median model, which is used to find optimal locations in a network of p supply points that serve n demand points. To evaluate this, we vary both the accuracy (the number of nodes) of the network and the size of the combinatorial problem (p).

    The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a region in Sweden with an asymmetrically distributed population (15,000 weighted demand points), Dalecarlia. To locate 5 to 50 supply points we use the national transport administrations official road network (NVDB). The road network consists of 1.5 million nodes. To find the optimal location we start with 500 candidate nodes in the network and increase the number of candidate nodes in steps up to 67,000 (which is aggregated from the 1.5 million nodes). To find the optimal solution we use a simulated annealing algorithm with adaptive tuning of the temperature. The results show that there is a limited

    improvement in the optimal solutions when the accuracy in the road network increase and the combinatorial problem (low

    p) is simple. When the combinatorial problem is complex (large p) the improvements of increasing the accuracy in the road network are much larger. The results also show that choice of the best accuracy of the network depends on the complexity of the combinatorial (varying p) problem.

  • 30.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    How does the use of different road networks effect the optimal location of facilities in rural areas?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The p-median problem is often used to locate P service facilities in a geographically distributed population. Important for the performance of such a model is the distance measure.

    Distance measure can vary if the accuracy of the road network varies. The rst aim in this study is to analyze how the optimal location solutions vary, using the p-median model, when the road network is alternated. It is hard to nd an exact optimal solution for p-median problems. Therefore, in this study two heuristic solutions are applied, simulating annealing and a classic heuristic. The secondary aim is to compare the optimal location solutions using dierent algorithms for large p-median problem. The investigation is conducted by the means of a case study in a rural region with an asymmetrically distributed population, Dalecarlia.

    The study shows that the use of more accurate road networks gives better solutions for optimal location, regardless what algorithm that is used and regardless how many service facilities that is optimized for. It is also shown that the simulated annealing algorithm not just is much faster than the classic heuristic used here, but also in most cases gives better location solutions.

  • 31.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    How do neighbouring populations affect local population change over time?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers a period when society changed from a pre-industrial agricultural society to a post-industrial service-producing society. Parallel with this social transformation, major population changes took place. In this study, we analyse how local population changes are affected by neighbouring populations. To do so we use the last 200 years of local population change that redistributed population in Sweden. We use literature to identify several different processes and spatial dependencies in the redistribution between a parish and its surrounding parishes. The analysis is based on a unique unchanged historical parish division, and we use an index of local spatial correlation to describe different kinds of spatial dependencies that have influenced the redistribution of the population. To control inherent time dependencies, we introduce a non-separable spatial temporal correlation model into the analysis of population redistribution. Hereby, several different spatial dependencies can be observed simultaneously over time. The main conclusions are that while local population changes have been highly dependent on the neighbouring populations in the 19th century, this spatial dependence have become insignificant already when two parishes is separated by 5 kilometres in the late 20th century. Another conclusion is that the time dependency in the population change is higher when the population redistribution is weak, as it currently is and as it was during the 19th century until the start of industrial revolution.

  • 32.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. HUI Research.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    To what extent do neighbouring populations affect local population growth over time?2016In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 68-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers a period when society changed from a pre-industrial agricultural society to a post-industrial service-producing society. Parallel with this social transformation, major population changes took place. In this study, we analyse to what extent local population change is affected by neighbouring populations. To do this, we focused on the last 190 years of local population change that redistributed population in Sweden. We used literature to identify several different processes in the population redistribution. The different processes implied different spatial dependencies between local population change and the surrounding populations. The analysis is based on an unchanged historical parish division, and we used an index of local spatial correlation to describe different types of spatial dependencies that influenced the redistribution of the population. To control inherent time dependencies, we introduced a non-separable spatial-temporal correlation model into the analysis of population redistribution. Hereby, several different spatial dependencies could be simultaneously observed over time. The main conclusions are that while local population changes have been highly dependent on neighbouring populations in the 19th century, this spatial dependence became insignificant already when two parishes are separated by 5 km in the late 20th century. It is argued that the only process that significantly redistributed the population at the end of the 20th century is the immigration to Sweden.

  • 33.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Isacsson, Gunnar
    Regionförstoring och regionförminskning?: Individers räckhåll – platsbundenhet, rörlighet och kön2010In: Rörlighet, pendling och regionförstoring för bättre kompetensförsörjning, sysselsättning och hållbar tillväxt: Resultatredovisningar från 15 FoU-projekt inom VINNOVAs DYNAMO-program, Stockholm, 2010, p. 20-25Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Möller, Peter
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    En väg till utveckling?: Betydelsen av väginvesteringar för regional utveckling - exemplet Falun-Borlänge2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar förutsättningar för regionala utvecklingseffekter av en väginvestering. Projektet är en inledande studie kring effekterna av vägen mellan Falun och Borlänge som öppnades för trafik 2005. Projektet är finansierat av Vägverket. Projektet avser att besvara två huvudsakliga frågeställningar: Vilka samhälleliga effekter får en ny väg mellan två städer som ligger inom samma lokala arbetsmarknad? Kan betydelsen för en region av en väginvestering påverkas genom medvetet arbete från regionens aktörer för att utnyttja dess potential? I vår studie går vi bortom själva tidsvinsten och fördjupar oss i hur utbytet mellan de två kommunerna ser ut och förändras. Vi vill också komma åt orsakerna till dessa förändringar. Det är intressant för oss hur aktörernas perspektiv och förväntningar omvandlas till beslut kring resande, byggande, kollektivtrafiksatsningar osv. Betydelsen av den nya vägen avgörs till stor del av hur regionens aktörer ser på den och agerar för att ta vara på dess potential. Studien kan ses som en förstudie. Avsikten har varit att studera utbytet mellan orterna innan vägens färdigställande och att kartlägga synen på regionens potential, vägens betydelse hos företrädare för näringslivsorganisationer, större arbetsgivare, politiker, m fl. Frågorna måste besvaras genom flera olika delstudier med skilda perspektiv. Vi har arbetat med intervjuer med beslutsfattare i den berörda regionen, vi har studerat pendlingsrörelser, analyserat kollektivtrafikens utveckling och vi har försökt att sätta in vägen i ett regionalpolitiskt utvecklingsperspektiv. Fokus i studien ligger på institutionella förhållanden och begrepp och processer i regional utveckling.

  • 35.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Befolkningens fördelning på olika geografiska nivåer i Sverige mellan 1810 och 19901999Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Changing Population Distribution in Sweden: Long Term Trends and Contemporary Tendencies2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The aim of the thesis is to describe and analyse the population redistribution in Sweden at different geographical levels from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century. The analysis is approached in three different ways. First, the redistribution at different geographical levels is analysed (papers I and II). Second, the changing accessibility between people (interpersonal accessibility) is analysed from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of the 20th century (paper II). Third, the impacts of fertility, mortality, internal migration, international migration and geographical variations in age composition on population distribution are analysed for the last decades (papers I, III and IV). Measurements of concentration have been used in order to analyse the changing population distribution. For the analysis of changing interpersonal accessibility the average population within the daily reach has been calculated for different times. In order to analyse the impacts of fertility, mortality, migration and geographical variations in age composition the actual redistribution of the population is compared with the redistribution generated by a number of counterfactual scenarios. To analyse the impact of international migration the changing distribution of the population in different immigrant groups is compared to the distribution of the Swedish population. Some conclusions drawn from the thesis are: 1. There is no overall trend in the population redistribution towards either concentration or dispersion. The redistribution pattern depends on the time perspective and the geographical level chosen. The population has been both concentrated and dispersed since the beginning of the 19th century. This applies to all investigated geographical levels. In the five identified phases of the redistribution the most common pattern is that concentration and dispersion of the population exist simultaneously on different geographical levels. The total effect of the redistribution between 1810 and 1990 is that today the population is more dispersed at macro-regional level, while it is more concentrated at local and regional level. 2. Based on assumptions about the daily reach, an average person today has access to about 100 times more people locally compared with the beginning of the 19th century. The most important process for the increased accessibility has been the redistribution of the population. The process that has had the least impact is the assumed increase in daily reach. However the importance of the investigated processes changes over time. Since 1950 the increasing reach has been the most important process. However, the rate by which interpersonal accessibility increases has slowed down since 1950. 3. The main demographic factor behind the redistribution since 1970 is the geographical differences in age composition and its effects on the natural population change. It is demonstrated that this factor lies behind the trend towards increasing concentration in Sweden, while the impact of migration affects the fluctuations from this trend to a greater extent. 4. The study shows that immigration concentrates the population, while the internal migration during the 1970s and periodically during the 1980s dispersed the population. However during the 1990s the internal migration has had a concentrating effect on the spatial distribution of the population.

  • 37.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Concentration and Dispersion of the population at different geographical levels within a sparsely populated Macro region: The case of Gävleborg county since the 1960s2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The redistribution of population in Western Economies has undergone a couple of main phases during recent decades with a strong urbanisation process during the 60s and thereafter a counterurbanisation phase. However depending on the spatial level of analysis the interpretation of the outcome is different with regard to the concentration or dispersion of population.  The Swedish experience involves concentration at regional level and dispersion at local level during the first phase and then dispersion on regional and local level during the second phase. Recently a third phase could be recognised with concentration of population to some attractive regions, the Metropolitan areas and university town regions. However, attention must be paid to deviations from the national pattern within macro regions differences in the concentration/dispersion continuum with regard to distance from major urban centres and to central or peripheral location in the country.  The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the geographical redistribution of the population in one region in Sweden - Gävleborg County - since 1960.To measure the redistribution Hoover index is used.  In this paper a general conceptual framework of concentration and dispersion of population at different geographical levels is presented. The empirical analysis results in a spatial model of population redistribution in Gävleborg region at different geographical levels1960-97.

    There are a number of research themes in the field of population redistribution. One approach is focused on changes in the urban system. Other themes are concentrated on urban interactions such as suburbanisation and counterurbanisation (Berry 1977, Hall & Hay 1980). A further approach is measuring concentration and dispersion at different geographical levels (e.g. Vining & Strauss 1977, Nucci & Long 1995, Håkansson 2000). This paper discusses changing urban system using different geographical levels in order to measure the concentration and dispersion of the population over time. In order to contextualize different processes affecting the redistribution over time a model that capture several concentration and dispersion processes in one framework will be presented. 

  • 38.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Dalarnas befolkning i längre tidsperspektiv2005In: Dalarnas Tidningar, ISSN 1103-9256Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Länet fortsätter att tappa folk, men när man läser befolkningssiffrorna är det viktigt att förstå att de består av två helt skilda delar. Det ena är skillnaden mellan döda och födda. Det andra är skillnaden mellan inflyttning och utflyttning. För att förstå det senaste årets utveckling är det viktigt att sätta in den i ett längre tidsperspektiv.

  • 39.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    De äldres regionala flyttningar i Sverige2004In: Äldrelandskapet : Äldres boende och flyttningar / [ed] Fransson, Urban, Uppsala: Institutet för bostads- och urbanforskning , 2004, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien behandlar äldres regionala flyttningsmönster i Sverige samt hur detta har förändrats mellan 1978 och 1998.

  • 40.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Falun-Borlänge växer för långsamt2005In: DalaDemokraten, ISSN 1103-9183Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Så har denårliga befolkningsstatistiken för Sveriges län och kommuner kommit. Dalatidningarna hade en kommentar som gick i moll. Länet fortsätter att tappa folk. När man läser dessa siffror är det emellertid viktigt att förstå att de består av två helt skilda delar. Det ena är skillnaden mellan döda och födda. Det andra är skillnaden mellan inflyttning och utflyttning.

  • 41.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Impact of Migration, Natural population Change and Age composition on the Redistribution of the Population in Sweden2000In: CyberGeo: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1278-3366, E-ISSN 1278-3366, p. article 123-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mobility as a Vulnarability factor1994In: Planning a High resilience society / [ed] Gösta Weissglas, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 1994, p. 231-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Var växte befolkningen?: Sverige under 200 år2005In: Befolkningen spelar roll!, Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2005, Vol. 2002Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln belyser dels hur den moderna befolkningsomfördelningen påberkas av olika demografiska komponenter och vilken betydelse ålkdersstrukturen har för den regionala befolkningsutvecklingen. Artikeln belyser också den moderna befolkningsomfördelningen i ett historiskt perspektiv. Detta sker med hjälp av analyser av tillgänglighet, koncentration och spridning.

  • 44.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Visualisering av regionförstoring med GIS2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Borgegård, Lars-Erik
    Institutet för bostadsforskning (IBF).
    Population redistribution in Sweden since the 60s in a regional context2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Does euclidian distance work when location models are applied in rural areas?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems.
    Engström, Christina
    Markets and Events: The future of rural retail survival2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines what kind of role events have when it comes to local retail in the rural municipality of Gagnef, located about 240 km northwest of the capital city Stockholm. Rural retail is exposed to an increasing competition from the growing number of shopping centers in larger cities; the rural merchants need to find new ways of strengthening their businesses. The current conditions of the retail are examined by interviewing stakeholders, involved in local retail, events and municipal decision-making. A survey among the visitors of the local events is also conducted, in order to see how consumers perceive the services in, and around the events.  The result reveals that the local events are indeed an important factor to a few of the local shops. However, for most of the shop owners in Gagnef, the  events do not have an important impact on their businesses. Still, all the stakeholders believe that these arrangements hold a potential of strengthening the local shops. One of the major problems in today’s situation is the lack of collaboration between the different stakeholders involved in retail and events. In order to be able to use the events as a competitive advantage, it has to be an enhanced cooperation between these stakeholders. It is important that merchants, and other stakeholders in rural communities, are active in strengthening their position in the growing competition from large shopping centers in neighboring cities. The formation of the cooperative bodies, where merchants and other stakeholders can communicate and plan common strategies, could increase the possibility for the events to become a positive growth factor for the rural municipality and its retail.

  • 48.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Gustavsson, Eva
    Vilken image har miljonprogrammets bostadsområden i medelstora städer?2012Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Regionförstoring i tvillingstaden: Institutionella effekter av en väginvestering mellan två huvudorter2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Isacsson, G.
    The spatial extent of agglomeration economies across the wage earnings distribution2019In: Journal of regional science, ISSN 0022-4146, E-ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 281-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the spatial extent of agglomeration economies across the wage earnings distribution using economic mass (total employment) in four distance bands around each individual’s establishment in a quantile regression framework. We control for observable and unobservable individual and establishment characteristics. Remaining endogeneity in the model is assessed with a set of instrumental variables. Results indicate a positive effect of economic mass on wage earnings up to 25 km away from the establishment. The spatial extent of agglomeration economies is similar across the wage earnings distribution. However, increases in economic mass shift the wage earnings distribution in a nonsymmetric way. 

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