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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Cyber nursing: Health 'experts' approaches in the post-modern era of virtual encounters2013In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 335-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The imperative to gather information online and to become an ‘expert’ by locating effective advice for oneself and others is a fairly new support phenomenon in relation to health advice. The creation of new positions for health ‘experts’ within the space of the Internet has been addressed as a cybernursing activity. A focused analysis of communication in health forums might give insight into the new roles that are available for healthexperts in cyberspace.

    Aim. The aim of this study is to describe approaches to being an ‘expert’ in lifestyle health choice forums on the Internet and to elaborate on the communicative performances that take place in the forums.

    Method. An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online. 2640 pages of data from two health Internet forums were gathered and analyzed.

    Findings. The results reveal three distinctive types of experts that emerge in the forums: (1) those that build their expertise by creating a presence in the forum based on lengthy and frequent postings, (2) those who build a presence through reciprocal exchanges with individual posters with questions or concerns, and (3) those who build expertise around a “life long learning” perspective based on logic and reason.

    Discussion. The results suggest that experts not only co-exist in the forums, but more importantly they reinforce each others’ positions. This effect is central; alongside one another, the posts of the three types of experts we identify constitute a whole for those seeking the forum for advice and support. Users are provided with strong opinions and advice, support and Socratic reasoning, and a problem-oriented approach. The Internet is now an integral part of everyday living, not least of which among those who seek and offer support in cyberspace. As such, cyber nursing has become an important activity to monitor, and formal health care professionals and nursing researchers must stay abreast of developments.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Supporting a caring fatherhood in cyberspace: an analysis of communication about caring within an online forum for fathers2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Today’s parents seek out social support on the Internet. A key motivation behind the choice to go online is the need for more experience based information. In recent years, new fathers have increasingly taken on an active parental role. Men’s support for their caring activities for infants on the Internet needs attention.

    Aim:  The aim was to describe communication about caring activities for infants among men who visited an Internet-based forum for fathers and elaborate on the dimensions of support available in the forum.

    Method:  An archival and cross-sectional observational forum study was undertaken using principles for conducting ethnographic research online: “nethnography”. A total of 1203 pages of data from an Internet forum for fathers were gathered and analysed.

    Result:  Support for a caring fatherhood in cyberspace can be understood as fathers’ communicating encouragement, confirmation and advice. The findings show that important ways of providing support through the forum included a reciprocal sharing of concerns – how to be a better father – in relation to caring for an infant. Concerns for their child’s well-being and shared feelings of joy and distress in everyday life were recurrent supportive themes in the communication. Information gained from contacting others in similar situations is one important reason for the fathers’ use of the Internet.

    Discussion:  Support offered in this kind of forum can be considered as a complement to formal support. Professionals can use it to provide choices for fathers who are developing themselves as caregivers without downplaying the parental support offered by formal health care regimes.

    Further research:  Online support will probably be one of the main supporting strategies for fathers in Scandinavia. Caring and nursing researchers need to closely monitor support activities that develop, and over time, as these ill likely become an important source of support for people.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Pringle, Keith
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Virtual Invisible Men: Shared experiences of early parenthood in an Internet forum for fathers2014In: Culture, Society and Masculinities, ISSN 1941-5583, E-ISSN 1941-5591, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    An integrative review of what contributes to personal recovery in psychiatric disabilities2013In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this integrated literature review is to identify what people with psychiatric disabilities experience as contributing to their personal recovery. The study design is based on Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review and includes 14 qualitative peer-reviewed articles. The analysis reveals three main themes: recovery as an inner process; recovery as a contribution from others; and recovery as participating in social and meaningful activities. If mental health nurses adhere to the personal recovery perspective, nursing practice will focus on the patients' needs, conveying hope and supporting the patient in the recovery process.

  • 5.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    IMPAD-22: a checklist for authors of qualitative nursing research manuscripts2013In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1295-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to develop a checklist for authors preparing qualitative nursing research manuscripts, specifically focusing on the method section.

    DESIGN: Literature review.

    DATA SOURCES: 15 articles were purposefully selected from three different nursing journals.

    REVIEW METHODS: Evans' four step process was used to synthesize the method sections of the included articles.

    RESULTS: Four main categories were identified 1) Ingress and Methodology, 2) Participants, 3) Approval, and 4) Data: Collection and Management. Based on the categories and sub-categories, a 22-item checklist was developed.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Earlier guidelines for formal reporting were developed for qualitative research in general. The main advantage and contribution of IMPAD is that it provides a 22-item checklist specifically aimed towards the method section, and furthermore, it was developed specifically for authors within the field of nursing research.

  • 6.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ni gör ju ingenting, ni bara sitter där: den intensivpsykiatriska sjuksköterskans arbete2011In: Internationella Sjuksköterska Dagen, Oslo, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stabilitet och turbulens – sjuksköterskans specifika kunskaper i intensiv psykiatri. Bakgrunn: Den första psykiatriska intensivvårdsavdelningen öppnade 1970 i USA. Avdelningarnas funktion är att behandla de mest vårdkrävande psykiatriska patienterna i den akuta fasen. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat på medicinska interventioner för att begränsa aggressivitet. Samtidigt finns det anledning att tro att interaktionen mellan personal och patient har betydelse för patientens vård och förbättring. Frågan är hur denna interaktion ser ut och vilka specifika kunskaper som personalen besitter och vad som möjliggör en vårdande relation med denna patientgrupp. Hensikt: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva och verbalisera intensivpsykiatriska sjuksköterskors arbete och deras kulturella kunskap i vård och omsorg för patienter som är inlagda på psykiatriska intensivvårdsavdelningar. Metode/Framgangsmåte: Metoden som användes i denna studie var Spradley’s 12-stegs etnografi. 488 timmars etnografiskt fältarbete gjordes på tre psykiatriska intensivvårdsavdelningar över 15-månaders period. Resultater/Hvordan har prosjektet forløpt/Erfaringer så langt: Ett övergripande mål i den psykiatriska intensivvårdskulturen var att sträva efter och skapa stabilitet och undvika turbulens. Personalen skapade denna stabilitet genom att använda sig av specifika kulturella kunskap i omvårdnad som uttrycks i sex begrepp: erbjuda övervakning, verka lugnande, vara närvarande, utbyta information, bibehållandet av säkerheten och reduceringstekniker. Konklusjon/Refleksjoner/Veien videre: Studien är inte bara en katalogisering av sjuksköterskornas arbete, utan också en beskrivning av en stabilitetskultur. Det är viktigt att förstå stabilitetens värde eftersom patienternas psykiska hälsa är nära förbundet med stabiliteten. Patienternas turbulens eller stabilitet kommer också att reflektera omgivningen och miljön på avdelningen och har betydelse för andra patienter.

  • 7.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Nursing Care in Intensive Psychiatry: Creating, Preserving, and Restoring Stability2011In: 1st International/5th National Psychiatric Nursing Congress, Istanbul, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the stabilizer – nursing care in intensive psychiatry The psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) is rarely described since it is secluded from external insight. At the same time, it is highly intensive since staff and patients interact around the clock in the most acute phase of psychiatric illness. Many patients who suffer from severe psychiatric symptoms such that they must be cared for initially within psychiatric inpatient care. Sometimes, acute locked wards are not able to handle the patients in the most acute phase. The PICUs admit patients who are considered extremely unmanageable within psychosis units or acute psychiatric wards, and who often demonstrate aggressive or other forms of severe behaviors. This raises the question: What is going on in these units and what constitutes nursing care there? Spradley’s 12-step ethnographic methodology was applied. Data was collected through more than 200 hours of field work on three PICUs. It was only staff members (nurses and enrolled nurses) that were observed; patients were excluded due to ethical considerations. During field work, I did almost 16 hours of formal interviewing and numerous of informal interviews; data also consisted of writing memos and field notes. The field work aimed to understand the staff member’s way of interact with the patients and what they did to care for these patients who was considered as unmanageable. The findings presented here describe how and when nursing care is provided in PICUs. The findings are presented in relation to themes, as these emerged within the psychiatric intensive nursing care. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

  • 8.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Psychiatric Intensive Care2011In: 5th International Nursing Management Conference, Antalya, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Psychiatric Intensive Care2011In: 1st International/5th National Psychiatric Nursing Congress, Istanbul, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Psychiatric Intensive Care2011In: International Nurses Day, Oslo, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Stability in intensive psychiatry: a concept analysis2014In: Perspectives in psychiatric care, ISSN 0031-5990, E-ISSN 1744-6163, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 122-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this concept analysis is to describe, explore, and explain stability in the context of mental health nursing in intensive psychiatry.

    Design and Methods: A modified version of Wilson's method of concept analysis was used.

    Findings: Stability is the ability to be resistant to changes. Stability can take different directions after a distortion: re-gaining, neo-gaining, and apo-gaining. Stability may also be achieved through active (adding or using power, making adjustments, parrying, and idling) and passive systems (environmental conditions and constituent materials).

    Practice Implications: This article contributes by providing knowledge and insight for nurses on the roles they play in intensive psychiatry as stabilizers.

  • 12.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Fathers sharing about early parental support in healthcare: virtual discussions on an internet forum2013In: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a father is a life changing event and this transition is associated with various emotions. Educational activities aimed at new parents are important in healthcare parental support (HCPS). HCPS has been critiqued for its predominant focus on mothers, while the needs of fathers seem to have been downplayed. As a result, fathers often turn to Internet-based forums for support. As virtual discussions and mutual support among fathers take place in cyberspace, it is important to monitor these forums to observe the ways in which the fathers discuss HCPS. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which new fathers visiting an Internet-based forum for fathers communicated their experiences of HCPS. A netnographic method consisting of six steps was used to gather and analyse the data. The findings show that fathers shared with one another their experiences of the attitudes expressed by HCPS workers as well as their own attitudes towards HCPS. The attitudes of HCPS workers that were directed towards the fathers were perceived as highly personal and individual, while fathers described their attitudes towards the HCPS in general terms, towards HCPS as a system. Overall, the fathers described HCPS as a valuable confirmatory support that eased their worries concerning sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), colic, weight gain, fever and teething. Although the fathers expressed gratitude towards HCPS, they also shared their negative experiences, such as feeling invisible, disregarded and insulted. In fact, the twofold attitudes that exist in the relationship between the fathers and HCPS can act as a barrier rather than being a confirmatory support. We recommend that HCPS adopts a broader approach using more targeted and strategic didactic methods for supporting fathers in the growth of their own personal awareness, as such an approach would offer a competitive and professional alternative to the support offered in informal experience-based Internet forums.

  • 13.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Latent or manifest observers: two dichotomous approaches of surveillance in mental health nursing2011In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, Vol. Article ID 254041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Surveillance is a central activity among mental health nursing, but it is also questioned for its therapeutic value and considered to be custodial. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe how mental health nurses use different approaches to observe patients in relation to the practice of surveillance in psychiatric nursing care. Methods. In this study, Spradley's twelve-step ethnographic method was used. Results. Mental health nurses use their cultural knowing to observe patients in psychiatric care in various ways. Two dichotomous approaches were identified: the latent and the manifest approach. Discussion. Different strategies and techniques for observing patients are structured along two dichotomies. The underlying relationships between these two different dichotomous positions transform the act of observing into surveillance. This is further developed in a theoretical model called the powerful scheme of observation and surveillance (PSOS).

  • 14.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    LiLEDDA – a six step forum-based netnographic research method for nursing and caring sciences2012In: Aporia, ISSN 1918-1345, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet research methods in nursing science are less developed than in other sciences. We choose to present an approach to conducting nursing research on an internet-based forum. This paper presents LiLEDDA, a six-step forum-based netnographic research method for nursing science. The steps consist of: 1. Literature review and identification of the research question(s); 2. Locating the field(s) online; 3. Ethical considerations; 4. Data gathering; 5. Data analysis and interpretation; and 6. Abstractions and trustworthiness. Traditional research approaches are limiting when studying non-normative and non-mainstream life-worlds and their cultures. We argue that it is timely to develop more up-to-date research methods and study designs applicable to nursing science that reflect social developments and human living conditions that tend to be increasingly online-based.

  • 15.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Panoptic power and mental health nursing: space and surveillance in relation to staff, patients and neutral places2012In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 500-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health nurses use manifest and latent approaches for surveillance and observation of patients in the context of mental health care. Patient spaces in mental health organizations are subtly linked to these different means of surveillance. This article investigates these approaches, focusing in particular on the variety of spaces patients occupy and differences in the intensity of observation that can be carried out in them. The aim is to elaborate on space and surveillance in relation to the patients’ and nurses’ environment in psychiatric nursing care. Places where patients were observed were operationalized and categorized, yielding three spaces: those for patients, those for staff, and neutral areas. We demonstrate that different spaces produce different practices in relation to the exercise of panoptic power and that there is room for maneuvering and engaging in alternatives to “keeping an eye on patients” for nurses in mental health nursing. Some spaces offer asylum from panoptic observations and the viewing eyes of psychiatric nurses, but the majority of spaces in mental health nursing serve as a field of visibility within which the patient is constantly watched.

  • 16.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Torrenting values, feelings and thoughts: cyber nursing and virtual self care in a breast augmentation forum2011In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 7378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research shows that breast augmentation is positively correlated with positive psychological states. The aim of this study was to explore the shared values, feelings, and thoughts within the culture of breast enlargement among women visiting Internet-based forums when considering and/or undergoing esthetic plastic surgery. The study used a netnographic method for gathering and analyzing data. The findings show that the women used the Internet forum to provide emotional support to other women. Through electronic postings, they cared for and nursed each others’ anxiety and feelings throughout the whole process. Apart from the process, another central issue was that the women's relationships were frequently discussed; specifically their relationship to themselves, their environment, and with the surgeons. The findings suggest that Internet forums represent a channel through which posters can share values, feelings, and thoughts from the position of an agent of action as well as from a position as the object of action. These dual positions and the medium endow the women with a virtual nursing competence that would otherwise be unavailable. By introducing the concept of torrenting as a means of sharing important self-care information, the authors provide a concept that can be further explored in relation to post modern self-care strategies within contemporary nursing theories and practice.

  • 17.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lutzen, Kim
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Creating stability a and safe environment in psychiatric intensive care units2011In: 20th International Safe Community Conference, Falun, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) admit patients who are considered extremely unmanageable within psychosis units or acute psychiatric wards, and who often demonstrate aggressive or other forms of severe behaviors. This raises the question: What is going on in these units and what constitutes nursing care there and how are these patients taking cared of? Is is possible to care and create a safe environment for both the patients and the staff? The findings presented here describe how and when nursing care is provided in PICUs. The findings are presented in relation to themes, as these emerged within the psychiatric intensive nursing care. Since PICUs are able to manage and care for these patients, one can assume that there exists specific cultural knowing among nursing staff working in psychiatric intensive care units and that this warrants further description. Psychiatric inpatient care is a social institution that is not under close social scrutiny, with few people having access to it. We believe that there is a societal interest in observing and describing the care and treatment carried out in these enclosed spaces and how the nurses succeed to create a safe place for both the staff and patients. Methods Spradley’s ethnograp ic methodology was applied. Results Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psy- chiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, sooth- ing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. Conclusions These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest. What the study is adding to the field These units care for the most acutely mental ill people in society. The care does not only create safe for the patients, but also create a safe community.

  • 18.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lützen, Kim
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Ivarsson, A. -B
    Eriksson, H.
    Intensive psychiatric care2010In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 25, no s1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lützen, Kim
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing. Karolinska institutet.
    Ivarsson, A. -B
    Eriksson, H.
    Intensive psychiatry: creating, preserving and restoring stability2012In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 27, no s1, p. 577-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. Psychiatric intensive care units (PICU) are rarely described since it is secluded from external insight. At the same time, it is highly intensive since staff and patients interact around the clock in the most acute phase of psychiatric illness. The PICUs admit patients who are considered extremely unmanageable within psychosis units or acute psychiatric wards, and who often demonstrate aggressive or other forms of severe behaviors.

    Objectives. This raises the question: What is going on in these units and what constitutes nursing care?

    Methods. Spradley's 12-step ethnographic methodology was applied. Data was collected through more than 200 hours of field work on three PICUs including 16 hours of formal interviewing and numerous of informal interviews; data also consisted of writing memos and field notes. The field work aimed to understand the staff member's way of interact with the patients and what they did to care for these patients who was considered as unmanageable.

    Results. The findings presented here describe how and when nursing care is provided in PICUs. The findings are presented in relation to themes, as these emerged within the psychiatric intensive nursing care. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing.

    Conclusions. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

  • 20.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lützén, Kim
    Ivarsson, Ann Britt
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Being the stabilizator: nursing care in intensive psychiatry2011In: 5th International Nursing Management Conference, Antalya, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lützén, Kim
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro Universitet.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Röda Korset Högskola.
    Achieving equilibrium in a culture of stability: cultural knowing in nursing on psychiatric intensive care units2011In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents intensive psychiatric nurses' work and nursing care. The aim of the study was to describe expressions of cultural knowing in nursing care in psychiatric intensive care units (PICU). Spradley's ethnographic methodology was applied. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psychiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

  • 22.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lützén, Kim
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Achieving Equilibrium within a Culture of Stability: Cultural Knowing in Nursing Care on Psychiatric Intensive Care Units2011In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 32, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents intensive psychiatric nurses’ work and nursing care. The aim of the study was to describe expressions of cultural knowing in nursing care in psychiatric intensive care units (PICU). Spradley’s ethnographic methodology was applied. Six themes emerged as frames for nursing care in psychiatric intensive care: providing surveillance, soothing, being present, trading information, maintaining security and reducing. These themes are used to strike a balance between turbulence and stability and to achieve equilibrium. As the nursing care intervenes when turbulence emerges, the PICU becomes a sanctuary that offers tranquility, peace and rest.

  • 23.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Caring Science/Nursing.
    Lützén, Kim
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Eriksson, Henrik
    The core characteristics and nursing care activities in psychiatric intensive care units in Sweden2008In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 98-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, research on psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs) commonly reports results from demographic studies such as criteria for admission, need for involuntary treatment, and the occurrence of violent behaviour. A few international studies describe the caring aspect of the PICUs based specifically on caregivers’ experiences. The concept of PICU in Sweden is not clearly defined. The aim of this study is to describe the core characteristics of a PICU in Sweden and to describe the care activities provided for patients admitted to the PICUs. Critical incident technique was used as the research method. Eighteen caregivers at a PICU participated in the study by completing a semistructured questionnaire. In-depth interviews with three nurses and two assistant nurses also constitute the data. An analysis of the content identified four categories that characterize the core of PICU: the dramatic admission, protests and refusal of treatment, escalating behaviours, and temporarily coercive measure. Care activities for PICUs were also analysed and identified as controlling – establishing boundaries, protecting – warding off, supporting – giving intensive assistance, and structuring the environment. Finally, the discussion put focus on determining the intensive aspect of psychiatric care which has not been done in a Swedish perspective before. PICUs were interpreted as a level of care as it is composed by limited structures and closeness in care.

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