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  • 1. Fredriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stigsdotter, Ingels Maria
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Psykologi.
    Hurtig, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Psykologi.
    Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
    Archer, Trevor
    Running wheel activity restores MPTP-induced deficits2011Inngår i: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 118, nr 3, s. 407-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel-running and treadmill running physical exercise have been shown to alleviate parkinsonism in both laboratory and clinical studies. MPTP was administered to C57/BL6 mice using two different procedures: (a) administration of a double-dose regime (MPTP 2 × 20 or 2 × 40 mg/kg, separated by a 24-h interval), vehicle (saline 5 ml/kg) or saline (vehicle 2 × 5 ml/kg), and (b) administration of a single-dose weekly regime (MPTP 1 × 40 mg/kg) or saline (vehicle 1 × 5 ml/kg) repeated over 4 consecutive weeks. For each procedure, two different physical exercise regimes were followed: (a) after the double-dose MPTP regime, mice were given daily 30-min periods of wheel-running exercise over 5 consecutive days/week or placed in a cage in close proximity to the running wheels for 3 weeks. (b) Mice were either given wheel-running activity on 4 consecutive days (30-min periods) or placed in a cage nearby for 14 weeks. Behavioral testing was as follows: (a) after 3 weeks of exercise/no exercise, mice were tested for spontaneous motor activity (60 min) and subthreshold l-Dopa (5 mg/kg)-induced activity. (b) Spontaneous motor activity was measured on the fifth day during each of the each of the first 5 weeks (Tests 1–5), about 1 h before injections (first 4 weeks), and continued on the 5th days of the 6th to the 14th weeks (Tests 6–14). Subthreshold l-Dopa (5 mg/kg)-induced activity was tested on the 6th, 8th, 10th, 12th and 14th weeks. (b) Mice from the single-dose MPTP weekly regime were killed during the 15th week and striatal regions taken for dopamine analysis, whereas frontal and parietal cortex and hippocampus were taken for analysis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). It was shown that in both experiments, i.e., the double-dose regime and single-dose weekly regime of MPTP administration, physical activity attenuated markedly the MPTP-induced akinesia/hypokinesia in both the spontaneous motor activity and restored motor activity completely in subthreshold l-Dopa tests. Running wheel activity attenuated markedly the loss of dopamine due to repeated administrations of MPTP. BDNF protein level in the parietal cortex was elevated by the MPTP insult and increased further by physical exercise. Physical running wheel exercise alleviated both the functional and biomarker expressions of MPTP-induced parkinsonism.

  • 2.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle; Linköping universitet.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Ljung, Robert
    Hygge, Staffan
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Student's second-language grade may depend on classroom listening position2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to explore whether listening positions (close or distant location from the sound source) in the classroom, and classroom reverberation, influence students' score on a test for second-language (L2) listening comprehension (i.e., comprehension of English in Swedish speaking participants). The listening comprehension test administered was part of a standardized national test of English used in the Swedish school system. A total of 125 high school pupils, 15 years old, participated. Listening position was manipulated within subjects, classroom reverberation between subjects. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as distance from the sound source increased. The effect of reverberation was qualified by the participants' baseline L2 proficiency. A shorter reverberation was beneficial to participants with high L2 proficiency, while the opposite pattern was found among the participants with low L2 proficiency. The results indicate that listening comprehension scores-and hence students' grade in English-may depend on students' classroom listening position.

  • 3.
    Hurtig, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Idrotts- och hälsovetenskap. University of Gävle; University of Linköping.
    Van de Poll, M. K.
    Pekkola, E. P.
    Hygge, S.
    Ljung, R.
    Sörqvist, P.
    Children's recall of words spoken in their first and second language: Effects of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Reverberation Time2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, nr JAN, artikkel-id 2029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception runs smoothly and automatically when there is silence in the background, but when the speech signal is degraded by background noise or by reverberation, effortful cognitive processing is needed to compensate for the signal distortion. Previous research has typically investigated the effects of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reverberation time in isolation, whilst few have looked at their interaction. In this study, we probed how reverberation time and SNR influence recall of words presented in participants' first- (L1) and second-language (L2). A total of 72 children (10 years old) participated in this study. The to-be-recalled wordlists were played back with two different reverberation times (0.3 and 1.2 s) crossed with two different SNRs (+3 dBA and +12 dBA). Children recalled fewer words when the spoken words were presented in L2 in comparison with recall of spoken words presented in L1. Words that were presented with a high SNR (+12 dBA) improved recall compared to a low SNR (+3 dBA). Reverberation time interacted with SNR to the effect that at +12 dB the shorter reverberation time improved recall, but at +3 dB it impaired recall. The effects of the physical sound variables (SNR and reverberation time) did not interact with language. © 2016 Hurtig, Keus van de Poll, Pekkola, Hygge, Ljung and Sörqvist.

  • 4. Sorqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Hurtig, Anders
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Utbildning, hälsa och samhälle, Psykologi.
    Ljung, Robert
    Ronnberg, Jerker
    High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 91-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

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