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  • 1.
    Alnyme, Omar
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Behind the Miranda tool: A technical report on a decision support tool for tourism and travel investments2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a brief explanation of the MIRANDA tool and its links to the D.U.GIS platform. The report also presents system components and data sources used within the MIRANDA tool.

    The starting point for the development of the MIRANDA tool has been the call for better understanding of the scale and scope of tourism at the local and regional levels. The purpose of the MIRANDA project was to develop a micro-based decision support to be used by public planners for more efficient and sustainable decisions regarding infrastructure investments in connection with destination development.

    This report gives a brief introduction to the project before starting out with an overview of the MIRANDA-tool’s software architecture. This is followed by a description of the Coding languages, a section giving information on the Class libraries, as well as the type of data used. Following this are two sections describing APIs and the system model, before a final section concludes by giving an outlook for future development options for the MIRANDA tool.

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  • 2.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Creating tourist experiences by interpreting places using digital guides2014In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the relationship between technology and narrative in digital guides for tourists in Sweden. The main finding shows that narratives in the guides are based on a naïve view of history. In several instances, content is based on odd stories and speculation. Recent social trends have led to the erosion of grand narratives and the emergence of multiple views of history. New digital guides must address these challenges in order to develop tourism products that are relevant to different market segments.

  • 3.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Creating Tourist experiences by interpreting places using GPS and multimedia technologies2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Developing Mobile Tourist Information for Heritage Sites: The Case of AVesta Sweden2003In: TTRA Europe Conference “Urban Tourism – Mapping the Future”, Glasgow , 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heritage interpretation in a digital format – Conveying the past in current and future media2007In: Tourism, Mobility and Technology, TTRA European Conference, Nice, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Does the competition state undermine the long term sustainability of rural tourism?: The case of Sweden2014In: Proceedings from TTRA 2014 International Conference: Tourism and the New Global Economy / [ed] Marion Joppe, 2014, p. 171-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary competition state, many peripheral regions are in decline. Tourism is increasingly considered as a savior for regions lagging behind. The EU has launched several programs with the ambition to stimulate growth and employment in peripheral areas which are used in tourism development projects. In this paper a longitudinal analysis of changes in Swedish tourism guest nights with an attempt to assess the spatial changes that have taken place in the light of this new regional tourism policy are carried out. The aim is to investigate if tourism and tourism policy contributes to level out disparities between regions. The analysis is based on statistics on Swedish guest nights, on employees in the accommodation sector and on EU funds. Although there are exceptions, the main findings indicate that the potential for creating sustainable rural tourism growth through tourism policy seems to be much less than the popular discourse suggests.

  • 7.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Möjligheten att utveckla ett verktyg för att mäta besöksnäringens konkurrenskraft2013Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Spatial Concentration of Tourism: a Case of Urban Supremacy2022In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 392-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism growth on the national level in Sweden is being concentrated to the three main urban centres. The question is if the same trend is discernible within Swedish regions. If so, tourism as a tool in regional transformation and for alleviating spatial disparities has a weak basis. The strategy to strengthen the competitiveness of each region/local community based on the Tourism Led Growth Hypothesis but is questioned. Urban hierarchy and centrifugal forces are often overlooked. Data on overnight stays between 2008 and 2016 are analysed for four regions in central Sweden: Dalarna, Värmland, Gävleborg, and Jämtland. Results indicate that there is an ongoing concentration to regional urban centres and that destination competitiveness is directly linked to an urban supremacy. Thus, tourism growth is primarily a concern for urban areas and, which contradicts the traditional notions of tourism policy in Sweden, where tourism is regarded as a remedy for declining regions.

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  • 9.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Development of Swedish Tourism Public Policy 1930-20102014In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 19-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the development and changes in Swedish public policy relating to tourism from the 1930s to 2010 is described and interpreted from a political economy perspective. A case study, compiled from mainly secondary sources, is analyzed from a theoretical framework based on regulation theory. The purpose with this study is to increase the understanding of how the macro political economy context has influenced the policy-making in tourism in Sweden, but also to make a contribution to an area which seems to be quite neglected when it comes to research. The changes are analyzed according to the three periods denoted as pre-Fordism (mid-19th century-1930s), Fordism (1930s-1970s) and post-Fordism (1970s to present). It is observed how the general changes between these periods regarding aspects such as regulation and deregulation, and the degree of state involvement, have affected tourism policy making. The tourism policy making has changed from being insignificant, to a high degree of state involvement including planning, control and supervision, to a situation where the market rather than government regulation is considered as state of the art. 

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  • 10.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Tourism as a vehicle for regional development in peripheral areas – myth or reality?: A longitudinal case study of Swedish regions2016In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 1788-1805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the contemporary so-called ‘competition state era’, many rural and peripheral regions are in decline. Tourism is increasingly viewed as being able to alleviate and rejuvenate regions that are facing economic difficulties. The European Union has launched several programmes with the goal of stimulating growth and employment in peripheral areas. These programmes are often used to support tourism development projects. In this paper, a longitudinal analysis of spatial changes in Swedish tourism is conducted. The analysis is based on statistics regarding overnight stays in Swedish commercial accommodation facilities. The aim is to investigate if tourism and tourism policy contribute to the reduction in disparities between regions. Although there are exceptions, the main findings indicate that the potential for creating sustainable rural tourism growth through tourism policy seems to be much less than the popular discourse suggests. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 11.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Tourism Destinations Competitiveness in Sweden: Who are the Winners?2019In: Tourism in the era of connectivity / [ed] Prof. Dimitrios Buhalis, Bournemouth, 2019, p. 112-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The tourism sector is growing in importance for the Swedish economy. However this growth is not uniformly distributed within the country and this in turn leads to an uneven distribution of tourism activity between regions as well as between rural and urban areas. In a previous study it is concluded that the growth of bed nights between 2000 and 2010 is concentrated to the three larger urban regions in Sweden. The substantial growth of tourism in Sweden is therefore mainly a big city phenomenon, which is in sharp contrast to the picture entertained by policy makers and government officials. Tourism is regarded and promoted as a universally applicable tool when it comes to develop rural areas or regions in need for alternative job opportunities when traditional occupations are phased out. 

    This study addresses the question of redistribution within the regions. The question in focus is if the tendency of concentration of bed nights follows the same pattern within the regions as on the national level, i.e. if concentration increases over time. It is also of interest to identify those destinations, which deviate from the main pattern and to scrutinize the how they, achieve sustainable or at least long term competitiveness.

    An analysis is based on data collected by statistics Sweden and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth. Data on overnight stays in commercial establishments were derived on local level between 2008 and 2016 for four regions in central Sweden; Dalarna, Värmland, Gävleborg and Jämtland. This data set makes it possible to make a longitudinal (annual) analysis of the redistribution of bed nights in detail. The concentration was analysed based on a calculation of the locational quotient and the corresponding locational coefficient, which relates concentration of tourism to that of the population on municipal level.

    A preliminary analysis of the data indicates a similar pattern as on the national level; i.e. there is a strong on-going concentration to regional urban centres indicating the presence of an urban supremacy. In other words, tourism growth is primarily a concern for urban areas rather than it being beneficial to rural development. This result contradicts the traditional notions in Sweden where tourism is regarded as a saviour for declining regions.

  • 12.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Turism och mobila informationssystem2009In: Astrid Lindgrens landskap : hur landskapets kulturarv förändras, förstås, förvaltas och förmedlas / [ed] Bohlin, Magnus, Vimmerby, 2009, Vol. 69, p. 113-126Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. Örebro universitet.
    Wage determinants in the Swedish tourism sector2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 18-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant number of the jobs that are found in the tourism sector are relatively low-paying positions. The share of part-time employment is also large. This study focuses on individuals who have remained in the sector for many years and are making a career in tourism. The analysis is based on a balanced panel consisting of individuals who, between 2002 and 2011, lived and worked full time in the tourism industry in central Sweden. Data were analyzed using three different models; a cross-sectional OLS model was utilized for the analysis of the data from 2011 and both a pooled OLS model as well as a fixed-effect model were used in the analysis of data between 2002 and 2011. The fixed-effect model is important because it captures differences in ability among the individuals included in the study. The results show a lower income for individuals in the tourism sector compared to the rest of the economy. However, the results of the panel data estimations indicate that the effect of education is stronger for individuals in the tourism sector and that wage levels in this sector is more equal between the men and women, compared to the rest of the economy. 

  • 14.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Wage determinants in the Swedish tourism sector 2002-20112015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Building a spatial decision support system for tourism and infrastructure planning: technical solution and data integration challenges2022In: European Journal of Geography, ISSN 1792-1341, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 94-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility planning in rural areas with a high number of tourists is important for creating sustainable destinations. By identifying mobility gaps in the transportation system, measures to improve the situation can be implemented. In order to identify such mobility gaps, decision-makers need a spatial decision support system (SDSS). The aim of this paper is to identify vital aspects of creating such an SDSS and to build a prototype. Two important aspects were identified, data and system design. The result of the analysis of available data shows a lack of data portals with disaggregated socio-economic and intradestination travel data. Further, it shows that data on points of interest (POI) and public transit data are primarily found in company databases. The system design analysis showed that most SDSS today are relying on public data and are not designed to integrate disparate data sources. They are primarily developed to be used by experts. Based on these findings an SDSS that automatically integrates both public and private data was developed. It comprises a self-hosted web mapping system and several geospatial tools. Our main conclusion is that both data and system design are important aspects to consider when building an SDSS for mobility planning. By using the architecture proposed in this article, new data can easily be incorporated in an SDSS. Furthermore, the system design also facilitates the involvement of stakeholders in the planning process. © 2022. by the authors. All Rights Reserved.

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  • 16.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Bohlin, Magnus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mobil digital turistinformation: Geografisk interpretation av rummet i tiden2005In: Inaugural Nordic Geographers Meeting – Power over time-space, Lund, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Sabah, Azhar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Turism och besöksnäring i Dalarna: Storlek, struktur och lokalisering2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Potential research areas for big data in tourism2016In: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Regionala förutsättningar för att ställa om transportsystemet2022Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Firm entry in the Swedish wholesale trade sector: dDoes market definition matter?2014In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 703-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm entry into local markets has often been studied using administrative areas such as municipalities as the assumed relevant markets. However, administrative areas and the actual relevant markets based on local demand for firms’ products often do not coincide, which could bias the results of studies treating administrative areas as the relevant markets. Based on a behavioral assumption regarding how retailers act when purchasing products from wholesale trade firms, we create alternative markets using Voronoi diagrams. We then compare the empirical results of investigating the determinants of firm entry using municipalities as the relevant markets with the results obtained using Voronoi markets. The results indicate that, in both cases, the same variables are statistically significant in affecting entry, though the estimated effects differ in size.

  • 21.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Westholm, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Statens Nya Geografi2006Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Brandt, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Wikström, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Education and careers in the Swedish tourism sector: How important is education for building a successful career?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Elbe, Jörgen
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Kurbits affärsutveckling 10 år: Vad tycker deltagarna?2018Report (Other academic)
  • 24. Fayzullaev, Kamoliddin
    et al.
    Heldt Cassel, Susanna
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Destination image in Uzbekistan – heritage of the Silk Road and nature experience as the core of an evolving Post Soviet identity2018In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTThe purpose of this research is to analyze the destination image of Uzbekistan presented by the DMO and the destinations images emerging from user generated content in social media posts. In this study, promotional images and user-generated images on the platform Instagram were examined by using content-semiotic analysis. The main findings show that the destination image of Uzbekistan is dominated by heritage and reference to ancient cultural traditions of the region. However, the image represented through user generated content on Instagram is more diverse and to a larger extent depict the destination through natural heritage and experiences in the natural landscape. Furthermore, Uzbekistan is concurrently trying to create a post-Soviet identity through a focus on its history prior to the Soviet past, with focus on heritage of the Great Silk Road which highlight that destination image construction is related to geo-political processes in society which includes contestations of national identity.

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  • 25.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Alnyme, Omar
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    MIRANDA 1.0: Ett beslutsstöd för hållbart turismresande och infrastrukturplanering2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport presenterar en sammanfattning av resultat från projektet Mikrobaserade beslutsstöd för hållbart turismresande och infrastruktur-planering (Miranda). Utgångspunkten har varit de oklarheter och de svårigheter som finns i att uppskatta turismen och besöksnäringens storlek och struktur på regional nivå.

    Mirandaverktyget är ett mikrobaserat beslutsstödsystem för hållbar turism- och infrastrukturplanering som består av två delar, dels en teknisk plattform där flera datakällor som beskriver turismvolymer sammanförs för att kunna beräkna och presentera turismens ekonomiska effekter, dels en processmetodik för hur datakällorna samlas in och vilka aktörer i planeringssystemet som behöver samverka.

    Syftet med texten är att ge en lättillgänglig beskrivning av vad Mirandaverktyget gör, vilka aktörer som kan använda det och hur den nya kunskap som Mirandaverktyget producerar kan användas i praktiken.

    Sammanfattningsvis konstateras i rapporten att Mirandaverktyget i dagsläget är på dess första nivå av utveckling och att det redan nu är möjligt med ett antal analyser såsom:

    ·  en geografisk analys av turismens intressepunkter för en valfri destination/testområde i Sverige

    ·  en presentation av företag och dess ekonomi för ett urval av turistnäringens SNIs

    ·  uppskattningar av turismens volymer för ett valfritt studieområde

    ·  beskrivning av turistnäringens storlek och struktur från producentsidan och konsumentsidan

    ·  beskriva ekonomiska effekter av besöksnäringen och enskilda evenemang

    ·  initiera processer för samverkan mellan såväl privata aktörer som olika offentliga nivåer för turism-och infrastrukturplanering

    Framtida utvecklingsbehov för Mirandaverktyget ligger främst inom datakvalitétsförbättringar, kalibrering av indata, visualisering och dashboard samt särskild utveckling av vissa delar (fartkameradelen samt en för scenariobyggande).

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  • 26.
    Heldt, Tobias
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Tydén, Thomas
    Waleghwa, Beatrice
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Tourism Studies.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Planning for mobility and accessibility in rural touristic areas: A report on the Swedish case in InterReg MARA project2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes activities within the overarching InterReg project MARA – Mobility and Accessibility in Rural areas, by the two Swedish partners Swedish Transport Authority ( henceforth, Trafikverket) and Dalarna University. The overall purpose of the InterReg project was to improve the accessibility and mobility in touristic remote areas of the Baltic Sea Region by increasing the capacity of transport actors. The Swedish case in the MARA consisted of two parts: one looked to improve integrated mobility planning for the boarder region Sälen in Sweden and Trysil in Norway, and the other sought to develop GIS based maps to assist in transport planning. 

    The first part, the processes related to the Trafikverket planning method, Strategic Choice of Measures (SCM), was studied with the help of previous R&D and own interviews. The SCM is looked into from different perspectives, such as gender, regional development, financing, cultural clashes, and chain of command, thus identifying problems in the process and discussing countermeasures, all using the Sälen and Åre as specific case areas. 

    The second part highlighted mobility demand analysis using survey data collected on-site in Sälenfjällen, 2020 as well as mobility GAP analysis using a newly developed tool D.U.GIS for the Sälen case area. Furthermore, an innovative use of Public Participation GIS (PPGIS) was included as part of the on-site survey as a test on the methods ability to collect data that could improve the early-stage planning processes of Trafikverket’s SCM method.

    There are three key findings from the Swedish activities in the MARA-project. First, the maps produced by D.U.GIS can be used as analytical support in the planning process to better visualize a current mobility situation and mobility GAPs. Second, the piloting of PPGIS to improve on early-stage planning process showed potential, especially for pointing out gender differences. However, the study was conducted using a small sample and further research is needed to fully assess its potential. Third, the study of SCM identified problems in the process and discussed important issues such as early interplay between stakeholders, flexible way of working together, and continuity of the process. The study also highlighted perspectives on knowledge and competence development.

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  • 27.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Vinterturismens utveckling 2012-2017: En kartläggning av gästnätternas fördelning och utveckling på kommunnivå i Dalarnas län2017Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Nerhagen, Lena
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Economics.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Human Geography.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Dalarna University, School of Culture and Society, Economics.
    Use of public transport as a means to reach national climate objectives - On the importance of accounting for spatial differences and costs, Transport Policy2023In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 131, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has since the end of the 1990s, when the environmental objective system was adopted, had the ambitionof being an environmental frontrunner. In line with this, in 2009 the Parliament adopted the goal of achieving afossil free vehicle fleet in 2030. Replacing private car use with public transport is expected to contribute to thisgoal. In 2008, a co-operation between actors in the public transport sector was launched with support from theGovernment with the aim to double its use. Sweden however is a country with important geographical differ-ences. Much of the country is sparsely populated, especially in the north. From previous research it is well knownthat usage of public transport is dependent on population density and accessibility to employment and schools.Understanding how spatial differences influence the cost of public transport provision is therefore crucial whendiscussing if public transport is a cost-efficient way to achieve national goals for the transport sector. In thispaper, Swedish county level panel data, including variables that provide information on geographical differencesbetween the counties, have been used to estimate average marginal costs of boardings. Results show that theseare much lower in the three counties with the largest urbanized areas. In the other counties there is a variationwhich illustrates that there are a number of factors that influence the average marginal costs. In relation to policy, we find that the doubling ambition established in 2008 has not been achieved.

  • 29.
    Saqlain, Murshid
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Alam, Moudud
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rönnegård, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Westin, Jerker
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Stochastic differential equations modelling of levodopa concentration in patients with Parkinson's disease2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a pharmacokinetic model of levodopa concentration in patients with Parkinson's disease by introducing stochasticity so that inter-individual variability may be separated into measurement and system noise. It also aims to investigate whether the stochastic differential equations (SDE) model provide better fits than its ordinary differential equations (ODE) counterpart, by using a real data set. Westin et al. developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model for duodenal levodopa infusion described by four ODEs, the first three of which define the pharmacokinetic model. In this study, system noise variables are added to the aforementioned first three equations through a standard Wiener process, also known as Brownian motion. The R package PSM for mixed-effects models is used on data from previous studies for modelling levodopa concentration and parameter estimation. First, the diffusion scale parameter, σ, and bioavailability are estimated with the SDE model. Second, σ is fixed to integer values between 1 and 5, and bioavailability is estimated. Cross-validation is performed to determine whether the SDE based model explains the observed data better or not by comparingthe average root mean squared errors (RMSE) of predicted levodopa concentration. Both ODE and SDE models estimated bioavailability to be about 88%. The SDE model converged at different values of σ that were signicantly different from zero while estimating bioavailability to be about 88%. The average RMSE for the ODE model wasfound to be 0.2980, and the lowest average RMSE for the SDE model was 0.2748 when σ was xed to 4. Both models estimated similar values for bioavailability, and the non-zero σ estimate implies that the inter-individual variability may be separated. However, the improvement in the predictive performance of the SDE model turned out to be rather small, compared to the ODE model.

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  • 30.
    Wikström, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Statistics.
    Brandt, Daniel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Heldt, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    A business intelligence solution of handling traveling data with R and Shiny2016In: Proceedings of the IFITTtalk@Östersund Workshop on Big Data & Business Intelligence in the Travel & Tourism Domain / [ed] Fuchs, M., Lexhagen, M. & Höpken, W., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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