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  • 1.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    But Do I Really Have Anything to Say? Conferences and the PhD Student2017In: The Nordic PhD: Surviving and Succeeding / [ed] Christopher McMaster, Caterina Murphy and Jakob Rosenkrantz de Lasson, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 59-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download (pdf)
    Popular summary
  • 2.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Cross-national comparison: Appraisal analysis in action (Paper #4 in SS24 colloquium "Researching teacher attitudes and beliefs on multilingualism: A transnational comparative approach")2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Cross-national comparison: Appraisal analysis in action

    Paper #4 in SS24 colloquium "Researching teacher attitudes and beliefs on multilingualism: A transnational comparative approach"

    Abstract: 

    This paper presents a study of how teachers talk about multilingualism and migrant parents across eight countries (France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the UK). Here, we spotlight a cross-national comparison on how teachers use evaluative language to express their attitudes and beliefs. We have used appraisal analysis (Martin & White, 2005) for the coding of relevant linguistic expressions, as the method offers a framework for quantifying and comparing instances of evaluative language as well as for revealing ideological positions. We have concentrated on attitude (AFFECT, JUDGEMENT, and APPRECIATION) and graduation (FORCE or FOCUS), additionally coding attitude as inscribed or invoked and as positive or negative.

    In the project, researchers have followed the same interview protocol. Ten interviews from each country were chosen, including teachers from both urban and rural schools, with varying levels of teaching experience, and from both highly multilingual schools and less diverse schools. Each country team conducted an appraisal analysis of the selected interviews according to a joint interrater-tested coding scheme. In our paper, we present quantitative comparisons as well as co-occurrences of coding.

    Our preliminary findings indicate, e.g., that many teachers articulate normative assessments of parents’ behavior with negative JUDGEMENTS of their CAPACITY or NORMALITY, with parents judged as lacking proficiency in the majority language, as not understanding school culture, or as insistent on using their home languages. However, if parents have strong proficiency in the language of schooling, teachers see this as positive CAPACITY, which may be associated with SECURITY or INCLINATION.  Some teachers also express positive APPRECIATION towards diversity, with multilingualism deemed as WORTHWHILE. The tensions in the teachers’ talk about migrant parents, as evident in the comparative appraisal analysis of about 80 interviews, will be exemplified in our presentation. 

    References:

    Martin, J.R. and P.R.R. White (2005) The Language of Evaluation: Appraisal in English. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke, Hampshire.

    First presenter:

    Paulsrud, B., School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden

    Co-authors: 

    Cunningham, C., School of Education, Language and Psychology, York St John University, York, UK

    Jalali-Moghadam, N., Blekinge Centre of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden & Department of Psychiatry, Østfold Hospital Trust, Moss, Norway

    Juvonen, P., Department of Swedish, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden

    Mary, L., Faculty of Education and Lifelong Learning (INSPE), University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

    Mellenius, I., Department of Language Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

    Putjata, G., Institut für Pädagogik der Elementar- & Primarstufe, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

    Reinhardt, K., Institut für Pädagogik der Elementar- & Primarstufe, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany

    Schalley, A. C., Department of Language, Literature and Intercultural Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden

    Schwartz, M., Department of Research and Evaluation Authority, Oranim Academic College of Education, Haifa, Israel

    Segev, M., Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel

    Turkan, S., School of Social Sciences, Education and Social Work, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland

    Yagmur, K., Department of Culture Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg, Netherlands

    Young, A., Faculty of Education and Lifelong Learning (INSPE), University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France

     

  • 3.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Ideological tensions: A study of intersections of Swedish policies affecting language in education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideological tensions: A study of intersections of Swedish policies affecting language in education

    Education in Sweden aims to promote equity and equality, articulated in the motto “one school for all”. This presentation addresses the layers of three policies affecting language practices in the Swedish education system: the Swedish Language Act, the national curriculum, and the teacher education programmes regulated by federal guidelines. Multilingualism is officially recognised in the Language Act (Språklag 2009), which promotes and protects Swedish as well as the “language diversity in Sweden”, and stipulates that those with a mother tongue other than Swedish “are to be given the opportunity to develop and use their mother tongue”. However, the national curriculum for the compulsory school does not clearly represent Sweden’s long experience and expertise with mother tongue instruction, mother tongue study guidance, and the subject Swedish as a Second Language, despite the presence of over 140 languages in Swedish schools. Instead, a monolingual ideology for a multilingual school persists, exemplified by implicit language hierarchies and little acknowledgement of the increasing linguistic diversity in today’s schools. Vague spaces for multilingualism in the official curriculum place great responsibility on teachers as well as teacher educators. Interviews with pre-service teachers reveal that they do not feel properly prepared for teaching in the linguistically diverse classroom, indicating a deficiency in teacher education programmes. Furthermore, there is uncertainty among teacher educators concerning who is responsible for teaching about multilingualism in teacher education. Thus, tensions exist in the intersection of the Swedish Language Act, the national curriculum, and the teacher education programmes. These three policies have been investigated through policy analyses and interviews. The presentation outlines how the affordances and constraints of the policies affect the ideological and implementational spaces for language policy processes, with a consideration of the implications for multilingual practices in the Swedish compulsory school.

     

    Swedish Language Act (2009). Språklag 2009:600.

  • 4.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Just a little plus: The CLIL Student Perspective2019In: Investigating Content and Language Integrated LearningInsights from Swedish High Schools / [ed] Liss Kerstin Sylvén, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 285-300Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Mapping CLIL in Sweden2019In: CLIL in Sweden: A longitudinal investigation at senior high school level / [ed] Liss Kerstin Sylvén, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 19-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    One school for all? Exploring the intended and unintended consequences of the new markets of English-medium instruction in the Swedish upper secondary school2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    The mainstream classroom and home language maintenance2020In: Handbook of Home Language Maintenance and Development / [ed] Andrea C. Schalley and Susana A. Eisenchlas, New York & Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2020, p. 464-482Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    You, Your Supervisor, and the Importance of fika2017In: The Nordic PhD: Surviving and Succeeding / [ed] Christopher McMaster, Caterina Murphy and Jakob Rosenkrantz de Lasson, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 103-110Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Download (pdf)
    Popular summary
  • 9.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University.
    Parallelingualism, translanguaging, and English-medium instruction in Nordic higher education2023In: English in the Nordic Countries: Connections, Tensions, and Everyday Realities / [ed] Elizabeth Peterson & Kristy Beers Fägersten, Taylor and Francis , 2023, p. 127-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    English-medium instruction (EMI) is increasingly common in educational contexts today, especially in higher education institutions (HEIs). The focus of EMI is primarily on the disciplinary content in courses rather than on the English language as a subject. HEIs choose to offer EMI for reasons such as internationalization and marketing, as well as providing students with exposure to the English language, although explicit language goals are not often articulated. In this chapter, EMI in relation to language ideologies, policy, student and teacher perspectives, and multilingualism is presented. Using the twin lenses of “parallelingualism” and “translanguaging,” the possible challenges to linguistic hierarchies and ideologies underlying EMI in Swedish HEIs are considered. The conclusion is that giving implementational and ideological space to languages that are currently not visible - including multiple local languages - may be a move beyond the binaries implied by a call for parallelingualism in the Nordic EMI context. © 2024 selection and editorial matter, Elizabeth Peterson and Kristy Beers Fägersten.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Gheitasi, Parvin
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    English teacher education: Working with differentiation and multilingualism2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English teacher education: Working with differentiation and multilingualism 

     

    The aim of this discussion session is to consider the challenges and opportunities of working with English language learning and teaching (ELLT) in teacher education for the compulsory school (Years 0-9).  The rationale for the session stems from our own experiences and observations as teacher educators of ELLT, our interactions with colleagues and students, and our own research. We see a need to examine how we are preparing students to teach English in the increasingly linguistically and culturally diverse Swedish school. We plan to focus on two areas warranting discussion: differentiation and multilingualism. For each, we wish to explore best practices for our own teaching of a diverse student population as well as for how we may best prepare students for their future teaching in Swedish schools.  First, we aim to discuss how teachers can work with differentiation to manage the needs, expectations, and emotions of high and low-proficiency English language learners. Second, we will consider the role of multilingualism in ELLT, especially in light of the new emphasis on multilingualism in the 2022 Swedish curriculum for the compulsory school. Both the role of students’ linguistic resources and their understanding of how to work with multilingual pupils in the English classroom will be in focus. We anticipate an open, engaging discussion with fellow teacher educators on the challenges and opportunities regarding differentiation and multilingualism, as well as an exchange of ideas and experiences of best practices that provide strategies for addressing each area in ELLT. 

     

     

  • 11.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Gray, David
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Dodou, Katherina
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Video Assignments2021In: Designing Courses with Digital Technologies: Insights and Examples from Higher Education / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, New York and London: Routledge, 2021, p. 107-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses the use of video assignments in two English courses for Swedish preservice primary school teachers (Years 4-6). These assignments have been introduced in courses designed to improve English proficiency and to develop digital competence according to the demands of Swedish educational policy. Students prepare short videos for assignments on course content and as makeup work for missed seminars. Student evaluations have confirmed the attainment of our main goals: extended student-teacher contact time, increased oral proficiency and increased digital competence for language learning. From a teacher perspective, the video assignments provide an important complement to other student work and a basis for better understanding what students know and for assessing their oral English. An added benefit is that the format is time saving for teachers, even as it requires a high level of preparation from students.

  • 12.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Linneaus University.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University.
    Attitudes and beliefs on multilingualism in education: voices from Sweden2023In: International Journal of Multilingualism, ISSN 1479-0718, E-ISSN 1747-7530, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 68-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often commended for the inclusion of home languages in the formal education system: both mother tongue instruction (where a pupil’s home language is taught as an optional school subject) and study guidance (where a pupil is given content support in their home language or prior language of schooling) are offered. Still, while many national educational policies are supportive of multilingualism, their enactment on the ground is often problematic. The attitudes and beliefs of teacher educators, in-service teachers, and pre-service teachers are crucial here, yet few studies have investigated how these key actors in Sweden perceive their encounters with linguistic diversity. Furthermore, an understanding of the similarities and differences in the perspectives across these three cohorts is lacking. We have analysed interviews with five teacher educators, five in-service teachers, and eight pre-service teachers concerning their attitudes and beliefs on multilingualism. These interviews reveal orientations towards language and language use in teacher education and primary schools. Specifically, language is seen both as a problem and as a resource. Our results uncover tensions in the expressed attitudes and beliefs about multilingualism, as well as about multilingual pre-service teachers in teacher education and multilingual pupils in the Swedish school.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Attitudes and beliefs on multilingualism in education_voices from Sweden_2023
  • 13.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Linné University.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University.
    Multilingualism, teacher cognition and inclusive education: A study of attitudes, beliefs and knowledge2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased migration and mobility world-wide, educational settings are changing, with classrooms characterized by considerable diversity in students’ linguistic backgrounds. This heterogeneity poses a challenge to education and in particular to inclusive education – that is, the aim of offering quality education for all while also respecting diversity and different needs and abilities, characteristics and learning expectations (see Kugelmass, 2006). Pre-primary and primary teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge (ABK) on multilingualism are critical factors to achieving inclusive education. Teacher cognition (Borg, 2003, 2006) addresses the interplay between teachers’ ABK and the pedagogical and language developing practices in schools and classrooms. Four major factors have been identified to interactively shape and be shaped by teacher cognition: teachers’ own schooling experience, teacher education, contextual factors such as the organization of education, and classroom practices (Borg, 2003).

    The present study addresses multilingualism, teacher cognition and inclusive education in Sweden, with an aim to empirically investigate attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of pre-primary and primary teachers. We employ a mixed-methods approach (semi-structured interviews and large-scale online survey), studying what shapes attitudes, beliefs and knowledge on multilingualism and which factors correlate with these.

    In our presentation, we will offer an overview of our larger ongoing project, before moving to preliminary results from the first interviews. We are currently interviewing pre-primary and primary teachers, aiming for participants from varied school demographics. Our focus is on their experiences with multilingualism in the classroom as well as their insights from their own backgrounds and teacher training. Our results are expected to generate new understandings of teachers’ perceptions of classroom diversity and of children who speak languages in addition to Swedish, as well as how these perceptions are shaped and how they influence classroom practices. Thus, our study will contribute to the theoretical perspectives of teacher cognition and inclusive education.

    References

    Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching, 36: 81–109.

    Kugelmass, J.W. (2006). Sustaining cultures of inclusion: the value and limitations of cultural analyses. European Journal of Psychology of Education XXI(3): 279–292.

  • 14.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Linnaeus University.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University.
    “One used to think that it was more difficult for children with several languages, but it is actually the opposite”: A study of teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of multilingualism2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-primary and primary educational settings are changing because of increased migration and mobility, with many classrooms characterized by considerable linguistic diversity. This heterogeneity poses challenges in particular to inclusive education: that is, the aim of offering quality education for all while also respecting diversity as well as different needs, abilities, characteristics and learning expectations. Pre-primary and primary teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge (ABK) of multilingualism are critical factors to achieving inclusive education. Teacher cognition addresses the interplay between teachers’ ABK and the pedagogical and language developing practices in schools and classrooms. Four major factors have previously been identified to interactively shape and be shaped by teacher cognition: teachers’ own schooling experience, teacher education, contextual factors such as the organization of education, and classroom practices. With these factors in mind, our study addresses multilingualism, teacher cognition and inclusive education in Sweden, offering an empirical investigation of pre-primary and primary teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of multilingualism. We employ a mixed-methods approach (semi-structured interviews and large-scale online survey), studying which factors correlate with these.

     

    In this presentation, we offer an overview of our larger ongoing project, before moving to preliminary results from the first interviews with pre-primary and primary teachers from varied school demographics. Our focus is on their experiences with multilingualism in the classroom as well as their insights from their own backgrounds and teacher training. Our results are expected to generate new understandings of teachers’ perceptions of classroom diversity and of children who speak languages in addition to Swedish, as well as how these perceptions are shaped and how they influence classroom practices. Thus, our study will contribute to the theoretical perspectives of teacher cognition and inclusive education, as well as offer insights to researchers and educators beyond the Swedish context.

     

  • 15.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Linnaeus University.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University.
    Mellenius, Ingmarie
    Umeå University.
    Berg Shamla, Pia
    Karlstad University.
    Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of teachers on multilingualism – the view from Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish schools are experiencing new challenges due to increased mobility and linguistic diversity. Efforts to achieve inclusive education for all are dependent upon teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and knowledge (ABK) of multilingualism. The interplay between teachers’ ABK and the pedagogical and language-developing practices in schools is defined by four major factors interactively shaping and being shaped by teacher cognition: teachers’ own schooling experience, teacher education, contextual factors (e.g. the organization of education), and classroom practices (Borg 2003, 2006). Against this theoretical backdrop, our study investigates the ABK of multilingualism of Swedish teachers, a key issue in the nation today, as part of a larger international project that investigates what shapes teachers’ ABK of multilingualism across countries. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pre-primary and primary teachers from five Swedish regions (Dalarna, Småland, Stockholm, Värmland, and Västerbotten), representing varied school demographics. These interviews were transcribed and analysed using appraisal theory (Martin & White, 2005; White 2015). Early results indicate that while teachers generally express positive views on multilingualism, echoes of a monolingual mindset are quite strong (“the language” equated with Swedish; “home country” for children born in Sweden; descriptions of a “monolingual” school as the “perfect school”). Teachers with training in language-developing practices acknowledge that mother tongue instruction supports the majority language development as well as students’ overall academic performance. Nonetheless, using all linguistic resources and acknowledging students’ multilingual identities are not common pedagogical strategies. In the school context, Swedish is considered as more important than students’ additional languages, which are often merely seen as an added value not directly relevant to the daily activities in the Swedish school system. Moreover, the findings point to a need for more extensive pre-service teacher education and professional development of teachers, on multilingualism more generally, and on related classroom practices more specifically.

  • 16.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Lundberg, Adrian
    Malmö University.
    One school for all?: Multilingualism in teacher education in Sweden2021In: Preparing Teachers to Work with Multilingual Learners / [ed] Meike Wernicke, Svenja Hammer and Antje Hansen, Channel View Publications , 2021, p. 38-57Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Translanguaging and language ideologies in education: Northern and Southern perspectives2019In: Handbook of the Changing World Language Map / [ed] Brunn, S. & Kehrein, R., Springer, 2019, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we examine language ideologies as part of a translanguaging framework in education. We begin with an overview of the concept translanguaging, from its origins as a term in bilingual education in Wales to its development in research on multilingual classrooms mainly in the North American and British contexts. From there, translanguaging has spread as both a theoretical and pedagogical concept used by researchers and educators to approach linguistically and culturally diverse environments, in and outside of the classroom. Hence, the theoretical and pedagogical objectives have emerged side by side and enhanced one another. Employing a perspective based in critical pedagogy, we present and analyze empirical studies from different educational and political contexts to illustrate how ideologies are expressed through implicit and explicit policies in the classroom. The three foci include studies of translanguaging in the early years in continental Europe, in secondary schools in Scandinavia, and in higher education in South Africa. Many studies of translanguaging present examples of classroom practices in multilingual contexts and where English is often the majority/dominant language. However, our aim is not to examine the pedagogical practices per se but rather to explore the language ideologies made visible, negotiated and challenged through translanguaging in the selected studies. With a focus on translanguaging and language ideologies in education, the ways translanguaging may resist language hierarchies and monolingual norms, and instead promote social justice, become especially relevant. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of the implications of such ideological stances in education.

  • 18.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Rosén, JennyDalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Swedish as Second Language.Straszer, BoglárkaDalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Swedish as Second Language.
    Translanguaging in the age of mobility: European Perspectives. Special Issue2022Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Epilogue2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 226-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Introduktion2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 11-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Rosén, JennyDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Straszer, BoglárkaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Wedin, ÅsaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Perspectives on translanguaging in education2017In: New perspectives on translanguaging and education / [ed] Åsa Wedin, Jenny Rosén, BethAnne Paulsrud, and Boglárka Straszer, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 10-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Rosén, JennyDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Straszer, BoglárkaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.Wedin, ÅsaDalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Schalley, Andrea C.
    Karlstad University.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Linnaeus University .
    Mellenius, Ingmarie
    Umeå University.
    Teacher Talk about Parents and Multilingualism in Sweden (in the colloquium Teacher Talk about Parents and Multilingualism. Attitudes and beliefs across countries)2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, approximately 29% of all school pupils are multilingual (SNAE, 2020) and, in some schools,close to 100% of the pupils have mother tongues other than Swedish (Norberg Brorsson & Lainio, 2015).Thus, most primary teachers meet multilingual parents in their daily work. However, in Swedish teachertraining, there are no common measures in place to prepare pre-service teachers for working with linguisticdiversity in the classroom, as this preparation is not an obligatory part of a Swedish teaching degree(Paulsrud & Zilliacus, 2018). To understand primary teachers’ attitudes and beliefs about multilingualparents and multilingualism within this somewhat contradictory context of both diversity and lack ofpreparation, we analysed interviews with primary school teachers in Years 1-3 (ages 7-9). The participatingteachers represented both urban and rural schools as well as teachers with different levels of experience. Inaddition, we included teachers working in highly multilingual schools and those not. Three teachers had amultilingual background themselves. Preliminary results reveal differences across the participants as well astensions concerning the attitudes and beliefs expressed. Although the teachers had attitudes and beliefs aboutmultilingualism and multilingual pupils, some teachers had little to say about the parents themselves.However, some early results show a distinction made by teachers between the parents’ different backgroundsand the reasons for immigrating to Sweden, hinting at linguistic and cultural hierarchies. Teachers also havesomewhat negative attitudes towards parents’ initial proficiency in the Swedish language, combined withsome appreciation of their later acquisition. Concerns are also expressed about how multilingual parents mayunderstand the Swedish school system. Our results suggest that the nearly non-existent presence ofmultilingual pedagogy in Swedish teacher training may give rise to uncertainty in how to meet multilingualparents in the Swedish school.

  • 25.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    “We know the same languages and then we can mix them”: A child’s perspectives on everyday translanguaging in the family2018In: Translanguaging as Everyday Practice / [ed] Gerardo Mazzaferro, Springer, 2018, p. 49-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study presents a young multilingual child, here called Laura, and her perspectives on and experiences of everyday language practices using Hungarian, Finnish, and Swedish. Laura was interviewed and observed over the course of one full day in the home with her family, in order to elicit her views on her agency and linguistic repertoire. In addition, Laura’s parents were interviewed about planned and implemented family language policies, and some of the written observations and audio-recorded interactions collected by the parents since Laura’s birth were considered. The thematic analysis reveals Laura’s perspectives on people, spaces and purpose in relation to her flexible use of named and unnamed languages. Laura is keenly aware of translanguaging affordances based on interlocutor, drawing on the resources of others’ repertoires. Laura sometimes challenges her parents’ family policy but also creates her own spaces for translanguaging. Finally, Laura adapts the use of her resources according to perceived purpose, as seen in her changing language use since starting school. The study offers a unique view of how one child exercises agency, makes use of her linguistic repertoire, articulates metalinguistic awareness, and respects or resists the family language policy set forth by her parents, thus creating her own everyday translanguaging practices.

  • 26.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    “We know the same languages and then we can mix them”: A child´s perspectives on translanguaging and family language policy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an investigation of a young multilingual child, called Laura, and her parents as they navigate language practices using Hungarian, Finnish, and Swedish in their everyday life in Sweden. The multimethod study focused on Laura’s perspectives. Our aim was to highlight a child’s “lived experience” of translanguaging as her views on and experiences of translanguaging reveal how she respects or resists the planned family language policy. First, Laura was interviewed and observed over the course of one day at home with her family. One researcher engaged Laura in play in order to elicit her views on her agency and linguistic repertoire in relation to family language policies. Second, Laura’s parents were interviewed about the implicit and explicit family language policies, and how these policies were initially constructed and then developed in their implementation over the course of the childhood of Laura and her two younger siblings. These interviews and observations were considered together with material (written observations and audio-recorded interactions) collected by the parents since Laura’s birth. The triangulation of methods offers a unique view of how one child exercises agency, makes use of her linguistic resources, articulates metalinguistic awareness, considers societal language hierarchies, and respects or resists the family language policy set forth by her parents—thus creating her own everyday translanguaging practices. Our results indicate the importance of linguistic awareness and repertoires, and suggests the potential that this multilingual child possesses for exercising agency in order to “make sense” of her multilingual world. We argue that focusing on a child’s stories of everyday translanguaging framed within her family’s language policy and practices has relevance for understanding the home, school, and societal implications of young children’s translanguaging.

     

     

  • 27.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Tian, Zhongfeng
    University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Conclusion2021In: English-Medium Instruction and Translanguaging / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Zhongfeng Tian, Jeanette Toth, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2021, p. 182-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Tian, ZhongfengUniversity of Texas at San Antonio, USA.Toth, JeanetteDalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    English-Medium Instruction and Translanguaging2021Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book offers a critical exploration of definitions, methodologies and ideologies of English-medium instruction (EMI), contributing to new understandings of translanguaging as theory and pedagogy across diverse contexts. It brings together a number of conceptual and empirical studies on translanguaging in EMI at different educational levels, in a variety of countries, with different approaches to translanguaging, different named languages, and different policies. These studies include several underrepresented contexts across the globe, providing a broad view of how translanguaging in EMI is understood in these educational settings. Furthermore, this book addresses the complexities of translanguaging through a discussion of the affordances and constraints associated with the use of multiple linguistic resources in the EMI classroom.

  • 29.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Tian, Zhongfeng
    University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    English-medium instruction and translanguaging: Global perspectives2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English-medium instruction (EMI) involves the teaching of academic content through the medium of Englishin contexts where it is not a majority language, thereby creating a space in which students from differentlinguistic and cultural backgrounds meet on common linguistic ground in shared learning experiences.Although EMI is often believed to be an English-only environment, the existence of multiple languages andlanguage practices are common in many such nominally English-only classrooms across the globe. Thus,the ensuing reality in EMI contexts is a plethora of de facto language policies and classroom practices thatare rarely monolingual. Translanguaging, which can be understood as a theory as well as pedagogy, offers aview of all linguistic resources as legitimate for learning. The fact that EMI and translanguaging may existside-by-side is not new. However, empirical research is key to an innovative understanding of theaffordances available for learning, communicating, building identity, dismantling language hierarchies,promoting social justice, and resisting monolingual ideologies when EMI and translanguaging are allowedto be juxtaposed.In this colloquium, we first address some of the definitions, methodologies, and ideologies involved inglobal EMI and translanguaging. Following this introduction, three individual papers focusing on empiricalstudies of EMI and translanguaging in Kazakhstan, Malawi, and Cambodia, respectively, will be presented.These studies reveal how translanguaging has been understood and approached in the various educationalcontexts with different named languages represented. Finally, our invited discussant will first providecomments on the four presentations, before we invite a full-audience discussion of the empirical studies’theoretical and pedagogical contributions to how translanguaging can be understood and applied in EMI contexts, as well as reflections regarding future directions for the research field.

    2 hour colloquium

  • 30.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Tian, Zhongfeng
    University of Texas at San Antonio, USA.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Introduction2021In: English-Medium Instruction and Translanguaging / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Zhongfeng Tian, Jeanette Toth, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2021, p. xix-xxviChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Stockholms universitet.
    English as a medium of instruction2020In: The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Education / [ed] Laviosa, S. & González-Davies, M., Abingdon: Routledge, 2020, p. 143-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Toth, Jeanette
    Dalarna University, School of Teacher Education, Educational Work.
    Translanguaging in pre-service teachers’ work-study experiences: Practices and perspectives2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Sweden has historically been a multilingual society, Swedish education and teacher education have generally reflected a monolingual mindset. Furthermore, Swedish as the main instructional language in primary, secondary, and tertiary education dominates classrooms, despite pupils and teachers often having knowledge of other languages. With a monolingual orientation to education, multilingual pupils are often learning English through their second language (Swedish) and may not be allowed access to all of their linguistic resources in their schooling. Thus, there is a need to increase awareness and knowledge among pre-service teachers about how to work with multilingual pupils. One way to address this is to incorporate translanguaging as a pedagogy in the English language classroom.

    While translanguaging research has shown many potential benefits, little is known about how translanguaging as addressed in teacher education is enacted in the classroom. The case study presented in this session therefore explores how translanguaging theory and pedagogy informs teaching, addressing the following questions:

    · What translanguaging practices do pre-service English teachers report implementing in the Swedish Years 4-6 classroom? 

    · What discourses are visible in pre-service English teachers’ perspectives on translanguaging in the Swedish Years 4-6 classroom?  

    Data were collected from an online survey and semi-structured interviews with participants recruited from among two cohorts of pre-service teachers enrolled in a Swedish university’s work-study program that trains teachers for Years 4-6 teacher qualification. The cohorts in question have completed an English course in which translanguaging has been addressed in readings, seminar discussions, and tasks.

    In this roundtable session, we aim to facilitate a critical discussion of how translanguaging is understood and implemented in teacher education for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers. The presentation will conclude with a number of questions for further reflection, which will also serve as the basis for the discussion to follow.

     

  • 33.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne Yoxsimer
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    English-medium instruction in Sweden: Perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools2016In: Journal of Immersion and Content Based Language Education, ISSN 2212-8433, E-ISSN 2212-8441, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 108-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a multi-site and multi-method doctoral dissertation study of English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Swedish context, focusing on perspectivesand practices in two upper secondary schools. The research explores the status of EMI, reasons schools offer EMI, beliefs about EMI, and implementation of EMI in classrooms. The educational context is studied from an ecological perspective using methods based in linguistic ethnography. The results indicate that the few Swedish schools teaching content through another language tend to offer EMI — not content and language integrated learning (CLIL). Neither language learning nor 100% English instruction are the main goals of the schools. Translanguaging is abundant, affording both pedagogic and non-pedagogic functions. The study concludes that a development of definitions and practices of both EMI and CLIL in Sweden is needed, especially in relation to language policy and language hierarchy.

  • 34.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Zilliacus, H.
    Ekberg, L.
    Spaces for multilingual education: language orientations in the national curricula of Sweden and Finland2020In: International Multilingual Research Journal, ISSN 1931-3152, E-ISSN 1931-3160, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Sweden and Finland have education systems promoting equity and equality. However, recent societal and political changes linked to increased immigration have created new challenges in efforts to support linguistic diversity. This paper aims to explore how multilingualism is represented in the national compulsory school curricula in the two contexts, using the language orientation framework: language as problem, right, or resource. The analysis reveals differences. In Finland, an explicit discourse on multilingual education exists, with an aim of integrating multilingual perspectives into the whole curriculum. In Sweden, however, the discourse is less explicit; and multilingualism as a concept is limited to minority language students. Considering language orientations in the two curricula affords an understanding of the spaces for multilingual education that are key to our possibilities as educators to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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  • 35.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki.
    En skola för alla: Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Språklig mångfald i den svenska skolan ställer krav på verksamma lärare, liksom på lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter. För att undersöka synpunkter på och erfarenheter av flerspråkighetspedagogik och utforska om transpråkande får utrymme i den svenska lärarutbildningen, har vi utfört en intervjustudie med lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter. Vårt fokus är på hur studenterna förbereds inför sitt arbete med den språkliga mångfalden i dagens skola samt vilka möjligheter, alternativ begränsningar, för transspråkande finns i lärarutbildningen. Vi vill även belysa hur transspråkande kan relateras till social rättvisa och strävan efter en skola för alla. I studien har vi intervjuat femton lärarutbildare från fyra lärosäten enskilt och fjorton lärarstudenter från tre av dessa lärosäten i grupp. Vi har gjort en tematisk analys av deras svar. Målet med intervjuerna var att uppmuntra deltagarna att prata fritt om just språklig mångfald i relation till lärarutbildningen samt om deras synpunkter och erfarenheter som utbildare eller student.

    Lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter uppger att de ser på den språkliga mångfalden både inom lärarutbildningen och i den svenska skolan som central i dagens undervisning. Däremot pekar deras svar åt olika möjligheter och begränsningar, vilket i sin tur avslöjar vilken plats transspråkande kan ha i lärarutbildningen. I vårt paper ska vi presentera resultat uppdelade i teman: först på hur lärarutbildare och lärarstudenter ser på språklig mångfald i lärarutbildningen och skolan, och sedan på vilken plats flerspråkighetspedagogik tar i utbildningen. I dessa teman uppdagas frågor om bland annat bristperspektiv på språk, språkhierarkier, vikten av verksamhetsförlagd utbildning samt ovisshet om vem som har ansvar för flerspråkighetspedagogik i lärarutbildningen. Vi ämnar att föra en diskussion om transspråkande i lärarutbildningen, samt om transspråkande och social rättvisa.

  • 36.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Flerspråkighet och transspråkande i lärarutbildningen2018In: Transspråkande i svenska utbildningssammanhang / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 27-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki.
    Multicultural and multilingual education: Current challenges in teacher education in Sweden and Finland2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents part of the research collaboration Multilingual and intercultural education in Sweden and Finland (MINTED), a study of education policy and teacher education. We have examined how the concepts multilingualism and interculturality are represented, on the one hand, explicitly and implicitly in teacher education in relation to national policy, and on the other hand, in the perspectives of teacher educators and students in response to the multilingual and multicultural classroom.

     

    In this paper, we present an empirical study of teacher educator views on the challenges and needs they face in relation to multicultural and multilingual education in their teacher training institutions. We have interviewed 29 teacher educators (14 in Finland and 15 in Sweden) at eight universities with an aim to understand the current policies and practices for supporting quality multicultural and multilingual education. Our analysis is framed by three general categories: Instructional, institutional and socio-political challenges in teacher education (Gorski, 2012), and we relate the study to our previous analyses of the national curricula for compulsory schooling in the two countries. Results indicate that educators call for greater competence in addressing diversity in the classroom, with a need for concrete encounters and experiences. Moreover, a deeper integration of multicultural and multilingual education across the institutions is needed. In our presentation, we offer examples of both challenges and strategies considered by the educators for a teacher education programme that may better serve all students. We also highlight differences between the two national contexts.

     

    We contribute to the symposium in several ways. First, our study offers a timely investigation into current needs in teacher education. This is relevant as pre-service teachers will be facing a very different classroom than the teacher educators themselves had in their respective school contexts. As one teacher educator stated: ”We need to prepare teacher students to teach in a school that looks much different than the one they went to themselves.” Second, we offer a unique comparison of two seemingly similar but rather different contexts. Finland and Sweden are neighbouring countries with similar education policies, practices and values, yet quite different frameworks and practices. Finally, we address the implications of our study on the directions necessary for the development of teacher education and how spaces for multilingual and intercultural educational practices can be created.

  • 38.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholm University.
    Zilliacus, Harriet
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Spaces for multilingual education: Language orientations in the national curricula of Sweden and Finland2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingualism is visible and officially recognised in Sweden and Finland. Both have education systems promoting equity and equality, articulated in the motto “one school for all”. However, recent societal and political changes linked to increased immigration have created new challenges in efforts to support linguistic diversity. Our study aims at clarifying the conceptual frameworks of multilingual education in the two contexts through an analysis of their compulsory school curricula, using Ruiz’s (1984) framework of three language orientations of language planning: language as problem, resource or right. Questions emerging from the language-as-problem orientation include how and for whom languages are considered problems, which hierarchies may be in place, and what challenges are created for minority speakers. The language-as-right orientation focuses on the right to both avoid discrimination for language use and to use one’s own language to access democracy. Finally, language-as-resource offers a more positive view on multilingualism, one in which linguistic diversity is both valued and supported as part of a pluralistic society. The material investigated includes the Swedish Curriculum for the compulsory school, preschool class and the recreation centre (2015) and the Finnish National comprehensive school curriculum (2014), as well as some supporting documents from each country. The two curricula differ in their orientations of language as problem, resource or right. Both stress the rights of minority language speakers through mother tongue support. Finland, however, has an explicit emphasis on the value and place of multilingualism in the classroom; while in Sweden, a language hierarchy is evident and a monolingual norm is prevalent. Given the common focus on providing education for all and also given Sweden’s long history of provision of mother tongue support and Swedish as a second language instruction, the different spaces for multilingual education revealed in the education policies are somewhat surprising. In our presentation, we will examine and compare examples from our analysis of the orientations and discuss how these spaces created are key to our possibilities as educators to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies.

     

    Ruiz, R. (1984). Orientations in Language Planning. NABE Journal, 8(2), 15–34.

  • 39.
    Qwarnström, Loretta
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Languages and Media Studies, English.
    Presentation of EU Project The Language Café2008In: 10th Conference of the European Confederation of Language Centres in Higher Education (CERCLES):Language Centres for a Plurilingual Future in Europe, Istituto de Idiomas Seville, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Public Service Language Centre and Högskolan Dalarna are core partners in a two-year European Socrates Lingua funded project exploring informal and socially situated language learning for adults. The Language Café project (www.languagecafe.eu) draws on the existing and growing café culture around Europe and aims to create a network of language cafés which exist in real cafes and other publicly accessible social spaces. During this session, we will briefly outline the background to the Language Café project, report on progress to date, discuss the major challenges in setting up and sustaining a language café and present some of the support and publicity materials developed by the project. The project partners from the Public Service Language Centre in Vilnius and Högskolan Dalarna will compare examples of language cafés in Lithuania and Sweden. A presentation will follow regarding the different cultural traditions of teaching and teacher-student relationships in the different project partner countries. We will also discuss the meeting between the public and the private sector, i.e. academia and café owners, as well as between academia and the general public. Moreover, issues regarding how different methods of teaching and learning have influenced the success or failure of a language café will be presented.

  • 40.
    Smakova, Kymbat
    et al.
    Suleyman Demirel Univ, Dept Language Educ, Kaskelen, Kazakhstan..
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Intercultural communicative competence in English language teaching in Kazakhstan2020In: Issues in educational research, ISSN 0313-7155, E-ISSN 1837-6290, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 691-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the significance of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) development has been widely recognised in foreign language education, with language teachers expected to encourage the development of ICC in their learners. The current study aims to investigate how Kazakhstani EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers from English-medium schools perceive ICC and to what extent their beliefs are integrated and reflected in their reported teaching practices. Employing a questionnaire, qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 103 EFL teachers. The findings reveal that the teachers are aware of the concept of ICC and the role of teaching interculturally oriented objectives. However, the implementation of these has not yet been integrated on a regular basis in their actual teaching and thus requires greater support and promotion.

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  • 41.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Everyday translanguaging and the young child.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Swedish as Second Language.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Methodological reflections on one child’s language portraits over time2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Swedish as Second Language.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Vad kan ett språkporträtt indikera? Reflektioner från en studie om ett flerspråkigt barns identitetskonstruktion2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad kan ett språkporträtt indikera? Reflektioner från en studie om ett flerspråkigt barns identitetskonstruktion

    Boglárka Straszer, Högskolan Dalarna

    BethAnne Paulsrud, Högskolan Dalarna

    Laura är ett flerspråkigt skolbarn som växer upp i en språkmedveten familj i en större stad i Sverige. I detta bidrag presenterar vi Lauras narrativ om sin språkliga identitet i förhållande till hennes familjs klart uttalade språkpolicy, som inkluderar majoritetsspråket svenska, ett officiellt nationellt minoritetsspråk, finska, och ett invandrarspråk, ungerska, som inte har någon specifikstatus i Sverige. Syftet med presentationen är att belysa sambandet mellan ett barns narrativ om sin språkliga repertoar och hennes upplevelser av sitt eget språkande. Som forskningsmetod används språkporträtt (Busch, 2012) i kombination med flera individuella intervjuer med Laura samt hennes föräldrar under tre års tid. Lauras deltagande i att måla språkporträtt och reflektera kring det ger förståelse för hennes identitetskonstruktion i förhållande till hennes upplevda språkliga repertoar. Eftersom materialinsamlingen ägde rum vid flera tillfällen är det intressant att se Lauras identitetskonstruktion och hur hennes sätt att förhålla sig till att måla språkporträtt förändras under den tid studien pågår. Under materialinsamlingen och analysen framträdde även frågor om själva forskningsmetoden med språkporträtt i fokus, samt vilka möjligheter och begränsningar Buschs språkporträtt erbjuder för att få förståelse för ett barns språkliga repertoar och språkande. I vår presentation kommer vi dels att redogöra för vår analys av Lauras språkporträtt över tid och dels kritiskt diskutera och reflektera över forskningsmetoden. Vi avslutar presentationen med en diskussion om de implikationer som vår studie indikerar, liksom de bidrag som denna studie ger till forskning om unga flerspråkiga barns identitetskonstruktion med språkliga repertoar och språkande i fokus.

    Busch, B. (2012). The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited, Applied Linguistics (33: 5) 503–523.

     

  • 44.
    Straszer, Boglárka
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Swedish as Second Language.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, English.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Language, Literatures and Learning, Swedish as Second Language.
    Introduction to the special issue on translanguaging in the age of mobility2022In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 45.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Agency and affordance in translanguaging for learning: Case studies from English-medium instruction in Swedish schools2017In: New perspectives on translanguaging and education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer and Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 189-207Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Toth, Jeanette
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Translanguaging Practices and Perspectives: Case Studies from English-Medium Instruction in Swedish Schools2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation addresses language alternation in English-medium instruction (EMI) lessons as related to the concept of translanguaging, with a focus on the practices and perspectives of teachers and students in two Swedish schools offering EMI. The research questions were as follows:

    1) What patterns of language alternation can be found in the EMI classroom?

    2) What are the functions of language alternation in the EMI classroom?

    3) How do teachers and students view the use of English and Swedish in these classrooms?

    The studies, based in linguistic ethnography, included classroom observations and interviews with teachers and students in one elementary school classroom and one high school classroom, as well as the collection of artifacts (e.g. lesson plans). In the thematic analysis of the rich data, key concepts emerged, including the notions of affordances and constraints, agency and translanguaging.

    The results indicate that language alternation is viewed as an affordance, allowing access to subject content and subject-specific language. Additionally, language choices reveal teacher and student agency in the EMI lessons. Teachers and students may use Swedish and English based on school policy as well as de facto classroom policies, although perspectives on language choice vary. In the elementary school, peer collaboration in Swedish provides support for comprehension and facilitates communication. Use of Swedish is, however, seen by the teacher as a constraint when it resists classroom policies. In the high school, the practice of translanguaging is not explicitly promoted, but is nonetheless a strategic feature of EMI. 

    While this multiple case study may not be generalizable to all EMI, the results suggest broader implications in terms of how both implicit and explicit language policies are implemented in classrooms. Awareness of the possibilities presented by the process of translanguaging may provide educators with a meaningful tool for the development of bilingual pedagogies.

  • 47.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    Encountering English: A Case Study of Three Swedish Students in an English-Medium Upper Secondary School2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a recent case study that addresses one aspect of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in the Swedish context, namely how much English the students in an English-medium CLIL programme in an upper secondary school encounter throughout the day. It has been indicated in Swedish research that students in CLIL programmes are not exposed to as much English as expected (Lim Falk, 2008) and that students may experience more English outside of the classroom during their extramural activities than they do in school, with this factor affecting their English proficiency more than their time spent in a CLIL school (Sylvén, 2004; Sylvén, 2011). Thus, the main research question for this study is as follows: How do students in a Swedish CLIL class encounter English throughout a school day? Encountering English may include listening to teachers or peers, speaking to teachers or peers, reading subject material in English, or writing notes or assignments in English. One focus is on the activities they conduct in English, asking when and why they produce English in writing or speaking, as well as who is speaking English to and with the students. Another focus is on how English is afforded in the CLIL classroom.

    This study is ethnographical in orientation and strives to allow for a deep immersion in the culture of the Swedish CLIL school. The object of this study is a case study, which in qualitative research allows for a focus on ‘rich, real, and uniquely human material’ (Heigham & Croker, 2009:67). Case study offers an emic perspective, afforded through a close observation and shadowing of a single individual in the culture being studied.  While case study is usually limited by certain boundaries and often focuses on only one participant or event, this case study involves three parts, as three individual learners have been observed on three different full school days, making it a collective or multiple case study. Both what is common and what is individually specific in the school day of the three students are of interest. A socio-cultural perspective provides the theoretical framework, as this approach focuses on how actions are situated in a social context. Learning is grounded in social interaction, as both learning and development occur in and through participation in social practices (Säljö, 2000: 236). Although the case study is primarily descriptive, this socio-cultural theoretical approach facilitates the investigation of the use of language not only by each individual informant but also of how their interaction with other participants in their particular class context and culture unfolds.

    This study was conducted in early 2012, during a period of three consecutive school days, at a Swedish upper secondary school (ages 15-19). This school, located in a mid-sized Swedish city, has approximately 1900 students, divided into programme classes of approximately 20 students each. The participants of this study all have Swedish as their mother tongue and are all attending a natural sciences programme that prepares them for higher education, with the majority of lessons taught in English. One student from each of three class years (Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3) participated.

    The material collected during each day included audio-recorded speech, field notes, and documents (such as written lesson material), and photographs. The methods used for data collection included participant observation, on-going open interviews, and audio recordings using a small hand-held mp3 player. Language usage was noted, indicating which language was being used (i.e. Swedish or English), which activity was being conducted (during the lessons and in between lessons), which modality was being used (reading, writing, listening, speaking), and who the actors were during the specific activity. The physical environment was also noted. This triangulation affords a deeper understanding of the details recorded throughout each informant’s school day.

    The data extracted from the material has been analysed for thematic patterns of language usage, allowing for the development of theories about CLIL students’ encounters with the English language during a typical school day. These patterns have been considered in light of the context of both this particular school and of CLIL schools in general in Sweden, as indicated by previous research. Several themes across the data of the three participants have been identified, including the following:

    • The students generally take their language cues from the teachers and do not usually switch languages unless the teacher does.
    • Swedish is used nearly exclusively for all social interaction in and out of the classroom, except for the cases listed below.
    • In Swedish conversations, English is used mainly in these instances: Quoting something that is usually familiar to the other speakers (e.g. from a film or video game); using prefabricated expressions or idioms; or playing with words.
    • All three students mention that code-switching with classmates—but not others outside of the class, such as family members—is acceptable and common.
    • None of the three students feel that the English-medium instruction is a hinder to their studies. All three students comment on how useful it is to have textbooks in both English and Swedish for most subjects, explaining that it is necessary to be able to know the subject-specific terms in both languages.

    In line with previous research, the students do indeed encounter less English than might be expected. However, the use of Swedish is noted to fulfil specific academic or social functions and is not usually random but instead tends to be strategic. The final conclusions from this case study will be presented at the TRI CLIL 2012 conference and will be illustrated with transcriptions from the lessons and student interviews as well as with photographs of the lesson material and learning environment. 

  • 48.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    English-medium instruction in Sweden: Perspectives and practices in two upper secondary schools2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents English-medium instruction (EMI) in the Swedish context, focusing on perspectives and practices in two schools. The research question is as follows: How and why is EMI offered, chosen, and practiced in the Swedish upper secondary school today? The aim is to explore the status of the educational option, the reasons for offering EMI to stakeholders, the stakeholders’ beliefs about and goals of EMI, and the implementation of EMI in the classroom.

    A survey of all upper secondary schools in Sweden was conducted to ascertain the spread of content teaching through a foreign language. The educational context was studied from an ecological perspective using methods based in linguistic ethnography. Language alternation, academic language, and language hierarchy were all considered. Interviews were analysed for content; and classroom language use was analysed for language choice and function. The concepts of affordance and scaffolding together with translanguaging were key. The de facto policies of the micro contexts of the schools were examined in light of the declared national policy of the macro context of Sweden.

    The results indicate that the option in Swedish schools has not increased, and also tends to only be EMI—not Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) or instruction through other languages. EMI is offered for prestige, an international profile, marketing potential and personal interest. EMI students are academically motivated and confident, and see the option as “fun”. 100% EMI in the lessons is not the goal or the practice. Translanguaging is abundant, but how language alternation is perceived as an affordance or not differs in the two schools. One focuses on how the languages are used while the other focuses on how much each language is used.

    In conclusion, the analysis suggests that a development of definitions and practices of EMI in Sweden is needed, especially in relation to language policy and language hierarchy.

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  • 49.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English.
    Great Expectations: Stakeholders’ Perspectives on the English-Medium Option in the Upper Secondary School2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    English-medium instruction (EMI) is an established educational option that varies in both scope and extent in upper secondary schools in contexts where English is not the dominant or official language. The prevalence of EMI (also often identified as Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL) is a result of both implicit and explicit goals of those directly involved—students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These stakeholders’ perspectives are rarely addressed, however, so this study aims to understand their views through an investigation into why the option is offered, why the option is chosen, and how the option is experienced in the classroom. Identifying and understanding their expectations reveals their language ideology in relation to EMI and to the English language.

    A study with an ecological approach was conducted over the course of one academic year (2011-2012) at two Swedish upper secondary schools that each offered subjects taught in English. Informants included 25 students (ages 15-18), three school administrators, five parents, and eleven teachers; and their views on EMI were revealed through qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews. The results include issues such as the ever-increasing role of English in both the local and global contexts, the belief in the importance of English for the students’ future work and education, the English-language proficiency of the stakeholders, and the choice to use English instead of Swedish in different domains.  The stakeholders’ voices on the identified themes will illustrate the presentation. These perspectives are key to understanding the present context of EMI as well as how it may continue to develop, thus contributing to understanding the spread and practice in contexts outside of Sweden as well. Therefore, the results are of interest to both researchers and stakeholders within the fields of EMI and CLIL in an international context.

  • 50.
    Yoxsimer Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, English. Institutionen för språkdidaktik, Stockholms universitet.
    “Mapping Content and Language Integrated Learning in the Swedish Context”: Poster2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a survey conducted by The Swedish National Agency for Education in 2000, some form of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) was already in place or planned in more than 20% of all Swedish upper secondary schools. Some researchers have indicated that English-medium instruction in particular has continued to increase in Swedish schools following the “CLIL boom” from 1992 until 1999, during which up to 15 new CLIL programs commenced every year. However, as there are no recent official statistics on the number of schools offering CLIL and as the term CLIL includes schools with very different degrees of integration of language and subject studies, the actual extent and scope of subject teaching in another language has been difficult to estimate. Because understanding how CLIL has developed since 2000 is key to understanding the context of CLIL in Sweden today, part of a present doctoral study includes a survey of all 908 upper secondary schools offering the nationally recognised degree programs in Sweden. This survey was conducted in order to determine the present extent and scope of CLIL, as well as its growth and decline in the last decade. Preliminary results have indicated the following: single integrated lessons seem more common than an entire program or an entire course offered in another language; many school administrators are unclear about the difference between lessons in modern languages taught in that target language and content lessons taught in a target language; and the International Baccalaureate Program seems to be on the rise in Sweden while CLIL programs appear to be declining. The final results will contribute to the explanation of the development of CLIL and the description of the current CLIL practices in the Swedish context.

     

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