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  • 1.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 2.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research.
    Measuring CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries, so the method is not country or region specific. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 3.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Han, Mengjie
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Measuring transport related CO2 emissions induced by online and brick-and-mortar retailing2015Ingår i: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 40, s. 28-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in transport related carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (“e-tailing”) from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region’s population, and on the goods transportation networks in the studied region. Such data are readily available in most countries. The method has been evaluated using data from the Dalecarlia region in Sweden, and is shown to be robust to all assumptions made. In our empirical example, the results indicate that the average distance from consumer residence to a brick-and-mortar retailer is 48.54 km in the studied region, while the average distance to an online delivery point is 6.7 km. The results also indicate that e-tailing increases the average distance traveled from the regional entry point to the delivery point from 47.15 km for a brick-and-mortar store to 122.75 km for the online delivery points. However, as professional carriers transport the products in bulk to stores or online delivery points, which is more efficient than consumers’ transporting the products to their residences, the results indicate that consumers switching from traditional to e-tailing on average reduce their transport CO2 footprints by 84% when buying standard consumer electronics products. 

  • 4.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports2017Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 97, s. 47-54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 5.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    The effects of taxing truck distance on CO2 emissions from transports in retailing2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In the competitive retail market such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 6.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    A stopping rule while searching for optimal solution of facility-location2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and use the estimate for either stopping or evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we use test-problems taken from Baesley's OR-library and apply Simulated Annealing on these p-median problems. We do this for the purpose of comparing suggested methods of minimum estimation and, eventually, provide a recommendation for practioners. An illustration ends the paper being a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in a region.

  • 7.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Confidence in heuristic solutions?2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems frequently rely on heuristics to minimize an objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in operations research applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. Deterministic bounds offer a mean of ascertaining the quality, but such bounds are available for only a limited number of heuristics and the length of the interval may be difficult to control in an application. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to derive statistical bounds for the optimum. We discuss alternative approaches to derive statistical bounds. We also assess their performance by testing them on 40 test p-median problems on facility location, taken from Beasley’s OR-library, for which the optimum is known. We consider three popular heuristics for solving such location problems; simulated annealing, vertex substitution, and Lagrangian relaxation where only the last offers deterministic bounds. Moreover, we illustrate statistical bounds in the location of 71 regional delivery points of the Swedish Post. We find statistical bounds reliable and much more efficient than deterministic bounds provided that the heuristic solutions are sampled close to the optimum. Statistical bounds are also found computationally affordable.

  • 8.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Confidence in heuristic solutions?2015Ingår i: Journal of Global Optimization, ISSN 0925-5001, E-ISSN 1573-2916, Vol. 63, nr 2, s. 381-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems frequently rely on heuristics to minimize an objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in operations research applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. Deterministic bounds offer a mean of ascertaining the quality, but such bounds are available for only a limited number of heuristics and the length of the interval may be difficult to control in an application. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to derive statistical bounds for the optimum. We discuss alternative approaches to derive statistical bounds. We also assess their performance by testing them on 40 test p-median problems on facility location, taken from Beasley’s OR-library, for which the optimum is known. We consider three popular heuristics for solving such location problems; simulated annealing, vertex substitution, and Lagrangian relaxation where only the last offers deterministic bounds. Moreover, we illustrate statistical bounds in the location of 71 regional delivery points of the Swedish Post. We find statistical bounds reliable and much more efficient than deterministic bounds provided that the heuristic solutions are sampled close to the optimum. Statistical bounds are also found computationally affordable.

  • 9.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    On statistical bounds of heuristic solutions to location problems2016Ingår i: Journal of combinatorial optimization, ISSN 1382-6905, E-ISSN 1573-2886, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 1518-1549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems, such as problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. Pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and its bounds as a tool to decide upon stopping and evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we examine the functioning of statistical bounds obtained from four different estimators by using simulated annealing on p-median test problems taken from Beasley’s OR-library. We find the Weibull estimator and the 2nd order Jackknife estimator preferable and the requirement of sample size to be about 10 being much less than the current recommendation. However, reliable statistical bounds are found to depend critically on a sample of heuristic solutions of high quality and we give a simple statistic useful for checking the quality. We end the paper with an illustration on using statistical bounds in a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in one Swedish region.

  • 10.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    On statistical bounds of heuristic solutions to location problems2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization problems, such as problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The optimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. Pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. A small, almost dormant, branch of the literature suggests using statistical principles to estimate the minimum and its bounds as a tool to decide upon stopping and evaluating the quality of the solution. In this paper we examine the functioning of statistical bounds obtained from four different estimators by using simulated annealing on p-median test problems taken from Beasley’s OR-library. We find the Weibull estimator and the 2nd order Jackknife estimator preferable and the requirement of sample size to be about 10 being much less than the current recommendation. However, reliable statistical bounds are found to depend critically on a sample of heuristic solutions of high quality and we give a simple statistic useful for checking the quality. We end the paper with an illustration on using statistical bounds in a problem of locating some 70 distribution centers of the Swedish Post in one Swedish region. 

  • 11.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Optimization heuristic solutions, how good can they be?: With empirical applications in location problems2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kombinatoriska optimeringsproblem, är en av de viktigaste typerna av problem i operationsanalys (OR). Heuristiska och metaheuristiska algoritmer tillämpas allmänt för att hitta lösningar med hög kvalitet. Ett vanligt problem är dock att dessa algoritmer inte garanterar optimala lösningar och sålunda kan det finnas osäkerhet i kvaliteten på lösningar på tillämpade operationsanalytiska problem. Huvudsyftet med denna avhandling är att undersöka användbarheten av statistiska konfidensintervall för att utvärdera kvaliteten på heuristiska lösningar då de tillämpas på stora kombinatoriska optimeringsproblem. Bidragen från denna avhandling är både metodologiska och empiriska. Ur metodologisk synvinkel har nyttan av statistiska konfidensintervall för ett lokaliseringsproblem (p-median problemet) undersökts. Statistiska konfidensintervall fungerar väl för att tillhandahålla information om lösningens kvalitet vid rätt implementering av problemen. Statistiska konfidensintervall överträffar även intervallen som erhålls vid den vanligen använda Lagrange-relaxation. I avhandlingen visas även på att metoden med statistiska konfidensintervall är fungerar väl jämfört med många andra deterministiska intervall i ett mer komplexa optimeringsproblem som det kvadratiska tilldelningsproblemet. P-median problemet och de statistiska konfidensintervallen har implementerats empiriskt för att beräkna och jämföra e-handelns och traditionell handels CO2-utsläpp från transporter, vilken visar att ehandel medför betydligt mindre CO2-utsläpp. Ett annat lokaliseringsproblem som analyserats empiriskt är hur förändringar av den regionala administrativa indelningen av Sverige, vilket är en aktuell och pågående samhällsdiskussion, påverkar medborgarnas tillgänglighet till offentlig service. Analysen visar att regionala administrativa iv gränserna lett till en suboptimal placering av offentliga tjänster. Därmed finns en risk att den samhällsekonomiska nyttan av dessa tjänster är suboptimerad.

  • 12.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Statistical bound of genetic solutions to quadratic assignment problems2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Quadratic assignment problems (QAPs) are commonly solved by heuristic methods, where the optimum is sought iteratively. Heuristics are known to provide good solutions but the quality of the solutions, i.e., the confidence interval of the solution is unknown. This paper uses statistical optimum estimation techniques (SOETs) to assess the quality of Genetic algorithm solutions for QAPs. We examine the functioning of different SOETs regarding biasness, coverage rate and length of interval, and then we compare the SOET lower bound with deterministic ones. The commonly used deterministic bounds are confined to only a few algorithms. We show that, the Jackknife estimators have better performance than Weibull estimators, and when the number of heuristic solutions is as large as 100, higher order JK-estimators perform better than lower order ones. Compared with the deterministic bounds, the SOET lower bound performs significantly better than most deterministic lower bounds and is comparable with the best deterministic ones. 

  • 13.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Testing for Seasonal Unit Roots when Residuals Contain Serial Correlations under HEGY Test Framework2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a corrected test statistic for testing seasonal unit roots when residuals contain serial correlations, based on the HEGY test proposed by Hylleberg,Engle, Granger and Yoo (1990). The serial correlations in the residuals of test regressionare accommodated by making corrections to the commonly used HEGY t statistics. Theasymptotic distributions of the corrected t statistics are free from nuisance parameters.The size and power properties of the corrected statistics for quarterly and montly data are investigated. Based on our simulations, the corrected statistics for monthly data havemore power compared with the commonly used HEGY test statistics, but they also have size distortions when there are strong negative seasonal correlations in the residuals.

  • 14.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    How to decide upon stopping a heuristic algorithm in facility-location problems?2014Ingår i: Web Information Systems Engineering – WISE 2013 Workshops: WISE 2013 International Workshops BigWebData, MBC, PCS, STeH, QUAT, SCEH, and STSC 2013, Nanjing, China, October 13-15, 2013, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Zhisheng Huang, Chengfei Liu, Jing He, Guangyan Huang, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, Vol. 8182, s. 280-283Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solutions to combinatorial optimization, such as p-median problems of locating facilities, frequently rely on heuristics to minimize the objective function. The minimum is sought iteratively and a criterion is needed to decide when the procedure (almost) attains it. However, pre-setting the number of iterations dominates in OR applications, which implies that the quality of the solution cannot be ascertained. In this paper we compare the methods proposed previous literate of estimating minimum, and propose some thought of it.

  • 15.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik. Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Kulturgeografi.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    On administrative borders and accessibility to public services:: The case of hospitals in Sweden.2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An administrative border might hinder the optimal allocation of a given set of resources by restricting the flow of goods, services, and people. In this paper we address the question: Do administrative borders lead to poor accessibility to public service such as hospitals? In answering the question, we have examined the case of Sweden and its regional borders. We have used detailed data on the Swedish road network, its hospitals, and its geo-coded population. We have assessed the population’s spatial accessibility to Swedish hospitals by computing the inhabitants’ distance to the nearest hospital. We have also elaborated several scenarios ranging from strongly confining regional borders to no confinements of borders and recomputed the accessibility. Our findings imply that administrative borders are only marginally worsening the accessibility.

  • 16.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    He, Changli
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Testing Seasonal Unit Roots in Data at Any Frequency, an HEGY approach2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper generalizes the HEGY-type test to detect seasonal unit roots in data at any frequency, based on the seasonal unit root tests in univariate time series by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger and Yoo (1990). We introduce the seasonal unit roots at first, and then derive the mechanism of the HEGY-type test for data with any frequency. Thereafter we provide the asymptotic distributions of our test statistics when different test regressions are employed. We find that the F-statistics for testing conjugation unit roots have the same asymptotic distributions. Then we compute the finite-sample and asymptotic critical values for daily and hourly data by a Monte Carlo method. The power and size properties of our test for hourly data is investigated, and we find that including lag augmentations in auxiliary regression without lag elimination have the smallest size distortion and tests with seasonal dummies included in auxiliary regression have more power than the tests without seasonal dummies. At last we apply the our test to hourly wind power production data in Sweden and shows there are no seasonal unit roots in the series.

  • 17.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    From the road network database to a graph for localization purposes2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems of finding best facility locations require complete and accurate road network with the corresponding population data in a specific area. However the data obtained in road network databases usually do not fit in this usage. In this paper we propose our procedure of converting the road network database to a road graph which could be used in localization problems. The road network data come from the National road data base in Sweden. The graph derived is cleaned, and reduced to a suitable level for localization problems. The population points are also processed in ordered to match with that graph. The reduction of the graph is done maintaining most of the accuracy for distance measures in the network.

  • 18.
    Meng, Xiangli
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Statistik.
    Rebreyend, Pascal
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Datateknik.
    On transforming a road network database to a graph for localization purpose2016Ingår i: International Journal of Web Services Research, ISSN 1545-7362, E-ISSN 1546-5004, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 46-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The problems of finding best facility locations require complete and accurate road networks with the corresponding population data in a specific area. However the data obtained from road network databases usually do not fit in this usage. In this paper we propose a procedure of converting the road network database to a road graph which could be used for localization problems. Several challenging problems exist in the transformation process which are commonly met also in other data bases. The procedure of dealing with those challenges are proposed. The data come from the National road data base in Sweden. The graph derived is cleaned, and reduced to a suitable level for localization problems. The residential points are also processed in ordered to match the graph. The reduction of the graph is done maintaining the accuracy of distance measures in the network.

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