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  • 1.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Frohagen, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013In: WALS - World Association of Lesson Studies, International conference 2013: Lesson and Learning Study as teacher research, 5-9 september: Conference Programme and Abstracts of papers, 2013, p. 82-82Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Chair: Ingrid Carlgren

    Discussant: Ference Marton

     

    Contributions:

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

     

    Eva Björkholm - The meaning of knowing how to construct a  linkage mechanism. Discerning aspects of the object of learning by analyzing classroom interactions

    This presentation describes a Learning Study within primary technology education focusing on the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. What one has to know in order to be able to construct a linkage mechanism is, however, not self-evident. The study reported here explores the meaning of this specific knowing. The study was conducted in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes (children aged 6-7 years). Throughout the whole study step by step, starting with the analysis of the pre-test, followed by three cycles of planning and evaluation of research lessons, and the analysis of post-test, the meaning of the object of learning was specified (Marton & Pang, 2006; Carlgren, 2012). The presentation will focus on knowledge generated from the video recorded lessons by analyzing the classroom interactions and students’ difficulties that were made visible through these interactions. Teacher-student interactions as well as student-student interactions were analyzed. By analyzing students’ difficulties regarding the specific object of learning, critical aspects of the expected knowing were discerned and in this way the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known was made explicit.

    The results are presented in the form of critical aspects of what it means to know how to construct a linkage mechanism for this group of students. The critical aspects identified in the pre-test were further elaborated in the research lessons and by analyzing the classroom interactions in terms of student difficulties, additional aspects that were critical for students’ learning were identified. By gradually identifying the critical aspects, the collective understanding of the meaning of the object of learning was developed and specified.

     

    Jenny Frohagen – The meaning of knowing how to make expressions in artifacts: generating knowledge through designing lesson tasks   

    The school subject sloyd derives from a practical knowledge tradition which covers knowing in craft and art (Mäkelä, 2011; Hasselskog, 2010; Borg, 2001). However, sloyd teachers express difficulties when trying to explain and deal with aesthetic aspects when teaching sloyd (Fransson, 2010; Borg, 2007). There has been a tendency of trivializing the subject content into a shallow form of craft knowledge understood as ‘merely’ working with traditional craft techniques (Borg, 2008; Skolverket, 2005). There is a need to articulate the aesthetical features of knowing in sloyd. In my contribution I will present results from a Learning Study in sloyd focusing on the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts.

    In my presentation I will focus on how the iterative process of designing (short) lesson tasks given to the students during the research lessons and also in pre- and post-tests in each cycle, can be a way of understanding the object of learning. Since explicit tests of the students knowing are rarely found in sloyd education, conducting Learning Studies in sloyd can be a meaningful way of developing subject specific tasks. In this Learning Study different designs of tasks has been explored during the process as a way to inquire the knowing of interpreting symbolic expressions in sloyd artefacts. The results from this study show how the articulation of an object of learning in sloyd can be specified and validated throughout the process of designing and carrying out subject specific tests and lesson tasks. Depending on how the object of learning was articulated, the tasks/tests changed focus and the meaning of the knowing differed. By analyzing the students learning outcomes and redesigning the pre- and post-test in a Learning study as well as the given lesson tasks, new aspects of the learning object can be discerned.

     

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

     

  • 2.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet.
    Learning Study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Learning Study inquires teaching and learning in relation to a specific object of learning. The meaning of knowing the specific object of learning is specified in the research process – in the planning and analysis of the pre-test as well as in designing and analysis of research lessons. In this symposium the focus will be on different aspects of the knowledge generation in a Learning Study concerning the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known. By inquiring teaching and learning of a specific content our knowledge regarding that content will be differentiated and deepened. The meaning of knowing a specific object of learning is a dynamic knowledge object – depending on the specific group of students in interaction with a specific content. Each new group of students will make it possible to discern new aspects of the learning object. By analyzing student difficulties as well as interactions in the classroom new aspects of the learning object will be discerned. In the symposium four different Learning Studies from different school subjects will be presented. The meaning of knowing will be explored and discussed from different angles – from the perspective of the learners (in the pre-tests) and  the teachers (in the teacher discussions) as well as from how it is constituted in the classroom interaction (documented in the videos from the research lessons).

    Pernilla AhlstrandLearning Study as a way to inquire about progress in acting and presence on stage.

    Theatre is a subject in upper secondary school in Sweden as part of the national aesthetic program. The new kind of syllabus is organized in relation to content areas as well as subject specific capabilities for the students to develop. The syllabus also includes criteria for the assessment of students’ capabilities – to be used when giving marks to the students and working with formative assessment or assessment for learning (Black & Wiliam, 1998, Gipps 1995. The criteria are expressed in general, non-subject specific terms. This is for example formulated as the difference between a simple and complex way of being able to express something in the theatre syllabus. In my research I investigate how learning study as a research approach and phenomenography as a method of analyzing pretests can be used as another and deepened way to describe different levels of knowing in relation to the national criteria.

    Theatre knowledge and the way knowledge is transferred is in previous research to a great extent described as tacit (Lagerström 2005, Järleby 2003, Johansson 2012). This gives theatre teachers even further challenges, trying to formulate what is described as tacit knowing (Polanyi 1958/1998 &1967/2009, Johannessen 1988, 1999, 2002, Janik 1995, 1996, Schön 1983).

    The capability of being present was found suitable as an object of learning, as it is something that teachers have experienced difficulties with when teaching and instructing. Presence is a core quality in acting and it is one of the criteria teachers agree on being of great importance when assessing a student but in what way can the knowing of the capability of being present be described?

    It will be discussed whether an outcome space (in relation to filmed material) can be a way to develop teachers and students understanding of the meaning of knowing as a help to work with assessment for learning.

    Gunn NybergThe meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways: embodied understanding as somatic grasping

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). The knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385). The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’.

    The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the learning object (‘house hop’) have been used.

     

    The paper draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and transcripts of two video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school. The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    This presentation will focus on how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Taking this as a starting point when teaching and learning movements can contribute to an approach to capability to move as comprising mental and physical processes as one process. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) this way could also contribute to a discussion concerning subject specific knowledge in PE and particularly it’s ‘practical’ dimension.

     

     

  • 3.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Assessment of movement in Swedish PETE: A matter of learning or just ticking a box?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general knowledge base of Health and Physical Education Teacher Education (HPETE) is growing stronger. As a part of that knowledge base there is an ongoing discussion of the meaning of HPETE students’ movement capabilities (Brown 2013, Capel et al 2011, Johnson 2013, Siedentop 2009, Tinning 2010). Lee Shulman’s (1987) framework of Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) have been used by scholars to examine how students’ ability to move and their ability to teach are valued in HPETE (Backman & Pearson 2016, Herold & Waring 2016, Ward et al 2015). However, the students’ own voices about these issues have rarely been acknowledged. The aim with this paper is therefore to examine how HPETE students at one university in Sweden experience the assessment of movement knowledge in and about aquatics, dance and ice-skating. Semi-structured interviews with two groups including a total of seven students were performed by the one researcher at three different occasions. The interviewing researcher’s regularly work is not at the same university as the participating students. The interviews focused specifically on the teaching and assessment of aquatics, dance and skating within the first semester of HPETE. The transcription of the six interviews was performed by external assistance and the students were all anonymized in the transcribed material. The following analysis, performed by two researchers stationed at the same university as the participating students, focused on how the transcribed material related to the aim and the concepts of Shulman. Preliminary results show several expressions of that the students in our study were not sure of what kinds or what level of movement knowledge were expected of them as they entered HPETE. Further, several students expressed limited possibilities to develop movement ability merely through HPETE teaching but at the same time, practicing unfamiliar movements outside HPETE teacher-led teaching was rare. Although assessment of movement knowledge were most commonly expressed as a qualitative process, some students mentioned that they occasionally experienced assessment of movement knowledge as “a-tick-in-a-box”. Interestingly, the cognitive aspects of movement knowledge (i.e. describe, observe, analyse, discuss, etc.) were on the one hand expressed as vital, but on the other as less characterized by learning compared to the practice of movement skills. The results will be analysed and discussed in relation to research within the field and in relation to Lee Shulman’s framework of CK and PCK. Although making no claims to generalize the results in this study based on the limited number of participants, they might contribute to the discussion of what forms of knowledge to prioritise in HPETE, and thereby also help develop HPE on a school level.

    References

    Backman, E. & Pearson, P. 2016. “We should assess the students in more authentic situations”. Swedish PE teacher educators’ views of the meaning of movement skills for future PE teachers. European Physical Education Review. 22(1): 47-64.

    Brown, T.D. 2013. “A vision lost? (Re)articulating an Arnoldian conception of education ‘in’ movement in physical education.” Sport, Education and Society 18 (1): 21-37.

    Capel, S., Hayes, S., Katene, W. and P. Velija. 2011. “The interaction of factors which influence secondary student physical education teachers’ knowledge and development as teachers.” European Physical Education Review, 17 (2): 183–201.

    Herold, F. and M. Waring. 2016. “Is practical subject matter knowledge still important? Examining the Siedentopian perspective on the role of content knowledge in physical education teacher education.” Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1080/17408989.2016.1192592

    Johnson, T.G. 2013. “The value of performance in Physical Education teacher education.” Quest 65 (4): 485-497.

    Shulman, L.S. 1987. “Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform.” Harvard Educational Review 57 (1): 1-21.

    Siedentop, D. 2009. “Content Knowledge for Physical Education. In The Routledge Physical Education Reader, edited by R. Bailey and D. Kirk, 243-253. Abingdon: Routledge

    Tinning, R. 2010. Pedagogy and human movement: theory, practice, research. Abingdon: Routledge.

    Ward, P., Kim, I., Ko, B. and W. Li. 2015. “Effects of Improving Teachers’ Content Knowledge on Teaching and Student Learning in Physical Education.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 86 (2): 130–139.

  • 4.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan.
    Att röra sig bortom rigida ortodoxier i undervisning och bedömning av rörelsepraktiker inom idrottslärarutbildning – ett studentperspektiv2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan GIH Stockholm.
    Moving beyond rigid orthodoxies in the teaching and assessment of movement in Swedish physical education teacher education: A student perspective2019In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss physical education teacher education (PETE) students’ conceptions of teaching and assessment of movement capability as a part of content knowledge in aquatics, dance and ice-skating at a university in Sweden. The theoretical perspective involves Shulman’s concept of content knowledge, the further elaboration of content knowledge into common content knowledge, and the theoretical perspective underpinning movement capability. The sample consists of two groups with a total of seven PETE students who volunteered to take part in group interviews. Semi-structured interviews with the two groups were conducted on three occasions. Findings display that the students’ conceptions of movement capability seem to be focused around performance of movements. Further, the participants felt the messages to be unclear in terms of what they are to know regarding movement capability before entering PETE. There was also a contradiction in that the PETE students felt it to be obvious that they would ‘know’ certain movements, and at the same time they requested clear and distinct criteria when it came to the performance of movements. This study shows that expectations in terms of PETEstudents’ levels of movement content knowledge need to be further investigated and discussed.

    This study also highlights the importance of conceptualising what PETE students need to learn if they are to see the need to develop their movement capability on their own. Assessments of students’ reflections on what it means to master movements are discussed as an alternative to assessment of performance of movements.

  • 6.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Science.
    PETE students’ experiences of assessment of movement: A Shulmanian perspective2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general knowledge base of Health and Physical Education Teacher Education (HPETE) is growing stronger. As a part of that knowledge base there is an ongoing discussion of the meaning of HPETE students’ movement capabilities. Lee Shulman’s framework of Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) have been used by scholars to examine how students’ ability to move and their ability to teach are valued in HPETE. However, the students’ own voices about these issues have rarely been acknowledged. The aim with this paper is therefore to examine how HPETE students at one university in Sweden experience how movement knowledge in certain movement activities are valued in the assessment. Semi-structured interviews with two groups (3-4 students in each) with a total of seven students was performed at three different occasions focusing specifically on how aquatics, dance and skating was taught and assessed within the first semester of HPETE. Preliminary results of our first analysis of the students’ expressions of their education in aquatics show that the students experience qualitative dimension in the assessment of their performances in aquatics as well as a quantitative measurement. They also expressed a lack of teacher-led occasions for learning in and about aquatics before they assessed. Students were also uncertain of how their own practical performance was acknowledged in the assessment of aquatics in relation to their ability to observe and give feedback on their peers’ performance. The results will be analysed and discussed using Lee Shulman’s framework of CK and PCK. By extension, these results might contribute to the discussion of what forms of knowledge to prioritise in HPETE, and thereby also help develop HPE on a school level.

  • 7.
    Backman, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Tolgfors, Björn
    Örebro universitet.
    Quennerstedt, Mikael
    Örebro universitet.
    Transitions from Physical Education Teacher Education to teaching practices in Physical Education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research display mixed results regarding the impact that teacher education have on teaching practices in schools. While some studies indicate weak influence of teacher education, others display that some content and perspectives in teacher education seem to find their expressions in school practice. Despite the lack of research about the impact of physical education teacher education (PETE), a few existing studies display the same twofold result as for teacher education in general. In this study, we have chosen a certain content, assessment of learning (AFL) in order to investigate the influence that PETE can have for newly qualified teachers (NQT) in physical education (PE). The aim of the project is twofold. Firstly, inspired by Bernstein’s theory of the pedagogic device, the aim is to investigate how AFL is constructed in university courses, re-contextualised in practicum courses, and realised in teaching practice in school PE. Secondly, and inspired by Ball’s theory of performativity, the aim is to analyse fabrications of AFL in the transitions from PETE to PE teaching practice. The design of the project is to follow a total of 10 PETE students recruited from two different PETE universities in Sweden to study how their understanding and teaching practice of AFL is transformed from PETE to PE. Empirical material will be gathered from recordings of seminars, observations for teaching, stimulated-recall-interviews, and participation in social media.

  • 8.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Bergentoft, Helen
    Göteborgs universitet.
    What would physical educators know about movement education? A review of literature, 2006-20162017In: Quest (National Association for Physical Education in Higher Education), ISSN 0033-6297, E-ISSN 1543-2750, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 419-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper identifies the conceptual underpinnings of current movement research in Physical Education. Using a hermeneutic approach, four analogies for movement education are identified: the motor program analogy, the neurobiological systems analogy, the instinctive movement analogy, and the embodied exploration analogy. Three issues related to logical consistency and its relevance for movement education are raised. The first relates to tensions between the analogies and educational policy. The second concerns differences among the four analogies. The third issue relates to the appropriateness of specific analogies for dealing with certain movement contexts. In each case, strategies for improvement are considered. The paper is concluded with a brief summary along with reflections on issues that require further attention.

  • 9.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    Stockholms universitet.
    Björkholm, Eva
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    The meaning of knowing what is to be known2015In: Education et Didactique, ISSN 2111-4838, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 193-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute to an articulated language of knowing, which we consider as a key aspect of teachers professional work. We describe three examples of how the meaning of knowing some specific learning objects can be studied and described. The three learning objects are: to be able to evaluate technical solutions, to be able to perform a house-hop and to be able to act with presence.

    Phenomenographic analyses of data from the pre-tests carried out within the frame of so called Learning Studies resulted in descriptions of different ways of knowing as well as different aspects of the specific knowns that must be discerned in order to develop the knowing.

  • 10.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Från ord till rörelser och dans: en analys av rörelsekunnandet i en dansuppgift2015In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, no 14, p. 24-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln redovisar vi ett exempel på hur kunnande, som kommer till uttryck då elever redovisar en dansuppgift, kan analyseras och bidra till vår förståelse av detta kunnande såväl som till ett artikulerat språk att använda vid utvecklingen av undervisningen. En utgångspunkt är att kunskaper om kunnande är en nödvändig grund för att förbättra undervisningen. En annan utgångspunkt är att det råder brist på sådan kunskap. Eleverna (ca 12 år gamla) var indelade i tre grupper som fick en uppgift där de med utgångspunkt i två meningar skulle skapa en dans genom att översätta varje ord till en rörelse och därefter sammanfoga ord-rörelserna. Vi presenterar resultaten av en fenomenografisk analys som grundar sig på en videoinspelning av dessa redovisningar.

  • 11. Larsson, H.
    et al.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    ‘It doesn't matter how they move really, as long as they move.’ Physical education teachers on developing their students’ movement capabilities2017In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Movement is key in physical education, but the educational value of moving is sometimes obscure. In Sweden, recent school reforms have endeavoured to introduce social constructionist concepts of knowledge and learning into physical education, where the movement capabilities of students are in focus. However, this means introducing a host of new and untested concepts to the physical education teacher community.

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore how Swedish physical education teachers reason about helping their students develop movement capability.

    Participants, setting and research design: The data are taken from a research project conducted in eight Swedish secondary schools called ‘Physical education and health – a subject for learning?’ in which students and teachers were interviewed and physical education lessons were video-recorded. This article draws on data from interviews with the eight participating teachers, five men and three women. The teachers were interviewed partly using a stimulated recall technique where the teachers were asked to comment on video clips from physical education lessons where they themselves act as teachers.

    Data analysis: A discourse analysis was conducted with a particular focus on the ensemble of more or less regulated, deliberate and finalised ways of doing things that characterise the eight teachers’ approach to helping the students develop their movement capabilities.

    Findings: The interviews indicate that an activation discourse (‘trying out’ and ‘being active’) dominates the teachers’ ways of reasoning about their task (a focal discourse). When the teachers were specifically asked about how they can help the students improve their movement capacities, a sport discourse (a referential discourse) was expressed. This discourse, which is based on the standards of excellence of different sports, conditions what the teachers see as (im)possible to do due to time limitations and a wish not to criticise the students publicly. The mandated holistic social constructionist discourse about knowledge and learning becomes obscure (an intruder discourse) in the sense that the teachers interpret it from the point of view of a dualist discourse, where ‘knowledge’ (theory) and ‘skill’ (practice) are divided.

    Conclusions: Physical education teachers recoil from the task of developing the students’ movement capabilities due to certain conditions of impossibility related to the discursive terrain they are moving in. The teachers see as their primary objective the promotion of physical activity – now and in the future; they conceptualise movement capability in such a way that emphasising the latter would jeopardise their possibilities of realising the primary objective. Should the aim be to reinforce the social constructionist national curriculum, where capability to move is suggested to be an attempt at formulating a concept of knowledge that includes both propositional and procedural aspects and which is not based on the standards of excellence of either sport techniques or motor ability, then teachers will need support to interpret the national curriculum from a social constructionist perspective. Further, alternative standards of excellence as well as a vocabulary for articulating these will have to be developed. 

  • 12.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Att uppmärksamma sitt sätt att röra sig - kan elever lära sig det i idrott och hälsa?2018In: Idrott & hälsa, ISSN 1653-1124, no 3, p. 20-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Att urskilja och erfara sitt sätt att springa - kan elever lära sig det i idrott och hälsa?2018In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 43-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing movement capability - discerning and experiencing one's own way of running 

    One aim with the subject PEH is to develop students’ movement capabilities. However, the meaning of this concept is unclear and subsequently also what students are supposed to know. The Learning study reported in this article takes a departure from previous research with the aim of investigating the meaning of movement capability. The result shows that a significant capability is to discern and experience one’s own way of moving. The aim of this study was to a, investigate the meaning of discerning and experiencing one’s own way of moving and b, investigate possible ways to help students develop this capability. The result shows a nuanced picture of the meaning of this capability as well as examples of how to help students learn.

  • 14.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Att utveckla en kroppslig hastighetsmätare: en studie av free ski åkares rörelsekunnande2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Rörelsekunnande och koordinativ förmåga har inte varit ett framträdande tema i ämnet idrott och hälsa varken nationellt (Larsson, Redelius och Fagell, 2007) eller internationellt Kirk, 2010; Tinning, 2010).

    Rörelsekunnande, i termer av ’ idrottslig förmåga’ betraktas snarare som ett underförstått, förgivet taget krav för att vara ’bra i idrott’ (Evans, 2004; Gard, 2006; Redelius m.fl., 2007; Kirk, 2010). Den ’idrottsliga förmågan’ verkar heller inte handla om kvalitativa aspekter i form av koordinativ förmåga, kroppsmedvetenhet, estetiskt uttryck eller skapande av rörelser och framträder inte som ett mål för en pedagogisk idé . Det är istället, trots ämnets tradition av att vara ett ’praktiskt’ ämne, det teoretiska kunnandet som premieras (Hay, 2006, Green, 2010) vilket får konsekvensen att kunskap i rörelser och rörelseaktiviteter blir trivialt (Kirk, 2010). Det finns därmed, som Evans (2004) efterfrågar, ett behov av att diskutera vad ’idrottslig förmåga’ kan vara. En utgångspunkt är att rörelsekunnande är en möjlig förmåga att utveckla men att den till stor del innefattar en tyst dimension som är svår att beskriva.

    Syfte & teoretisk ram

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka och beskriva free ski-åkares rörelsekunnande. Exempel på frågeställning är ”vad kan man när man kan en ”flat spin niohundra med tail grab”?

    Förståelsen av rörelsekunnande som kunskap hämtar inspiration från Michael Polanyis teori om tacit knowing. Här ses kunskap som en process; ett kunnande som blir personligt i bemärkelsen att det utvecklas i den praktiska erfarenheten (Polanyi, 1961). Free ski åkarnas rörelsekunnande förstås även utifrån de fyra aspekter av kunskap som kan ses som integrerade i all kunskap (Carlgren, 2009).

    Metod

    Erfarna, självlärda utövare i free skiing filmades under träning och intervjuades i form av stimulated recall. Data består av fyra videofilmer från träning och tävling samt fyra timslånga ljudinspelningar av stimulated recall intervjuer. Utövarna har fått kommentera sina filmade trick där temat för samtalet har varit att så noggrant som möjligt beskriva sitt momentana handlande.

    Resultat

    En preliminär analys visar att erfarna utövare utvecklat specifika kunnanden som bidrar till att de kan anpassa sina rörelser till olika yttre förhållanden (snöns konsistens, hoppets konstruktion, vindens riktning och hastighet). De har också utvecklat en förmåga att ’läsa av’ sin egen hastighet både i luften och på marken samt i roterande tillstånd. Deras specifika kunnande inbegriper också att navigera sin kroppsliga uppmärksamhet och växla denna under olika faser i sina rörelser.

    Diskussion

    Resultaten kan  bidra till en didaktisk diskussion om hur rörelsekunnande kan förstås och därmed också bidra till diskussionen om vad undervisning i rörelse kan innebära och vilket kunnande som kan utvecklas i en pedagogisk kroppslig praktik.

  • 15.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet.
    Att utveckla sin rörelseförmåga – exemplet house hop2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rörelse och rörelseaktiviteter är ett centralt innehåll i ämnet idrott och hälsa och syftet med ämnet är bland annat att eleverna skall få utveckla sin rörelseförmåga (Gy 11, Lgr 11). Vad detta innebär verkar dock, enligt forskning, tolkas av lärare på olika och motsägelsefulla sätt. Å ena sidan uppfattas rörelseförmåga som enbart ett medel för att vara fysiskt aktiv och det räcker att delta (vara fysiskt aktiv) för att få godkänt i ämnet. Rörelser och rörelseförmåga är inte föremål för något lärande eller pedagogisk idé, det är den fysiska aktiviteten, pulshöjningen och muskelstärkande aktiviteter som blir huvudtemat och som i sin tur förväntas främja elevers hälsosamma livsstilar. Å andra sidan, när lärare bedömer och betygsätter elever för högre betyg framskymtar andra kriterier för rörelseförmågan. Då verkar denna likställas med att vara ’bra på sport’ och det som bedöms är ’mätbara prestationer, ofta i form av idrottsliga resultat’(Redelius, 2007 s. 226). Det finns därmed ett behov av att undersöka vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära och hur en sådan förmåga (eller förmågor) kan tydliggöras, artikuleras och diskuteras som ett ämnesspecifikt kunskapsinnehåll i idrott och hälsa.

     

    Den studie som genomförts, och som ligger till grund för den här presentationen, är en Learning study där en specifik rörelse (house hop) valdes som lärandeobjekt. Studien genomfördes tillsammans med tre lärare i idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet och det övergripande syftet var att undersöka vad det innebär att kunna en specifik rörelse.

    Syftet med denna presentation är att visa hur en fenomenografisk analys av elevers olika sätt att erfara en rörelse kan bidra till en ökad förståelse av vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära och hur undervisning i rörelseförmåga kan främjas av att utgå från elevers olika sätt att kunna den rörelse som det är tänkt att eleverna skall lära sig. Den fenomenografiska analysen bidrar också med ett sätt att identifiera vilka aspekter av en rörelse som behöver urskiljas för att kunna rörelsen på ett så komplext sätt som möjligt.

     

     

  • 16.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Den idrottspedagogiska modellen sport education undersöks och lovordas: recension av Sport Education: International Perspectives, Peter Hastie (red)2013In: www.idrottsforum.orgArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms Universitet.
    Developing a ‘somatic velocimeter’ – the practical knowledge of freeskiers2015In: Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, ISSN 2159-676X, E-ISSN 2159-6778, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 488-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore what it means to know complex movements, from the perspective of the mover. The paper discusses the potential of the findings for providing ideas for both teaching and learning capability to move in the context of physical education.

    The knowing involved in moving is explored in the practice of freeskiing, characterized by a tradition of learning movements where practitioners have a strong commitment to learning how to move in complex, different and new ways.

    In this study, knowing how to move is seen in line with Michael Polanyi’s theory of tacit knowing where knowing is always rooted in personal experience and comprising what Ryle (2009) calls ’knowing how’ as well as ’knowing that’.

    The findings show that the freeskiers have developed specific kinds of knowing comprising a tacit component which is possible to articulate to a certain extent. Their capability to move can be conceived as complex knowing, comprising theoretical as well as practical aspects.

    If the educational objective in physical education is expressed as developing ways of knowing such as those exemplified in this study, the subject content, or at least part of it, could be described as movement education in which the intrinsic value of knowing movements could be recognized.

  • 18.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholm University, CeHum.
    Exploring ‘knowings’ in human movement: The practical knowledge of pole-vaulters2014In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 72-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore and develop ways to describe what there is to know, from the perspective of the knower, when knowing how to carry out a complex movement. The paper will challenge the distinction between mental and physical skills, drawing on theories of tacit knowing (Polanyi, 1969), knowing how (Ryle, 1949), and knowing-in-action (Schön, 1991) together with empirical data from the context of elite sport. One assumption is that exploring knowing in moving in this context can contribute to developing students’ movement education in physical education.

      Pole-vaulting provides examples of what there is to know in terms of embodied capabilities possible to explicate and develop as an educational objective in physical education, irrespective of the context of competitive sports. Explicating the knowing (or capabilities) involved in the ‘capability to move’, as exemplified in this study could emphasize an educational aim concerning practical knowledge such as knowing in moving, and not necessarily specific skills related to competitive sport activities.

     

  • 19.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockhoms universitet, CeHum.
    Idrottsämnets pedagogik: recension av Pedagogy and Human Movement: Theory, practice, research (Tinning, Richard)2012In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. feb 15Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Innebörden av att kunna 'house hop' rörelsekunnande som kroppslig förståelse2015In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 3, no 15, p. 5-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln presenterar jag en del av mitt avhandlingsprojekt (Nyberg, 2014) där syftet var att undersöka vad rörelseförmåga kan innebära i termer av vad ’man kan’ när man kan röra sig på olika sätt. Syftet med artikeln är att visa hur en fenomenografisk analys av elevers olika sätt att röra sig kan bidra till hur kunskapen om rörelsekunnande kan utvecklas. Den fenomenografiska analysen innebär att, i det här fallet, systematiskt undersöka hur elevers ’kroppsliga förståelse’ av en rörelse uttrycks genom olika sätt att röra sig. Resultatet av analysen visar även vilka aspekter av rörelsen som är möjliga att urskilja och erfara, vilket bidrar till en förståelse av vad det innebär att kunna en rörelse. I artikeln diskuterar jag hur en fenomenografisk ansats kan underlätta för lärare i idrott och hälsa att bortse från sina egna underförstådda antaganden om vad det innebär att behärska en rörelse och hur undervisningen i idrott och hälsa kan bidra till utveckling av rörelseförmåga.

  • 21.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Teaching and learning movement capability in PE: learning to run differently2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching and learning movement capability in PE: learning to run differently

    One aim with PEH in Sweden is to develop students all round movement capability. What movement capability means is however unclear and subsequently also what students are supposed to learn and know. Also, capability to move seems to be a taken-for-granted prerequisite for, or outcome of, being physically active.

    This presentation reports an action research project taking a departure from previous research exploring what movement capability can mean. The result from this study indicated that knowing one’s own way of moving was a significant specific way of knowing as a part of movement capability. The aim with this action research project was a) to investigate what it means, from the perspective of the students, to know one’s own way of moving when running in different settings and with different purposes and B) to investigate how learning situations can be formed to provide possibilities for students to develop their knowing.

    The project was conducted in collaboration with two PE teachers and two of their classes including a total of 40 students in upper secondary school in Sweden. A Learning study was carried out which included a pre-test, a phenomenographic analysis of the pre-test, planning teaching based on a phenomenographic approach to learning, implementing the teaching and a post-test. Then, based on analysis of the teaching and the pre-test, another cycle was carried out. Data was generated with the help of video- and audio recording.

    The findings show a nuanced picture of what it means to know one’s own way of running which was not possible to know from start. Also, the findings suggest that a phenomenographic approach to teaching  can help students develop their awareness of their own  ways of moving as well as challenging implicit ‘standards of excellence’, embedded in a common approach to teaching and learning movements in PE.

  • 22.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet.
    The meaning of knowing how to move in specific ways - capability to move as embodied understanding2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The subject physical education has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject. However, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move do not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). Rather, physical education in terms of the theme of this presentation, capability to move, is reduced to implicit and taken-for-granted ‘standards of excellence’, only reluctantly discussed by PE teachers (Kirk, 2010, 114). However, the knowing involved in moving is not easily articulated and may, according to Polanyi (1954), “often result in explaining away quite genuine practices or experiences” (p. 385).  Articulating what there is to know when knowing how to move in different ways could provide a base for dealing with capability to move as an educational objective in physical education.

    Aim and theoretical framework

    The aim of this study is to explore and articulate the meaning of knowing how to move in a specific way exemplified through a movement called ‘house hop’. The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) “knowing how”, not separating mental and physical skills. Accordingly, a phenomenographic analysis of students’ experiencing of the object of learning (‘house hop’) have been used.

    Method

    In order to explore what it means to know a movement, a Learning Study was conducted. A Learning Study is a kind of design experiment inspired by the Japanese Lesson Study (Marton and Lo, 2007), where the main aim is to explore an object of learning. A group of teachers, in collaboration with a researcher, investigate together the most powerful way to teach a specific object of learning. The purpose of this study was, however, to explore what it means to know the object of learning, not the outcome, or the process, of students´ learning.

    This presentation draws mainly on data from video recordings of the pre-test and video recorded lessons from a Learning Study in upper secondary school.

    Findings

    The findings show the meaning of knowing house hop as different ways of knowing the movement ‘as something’ as well as several aspects to discern and experience in order to know the movement in a powerful way.

    Discussion

    It will be discussed how students’ experiencing of a movement are expressed in their way of moving. Conceiving the knowing involved in ‘house hopping’ (as well as other ways of moving) from a phenomenographic approach, conceiving different ways of knowing a movement as complementary rather than differentiating abilities,  as well as comprising physical and mental skills as unseparable could also contribute to a discussion concerning teaching and learning capability to move.

  • 23.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockhoms universitet, CeHum.
    Varken skakad eller rörd, recension av Shaking or Stirring?: A case-study of physical education teacher education in Norway (Moen Mordal, Kjersti)2012In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. okt 12Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies (CeHum.
    Ways of knowing in ways of moving: A study of the meaning of capability to move2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis has been to investigate the meaning of the capability to move in order to identify and describe this capability from the perspective of the one who moves in relation to specific movements. It has been my ambition to develop ways to explicate, and thereby open up for discussion, what might form an educational goal in the context of movements and movement activities in the school subject of physical education and health (PEH).

    In this study I have used a practical epistemological perspective on capability to move, a perspective that challenges the traditional distinction between mental and physical skills as well as between theoretical and practical knowledge. Movement actions, or ways of moving, are seen as expressions of knowing.

    In order to explore an understanding of the knowing involved in specific ways of moving, observations of  actors’ ways of moving and their own experiences of moving were brought together. Informants from three different arenas took part: from PEH in upper secondary school, from athletics and from free-skiing.

    The results of the analyses suggest it is possible to describe practitioners’ developed knowing as a number of specific ways of knowing that are in turn related to specific ways of moving. Examples of such specific ways of moving may be discerning and modifying one’s own rotational velocity and navigating one’s (bodily) awareness. Additionally, exploring learners’ pre-knowing of a movement ‘as something’ may be fruitful when planning the teaching and learning of capability to move. I have suggested that these specific ways of knowing might be regarded as educational goals in PEH.

    In conducting this study, I have also had the ambition to contribute to the ongoing discussion of what ‘ability’ in the PEH context might mean. In considering specific ways of knowing in moving, the implicit and taken-for-granted meaning of ‘standards of excellence’ and ‘sports ability’can be discussed, and challenged.

  • 25.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Backman, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och Idrottshögskolan.
    Exploring the meaning of movement capability in physical education teacher education through student voices2019In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars argue that movement content knowledge in physical education teacher education (PETE) needs to be revisited and problematised. In this paper we develop the concept of movement capability representing a widened view of movement content knowledge. If teacher educators want to teach movement capability as an intrinsic educational goal in PETE there is an apparent need to consider what to teach, how it is taught and also how movement capability is understood by the learners. The aim of this paper is to analyse how PETE students experience the meaning of movement capability through the teaching in aquatics, dance and ice-skating. This study takes its departure from a number of previous empirical studies investigating the meaning of movement capability. Interviews with seven PETE students, divided into two focus groups, were conducted on three occasions. A phenomenographic analysis shows four qualitatively different ways of experiencing the meaning of movement capability. Major differences that can be seen when comparing the results of a previous study on physical education teachers and students in PETE are the aspect of subjective experiences and the aspect of the observer. In the main, the students do not seem to take into account an observer’s point of view to the same extent as the group of teachers. The results will hopefully contribute to a deeper and more complex understanding of what can be seen as movement capability in PETE and physical education, and thereby enhance development of the teaching and learning of this capability.

  • 26.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Exploring capability to move: somatic grasping of house-hopping2015In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 612-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore what it means to be able to move in different ways. What does it mean, from the perspective of the learners, to know how to carry out a specific movement?  What is there to know and how could this insight contribute to the planning of developing learners’ capability to move in different ways?  As an example of a ‘new’ way of moving to be learnt, a movement called ‘house-hop’ (i.e. a 360-degree rotation initiated on the ground and completed in the air) was introduced as an object of learning in a PE-class in a secondary high school in Sweden. The paper explores learners’ different ways of moving as expressing different ways of knowing how to ‘house-hop’ comprising also certain aspects of the movement being discerned simultaneously by the learners. In this way, an attempt will be made to explicate what there is to know when knowing a movement.

    Background: Evans (2004) initiated a discussion about what ‘ability’ means and how it is recognized and valued within the context of PE which has been further discussed in a growing body of critical research. He also raised the question of which ‘abilities’ the PE subject is supposed to develop while at the same time stating that ‘talk of physically educating the body’ in terms of ‘practical knowledge’, ‘physical literacy’ or ‘kinaestethic intelligence’ has ‘almost disappeared from the discourse of PE’ (Evans, 2004, 95). Rather, physical education in terms of the theme of this paper, capability to move, is reduced to implicit and taken-for-granted ‘standards of excellence’, only reluctantly discussed by PE teachers (Kirk, 2010, 114). There is a need for conceiving capability to move as an educational aim so that it can be explicitly discussed and dealt with in physical education

    Theoretical framework and method: The study takes as it’s starting point an epistemological perspective on capability to move corresponding with Ryle’s (1949) ’knowing how’,  challenging the distinction between mental and physical skills in regarding the knowing involved in capability to move as comprising interwoven mental and physical processes. Additionally, phenomenography and Variation Theory are used as analytical framework integrated in a Learning study. Learning Study is a kind of design experiment inspired by the Japanese Lesson Study (Marton and Lo, 2007), where the main aim is to explore an object of learning.

    Findings and discussion: The findings show different ways of knowing house-hop as well as several aspects to discern in order to know the movement in a powerful way. The knowing involved in house-hopping can be seen as somatic grasping comprising mental and physical skills as an integrated whole. The paper discusses how this approach to investigating learners’ different ways of knowing a new way of moving to be learnt can contribute to the planning of teaching and learning capability to move.

  • 27.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    The meaning of knowing what is expected to be known: The case of  ‘Househop’2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore what it means to know a specific movement, a so called ‘househop’, i.e. a rotation initiated on the ground and fulfilled in the air. The knowing of ’househop’ (including the capability to perform a househop) is an example of a subject content in Physical Education. Despite the fact that PE has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) does not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). In the context of learning motor skills the knowing is often explicated in terms of  measurable outcomes, for example in length, height or time (Renshaw, Davies & Savelsbergh, 2010), not in terms of what there is to know.

    A necessary condition for learning is to discern what there is to learn (Marton & Pang, 2006,).  This study gives an example of how to explicate what there is to be known as well as specific ways of knowing (Carlgren, 2007) when developing the capability of performing a ‘househop’. To make it possible for the students to develop the capability to perform a househop the teaching must be designed so that the students can experience and discern so called critical aspects of a househop.

    Knowledge concerning the meaning of specific learning objects (something that is expected to be known by the students as well as specific ways of knowing it) is generated in so called Learning Studies ( Marton & Pang, 2006, Marton & Lo, 2011, Carlgren, 2012). The object of learning in a Learning Study can be described as a triadic phenomenon. There is something to be known, a specific kind of knowing to be developed and someone who knows, a knower (Carlgren, 2011). There is nothing known if there is no knower knowing it. This triadic phenomenon is transactional (Dewey & Bentley, 1949).  

    Rather than seeing capability to move as a practical form of knowledge it can be conceptualized as intelligent actions not necessarily entailing the double operation of considering and executing (Ryle, 1949,2009). The knowing is not restricted to cognitive understanding and knowing how to perform a movement is not restricted to physical processes. It includes skills as well as what is often referred to as ‘tacit knowing’ (Polanyi, 1969; Johannessen,1988).

    Methods/methodology

    This study is carried out in the form of a Learning Study. The Learning Study is a collaborative (teachers and researcher work together) research approach that focus on the learning of specific objects. So called critical aspects of these objects are discerned through a systematic and iterative process (Marton & Ling, 2007). The study was conducted in collaboration with three PE - teachers in upper secondary school.

    The results that will be presented in this paper are based on an analysis of the video recorded pre-test used in the Learning Study as well as analysis of two video recorded research lessons. The analysis is carried out within the theoretical framework of phenomenography (Marton, 1981) and Variation theory ( Marton & Pang, 2006)

    Expected outcomes/results

    The results are presented in terms of the features of the learning objects that must be discerned and mastered when performing a ‘househop’.

    Through the phenomenographic analysis categories such as “House hop as solitary parts”, “House hop as requiring no speed or power” and “ House hop as concerning only upper body” emerged. These categories laid the foundation for a systematic process of discerning critical aspects such as for example the direction of the rotation, the meaning of the arm movement for creating speed and power and the meaning of one´s legs participation through the movement. Further critical aspects emerged when analyzing the lessons and all together they provided possibilities to explicate the meaning of knowing how to perform a ‘house hop’

  • 28.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Stockholms universitet, CeHum.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Exploring ‘what’ to learn in physical education2014In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 123-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to show a need for explicating ‘what’ there is to learn in physical education (PE) with a particular focus on learning to move with the meaning potential seen as integral to moving. Further, the aim is to provide an example of exploring ‘bodily knowing’ from the perspective of practical epistemology as outlined by researchers such as Michael Polanyi, Allan Janik and Gilbert Ryle.

    Background: Learning has been a prominent issue within the PE research for quite some time. Overviews of research show that the object of learning, the ‘what-aspect’ within the didactic triangle, has been taken into account, though the obvious focus is the ‘how-aspect’, as in how learning occurs. In PE, the ‘what-aspect’, according to teachers as well as pupils, is vague, and the aim of the subject is expressed in terms of ‘fun-aspects’ rather than ‘what-aspects’. Taking a standpoint from research concerning aims, content and important knowledge in PE in Sweden, with reference to international research, this article will shed light upon physical activity as a taken-for-granted content, conceptualized either as an instrument for fulfilling the demands of the contemporary health-discourse or an instrument for performing well in sports. In doing this, the article will argue for the urgent need of explicating what capabilities students are supposed to develop in PE.

    Key concepts: The concept of knowledge in relation to PE will be discussed. Drawing on Janik's discussion of the epistemological structure of practical professional knowledge, emphasizing the importance of making the base of knowledge explicit, capability to move will be regarded as an object of learning, a possible ‘what-aspect’, in PE. To overcome the boundaries between practical and theoretical knowledge, Polanyi's concept knowing will be used. Conceiving knowings as embracing several aspects of knowledge as well as comprising both mental and physical processes, knowings in human movement will be elaborated.

    Conclusion: As our initial overview of research about ways of reasoning about knowledge and learning in PE suggested, there is an imminent need to systematically develop a language for learning in PE where what to learn, the specific knowings that PE is nurturing, is paramount, and where this ‘what’ is not reduced to superficial knowledge about health issues or physical skills. We believe that exploring the ‘knowing how’ aspect of learning will highlight potential ‘knowings’ in human movement. Following the concept ‘knowing’ as in line with Ryle's ‘knowing how’, not separating mental and physical skills, can serve as an analytical tool and a starting point for articulating examples of ‘knowings’ as objects of learning and thus providing opportunities to conceptualize human movement in terms of knowing and learning.

  • 29.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    PE teachers' content knowledge of capability to move2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, there has been much debate within Swedish physical education teacher education (PETE) about ‘what a physical education teacher should know' (Backman and Larsson, 2014), or put differently, what content knowledge is useful to teachers in the school subject physical education and health (PEH). This debate is related to a discussion about the purpose of PEH in schools and, importantly, what the role of movement is in PEH. In particular, this discussion has revolved around what students are supposed to learn from participating in PEH (Nyberg and Larsson, 2014).

    Recent research has shown that the dominating PEH cultures do not emphasize systematic work with specific learning objects such as for example learning movements (Larsson and Karlefors, 2015). One possible reason for this is that PEH teachers lack the necessary content knowledge. Thus, the purpose of this article is to explore PEH teachers' content knowledge of students' capability to move. This issue will be explored through analyzing what teachers have to say about moving students in interviews, in part while viewing video recorded PEH lessons.

    The empirical data of this study are interviews of eight PEH teachers taken from a larger research project of which the overarching purpose was to explore action in the school subject PEH in Sweden, in particular in relation to issues of knowledge, teaching and learning.

    Shulman's (2004) theorizing on content knowledge was used to encompass the focus of analysis, namely PEH teachers' subject matter content knowledge regarding the capability to move. Further, a phenomenographic analysis was conducted in order to investigate the teachers' different ways of knowing (or conceptualizing or experiencing) capability to move.

    The findings show that among the teachers there were five different ways of knowing capability to move which provide a picture of the teachers' total subject matter content knowledge. Additionally, this multifaceted picture of what capability to move can mean for the teachers contributes, we will argue, to a deeper and differentiated understanding of the phenomenon capability to move in the context of education. Further, we will be able to discuss how teachers' different ways of knowing capability to move may influence the teaching and learning movements and capability to move in PEH.

  • 30.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Physical education teachers' content knowledge of movement capability2017In: Journal of teaching in physical education, ISSN 0273-5024, E-ISSN 1543-2769, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 61-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore physical education (PE) teachers' content knowledge of the emerging concept movement capability. Interviews with eight PE teachers were conducted, partly using a stimulated recall technique which involved watching and commenting on video recorded PE lessons. A phenomenographic analysis was used to outline the different ways of conceptualizing movement capability. Five different ways of conceptualizing movement capability were identified, which indicates the complexity of the concept movement capability. However, the result also provides a structure for developing a systematic and structured way of conceiving movement capability. In this study we have highlighted a multifaceted, nuanced and differentiated picture of movement capability to see moving as educationally valuable. We conclude by emphasizing that movement capability should not be restricted to only its constitutive parts as teachers' plan PE teaching, but should be approached as a whole. © 2017 Human Kinetics, Inc.

  • 31.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan.
    Rörelseförmåga i idrott och hälsa: En bok om rörelse, kunskap och lärande2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I ämnet idrott och hälsa ska eleverna få möjlighet att utveckla sin rörelseförmåga. Men vad är rörelseförmåga egentligen? Innebär det att vara framgångsrik i bollspel, att kunna springa fort eller att behärska en satstagning för en rotation i luften? Genom att ge en bild av vad rörelseförmåga kan vara, hur rörelseförmåga kan utvecklas och vad det kan betyda för elever att röra sig på olika sätt i olika sammanhang, bidrar Rörelseförmåga i idrott och hälsa med tankar och idéer om hur undervisning i ämnet kan utformas. Boken handlar också om hur vi kan utmana normer som påverkar elevers lärande, undervisningens innehåll samt våra föreställningar om vad som räknas som "bra i idrott". Författarna hoppas att boken ska kunna bidra med ett perspektivskifte som utmanar de (ofta outtalade och förgivettagna) kvalitetskrav som etablerade och formaliserade idrotter bär med sig till undervisningen i idrott och hälsa. Boken vänder sig främst till studerande som ska bli lärare i idrott och hälsa samt verksamma lärare, men också till andra som har intresse av undervisning i rörelse och rörelseförmåga

  • 32.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik-och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Exergame - a pedagogical device in movement education?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental dimension in the subject Physical Education (PE) is movement and movement activities. However, there is a lack of discussion, in the context of PE, regarding capability to move in terms of coordinative abilities, body consciousness, educing bodily senses and creating movements (Larsson et al., 2005, 2011; Ekberg 2009,;Redelius et al., 2009; Evans 2004; Shusterman 2004; Whitehead 2005; Kirk 2010, p. 29; Tinning 2010, p. 29).

    Our intention with this presentation is to contribute to a discussion of what capability to move can mean and how this capability can be developed in the context of PE. Our interest focuses on the growing use of exergames as a form of teaching aid in PE (Quennerstedt et al., 2013) and subsequently this study explores these games' potential contribution to teaching and learning capability to move. Many of these games include imitating movements and one argument of using the games in PE, apart from fighting obesity and increasing students' fitness levels, is, according to PE teachers in Sweden, their potential contribution to motor skill acquisition (Meckbach et al., 2013).

    The aim with this study is twofold. Firstly, we will explore a specific dance game's contribution to a group of students' motor skill acquisition. However, our approach to motor skills is in this context described as a theoretical perspective on capability to move as knowing how in line with Ryle (1949), including both understanding and mastering, thus also challenging the distinction between mental and physical skills. Secondly, having explored the students' knowing when playing the dance game, we will discuss necessary conditions for developing capability to move and the game's potential contribution ‘as a teacher' in relation to the potential contribution of a PE-teacher.

    The data used in this study comprises video recordings of students playing Nintendo Wii dance games in PE-lessons. In order to conduct a systematic and thorough analysis of the students' knowing in moving two video sequences were chosen, showing four students imitating two distinct dance movements which constituted the base for a phenomenographic analysis. The result of the analysis showed different ways of knowing the movements and also what aspects were discerned by the students. This structure of awareness constituted a starting point for a discussion of necessary conditions for learning the movements in more complex ways thus also the potential contributions of the game ‘as a teacher' in relation to a PE teacher.

  • 33.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik-och idrottshögskolan Stockholm.
    Exergames ‘as a teacher’ of movement education: exploring knowing in moving when playing dance games in physical education2017In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental dimension of school physical education (PE) is arguably movement and movement activities. However, there is a lack of discussion in the context of PE regarding what can be called the capability to move in terms of coordinative abilities, body consciousness and educing bodily senses.

    Purpose: This article explores and articulates what there is to know, from the mover’s perspective, when knowing how to move in specific ways when playing exergames (dance games). Taking different ways of moving as expressing different ways of knowing as a point of departure, the following questions are the focus of this article: i) How do students move when imitating movements in a dance game, and what different ways of knowing the movements can be described in the student group? ii) What aspects of the movements are discerned simultaneously through the different ways of knowing the movements? and iii) What aspects seem critical for the students to discern and experience in order to know the movements in as complex a way as possible?

    Design and analysis: The theoretical point of departure concerns an epistemological perspective on the capability to move as knowing how with no distinction between physical and mental skills, and also knowing as experiencing aspects of something to know. The data in this study comprises video recordings of students playing Nintendo Wii dance games in PE lessons in a compulsory school (for children aged between 7 and 16) in a small Swedish town. There were three PE lessons with four different stations, of which one was Nintendo Wii dance games (Just Dance 1 and 2). In total, the videoed material covers three 60-minute PE lessons, recorded during the autumn of 2012 and in which just over twenty students participated. In the study, we have used video observation as a data collection method. Jordan and Henderson (1995, 51) maintain that video observation removes the gap between ‘what people say they do and what they, in fact, do’. To conduct a systematic and thorough analysis of how the students experienced the avatar’s movements, we looked for moments where all the students and the avatar could be simultaneously observed. Two video sequences were chosen, showing four students imitating two distinct and defined movements which constituted the basis for a phenomenographic analysis.

    Conclusion: The result of the phenomenographic analysis shows different ways of knowing the movements as well as what aspects are discerned and experienced simultaneously by the students. In other words, these aspects also describe knowing in terms of discerning, discriminating and differentiating aspects of ways of moving. By examining a certain exergame’s role ‘as a teacher’, we have emphasized the capability to move, from the mover’s perspective, as an intrinsic educational goal of PE while highlighting the need for systematically planning movement education.   

  • 34.
    Rönnqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Larsson, Håkan
    Gymnastik och idrottshögskolan.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Sport and Health Science.
    Barker, Dean
    Örebro universitet.
    Understanding learners’ sense making of movement learning in physical education2019In: Curriculum studies in Health and Physical Education, ISSN 2574-2981, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a substantial body of physical education scholarship focusing on movement learning. The question of how pupils themselves make sense of movement learning has however, largely escaped attention. Answers to such a question would seem to be highly germane if educators are to engage in pupil centered pedagogies. In light of this absence, the aim of this investigation was to describe how movement learners made sense of their own movement development. Drawing on theoretical tenets of Gilbert Ryle (2009. The concept of mind. New York, NY: Routledge) and Michael Polanyi (1969. Knowing and being. Essays by Michael Polanyi . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press), three cases from an investigation in which movement learning was occurring are presented. The investigation was conducted during a physical education project week with pupils from an upper secondary school. Data were produced using observations, informal interviews, semi-structured interviews, and research diaries as a group of pupils learned to juggle. The results suggest that: the aspects of moving to which learners attend change as they learn; learners have a relatively limited capacity to verbally articulate what they learn, and; learners ’ expectations of ideal ways of moving have considerable impact on how they come to make sense of their own ways of moving. The practical implications of these points are discussed in the final section of the paper.

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