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  • 1.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Umeå university.
    CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2017Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 193-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960–2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bidirectional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

  • 2.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    CO2 Emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data sets spanning the period 1960-2008: one for 150 countries and the others for sub-samples comprising OECD and Non-OECD economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries

  • 3.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Economic growth and environmental quality: an econometric and a decomposition analysis2007Ingår i: Management of environmental quality, ISSN 1477-7835, E-ISSN 1758-6119, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 568-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the emissions of CO2 in Italy during 1861 to 2002.The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) is applied to explore the relationship between CO2 emissionand Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. An Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA) is also appliedto investigate changes in emissions between 1990 to 2002. Several factors contribute to change in theemission of CO2. These factors generally include a scale effect, a technological effect and a compositioneffect.

    Design/methodology/approach – The main discussion in the paper is about the exiting of EKC in Italy and how a decomposition analysis can be used to look behind the time series of the environmentalaccounts.

    Findings – The findings in the paper indicate the typical inverted “U” form of EKC is not confirmedwith our data set for Italy. According our econometric results, there is a positive relationship betweeneconomic growth and CO2; following the trend, the maximum emission of CO2 per capita in Italy wouldbe reached when the GDP per capita will be about 26900 US$ (turning point). Basically, two majorforces have determined the increase of CO2 pollution in Italy over time: eco-efficiency (pollution permonetary unit of output) and volume effect (volume growth of Value Added).

    Practical implications – The decomposition method performed in this paper allows us to analysewhich sectors are responsible for CO2 emissions and quantify the magnitude of the theoretical factorsexpected to influence the emission. The method used for the decomposition analysis can also beapplied by countries with lack of time series Input-Output data.

    Originality/value – The investigation in the paper of the existing of EKC allows to know at whichlevel of income the CO2 emissions will start decreasing in Italy. The analysis is based on a long timeseries (141 years). Decomposition analysis can be considered a tool, which helps to detect whether theincrease of CO2 is mainly due to economic growth or technological change.

  • 4.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Essays on growth and environment2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

    Paper [I] Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. We also illustrate by presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, showing that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

    Paper [II] This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and Non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

    Paper [III] Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their growth rates differ, whether their growth rates tend to converge, and what key factors contribute to explain economic growth. This paper deals with the average income growth, net migration, and changes in unemployment rates at the municipal level in Sweden. The aim is to explore in depth the effects of possible underlying determinants with a particular focus on local policy variables. The analysis is based on a three-equation model. Our results show, among other things, that increases in the local public expenditure and income taxe rate have negative effects on subsequent income income growth. In addition, the results show conditional convergence, i.e. that the average income among the municipal residents tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

    Paper [IV] This paper explores the relationship between income growth and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model, where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper part of the income distribution) are examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality in the upper part of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality in the lower part of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the income growth. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in municipalities with a low level of average income.

  • 5.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Growth and Inequality: A study of Swedish municipalities2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between the growth rate of the average income and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper ends of the income distribution) are also examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality, measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality at the upper end of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality at the lower end of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the growth rate. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in those with a low level of average income.

  • 6.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Navigare2017Ingår i: Navigare 75 / [ed] Pagine S.r.L., Rome, Italy: Pagine S.r.L. , 2017, s. 7-7Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [it]

    Per Navigare servono coordinate geografiche, abilità, esperienza e una certa dose di coraggio. Non così differente è il mestiere del poeta; un autore deve infatti essere in grado di affrontare ed evidenziare, attraverso la sua scrittura, la gioia e il dolore del vivere. Arduo dunque è il suo compito. Tra burrasche indomabili e mostri mitologici, come ci insegna la letteratura, ogni navigante vorrebbe scrutare col suo sguardo l’orizzonte per gridare: «Terra!», sia essa il sinonimo geografico di un nuovo luogo da scoprire, sia essa il sinonimo visivo di un insperato quanto voluto ritorno a casa. A ogni autore presente nella collana è stato chiesto di scavalcare le proprie astratte colonne d’Ercole per tracciare un personale diario di bordo poetico, un metodo per definire i pensieri più intimi e i vissuti più reconditi; un modo per esporre il proprio mare dentro, affinché si possa essere degli Ulisse nel e del mondo contemporaneo.

  • 7.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Giannantoni, Corrado
    ENEA (National agency for new technologies, Energy and sustainable economic development)).
    A new approach to future energy strategies based on GDP2000Ingår i: 2nd International Workshop "Advances in Energy Studies, Exploring Supplies, Constriants, and Strategies" / [ed] Prof Sergio Ulgiati, SGE Editoriali, Padova, 2000, s. 397-408Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University.
    Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalities2013Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

  • 9.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Econometric Estimation of Energy Demand2017Ingår i: Energy futures, environment and well-being / [ed] Sergio Ulgiati and Laura Vanoli, 2017, s. 547-556Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a relatively simple procedure to examine the responsiveness of energy demand to measures of economic activity and electricity price. We estimate the demand function for electricity both for households and for industry in 29 countries, mainly European countries, in the last 10 years, using a panel aggregate data.

    Preliminary results suggest, as expected, that price has a negative significant effect on the electricity consumption. This is the case for both households and industry level for the same sample of countries. Our results also suggest that short-run elasticity of electricity consumption with respect to aggregate output seems to have been stable and unit elastic during the last decade. Moreover, price elasticity is more elastic and more stable in the industry sector than households are.

  • 10.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys. Dalarna University.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys. Dalarna University.
    Household and industrial electricity demand in Europe2018Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 122, s. 592-600Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the electricity demand, and its determinants, in 29 European countries during the liberalization of the electricity market. Based on panel data for these countries for the years 1995–2015 and using a dynamic partial adjustment model, price elasticities are estimated for both residential and industrial electricity demand. These elasticities and effects of other variables on electricity consumption are estimated using both GMM (generalized method of moments) and ML (maximum likelihood) approaches. It is found that the price elasticities are very small, especially in the short run, while the income elasticities are relatively large, especially for households and in the long run.

  • 11.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Perman, Karin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Policy instruments to improve energy efficiency in buildings2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The newly adopted energy efficiency directive (2012/27/EU) highlights the importance of energy efficiency in reaching the Union’s 2020 targets. The directive commits member states to defining national energy efficiency targets (art. 3), achieving yearly energy savings of 1.5% of the annual energy sales through the energy efficiency obligation scheme (art. 7), and providing a long-term strategy for the building sector that aims at a 3% refurbishment rate for public buildings (art. 4+5). Buildings currently account for 40% of energy use in most countries, putting them among the largest end-use sectors.

    This report takes a closer look at the best practices for implementing increasing energy efficiency in different regions and countries in Europe. The final aim is to identify some policy tools to be suggested to the region of Dalarna (Dalarna having been chosen as the pilot county in Sweden) as a means of implementing energy efficiency in the building sector. The final objective is to give analysts and decision-makers a better analytical foundation to explore future policy development in the area of buildings to be proposed and tested at the regional level in Dalarna and later at the national level in Sweden.

  • 12.
    Ghisellini, Patrizia
    et al.
    Alama Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Ulgiati, Sergio
    Parthenope University of Naples, Bejiing Normal University.
    A review on circular economy: the expected transition to a balanced interplay of environmental and economic systems2016Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 114, s. 11-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years Circular Economy (CE) is receiving increasing attention worldwide as a way to overcome the current production and consumption model based on continuous growth and increasing resource throughput. By promoting the adoption of closing-the-loop production patterns within an economic system CE aims to increase the efficiency of resource use, with special focus on urban and industrial waste, to achieve a better balance and harmony between economy, environment and society. This study provides an extensive review of the literature of last two decades, with the purpose of grasping the main CE features and perspectives: origins, basic principles, advantages and disadvantages, modelling and implementation of CE at the different levels (micro, meso and macro) worldwide.

    Results evidence that CE origins are mainly rooted in ecological and environmental economics and industrial ecology. In China CE is promoted as a top-down national political objective while in other areas and countries as European Union, Japan and USA it is a tool to design bottom-up environmental and waste management policies. The ultimate goal of promoting CE is the decoupling of environmental pressure from economic growth. The implementation of CE worldwide still seems in the early stages, mainly focused on recycle rather than reuse. Important results have been achieved in some activity sectors (e.g. in waste management, where large waste recycling rates are achieved in selected developed countries). CE implies the adoption of cleaner production patterns at company level, an increase of producers and consumers responsibility and awareness, the use of renewable technologies and materials (wherever possible) as well as the adoption of suitable, clear and stable policies and tools. The lesson learned from successful experiences is that the transition towards CE comes from the involvement of all actors of the society and their capacity to link and create suitable collaboration and exchange patterns. Success stories also point out the need for an economic return on investment, in order to provide suitable motivation to companies and investors. In summary, the CE transition has just started. Moreover, the interdisciplinary framework underpinning CE offers good prospects for gradual improvement of the present production and consumption models, no longer adequate because of their environmental load and social inequity, a clear indicator of resource use inefficiency

  • 13. Giannantoni, Corrado
    et al.
    Cialani, Catia
    University of Florida.
    Mansueti, Alberto
    “G. D’Annunzio” University, Pescara.
    Analysis of investments based on the trilateral externality approach (firm, citizen, state)2002Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 2, nr 1-2, s. 27-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Trilateral Externality Approach takes its origin from a several year integration activity of various evaluation methodologies (Energetic, Exergetic, Emergetic, Economic, etc.) and aims at giving a rigorous synthesis of such an integration process in the context of Neo-Classical Economics through the fundamental category of externality, in its extensive and intensive meaning.

    After having shown the different (but complementary) perspectives of elaborating a unifying concept of externality (bottom-up and top-down approaches), the paper presents a limited set of synthetic Indicators for possible strategies of investment (at a regional and national level). An example of application devoted to Hydrogen technologies will show how renewable (or “equipollent”) Sources are already widely “competitive” with respect to fossil fuel technologies, obviously if analyzed in the light of such a general evaluation approach, which involves a unique trilateral relationship between firm, citizen and state.

    In this context it will be thus much easier to show why the so-called “incentives” (in their several different possible forms) are nothing but a “remuneration” of positive externalities that a firm produces in favor of the collectivity, whereas the state recuperates such “incentives” because of a consequential increase in economic activities induced by those primary externalities, in a non-zero sum global process.

  • 14.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    A Food Price Volatility Model for Country Risk Classification2018Ingår i: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision makers require risk models which satisfies their preferences in decision making processes. A methodological approach to presenting a decision model that satisfies the preferences of the decision maker and aids the decision maker to classify countries into crisis groups based on the price volatility of food staple criteria is discussed in this paper. The price volatility of food staples is obtained from time series plots and a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis method, the UTilitdditives DIScriminantes (UTADIS) classification methodological framework is applied on the price volatility data to develop a food price volatility classification model which suits the decision maker’s preferences. The methodological framework is better applied in this paper by aiding the decision maker to make informed judgements on the price volatility of food staples in predefining their risk classes. This introduces efficiency in the application of the methodological classification framework, by reducing to the barest minimum level, the misclassification errors between the decision makers preferred classification and the UTADIS method’s classification which estimates the utility function or classification model and the utility threshold or cut-off points which would classify the country alternatives into their authentic or original classes with the execution of the methodological framework just once. The resulting utility function or classification model is thus accurate enough to satisfy the preferences of the decision maker in classifying future datasets.

  • 15.
    Laryea, Rueben
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Nyberg, Roger G.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Informatik.
    Sensitivity analysis of a risk classification model for food price volatility2018Ingår i: International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, ISSN 1466-8297, E-ISSN 1741-5241, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 374-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A sensitivity analysis to vary the weights of an accurate predictive classification model to produce a mixed model for ranking countries on the risk of food price volatility is carried out in this paper. The classification model is a marginal utility function consisting of multiple criteria. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to derive a mixed model to be used in ranking of country alternatives to aid in policy formulation. Since in real-life situations the data that goes into decision making could be subjected to possibilities of alterations over time, it is essential to aid decision makers to vary the weights of the criteria using both subjective and objective information to introduce imprecision and to generate relative values of the criteria with a scale to form a mixed model. The mixed model can be used to rank future relative alternative value data sets for policy formulation.

  • 16.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Factors Influencing International Tourists' Length Of Overnight Stay In Venice2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Mortazavi, Reza
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    International tourists’ length of overnight stay in Venice2017Ingår i: Tourism Economics, ISSN 1354-8166, E-ISSN 2044-0375, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 882-889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study concerns factors influencing international tourists’ length of overnight stay in Venice. The data are from a survey conducted by the Bank of Italy on international tourism. Both zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) and ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are estimated. In general, the estimates from ZTNB and OLS regressions are similar. The results suggest that age, returning directly to the country of residence and the summer season have a positive influence on the length of stay. On the other hand, international tourist expenditure and visiting other places than Venice have a negative impact on the length of stay. Moreover, the average length of overnight stays differs among nationalities and those who have visited Venice previously tend, on average, to stay longer. One finding is that visitors from North America and Australia stay longer and spend more than visitors coming from neighbouring countries.

  • 18.
    Poppi, Stefano
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Energiteknik.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Hengel, Franz
    Cheze, David
    Mojic, Igor
    Cialani, Catia
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Nationalekonomi.
    Analysis of system improvements in solar thermal and air source heat pump combisystems2016Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 173, s. 606-623Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A solar thermal and heat pump combisystem is one of many system alternatives on the market for supplying domestic hot water (DHW) and space heating (SH) in dwellings. In this study a reference solar thermal and air source heat pump combisystem was defined and modelled based on products available on the market. Based on the results of an extensive literature survey, several system variations were investigated to show the influence of heat pump cycle, thermal storage and system integration on the use of electricity for two houses in the climates of Zurich and Carcassonne. A singular economic cash flow analysis was carried out and the “additional investment limit” of each system variation was determined for a range of economic boundary conditions. This is the maximum extra investment cost for the system variant compared to the reference system that will give a break even result for a 10 year period. The results show that variations in electricity price affects the additional investment limit far more than the other economic parameters. Several of the variants show potential for achieving a cost benefit, but the potential varies a lot depending on load and climate boundary conditions. For all variants, the biggest difference in electricity savings was found for Zurich rather than in Carcassonne, which is explained by the larger heating load. However, in three cases the largest savings were for the SFH45 house despite the fact that the annual electricity use of the system is much lower than that for the SFH100 house, 3581 kW h/year compared to 8340 kW h/year. This was attributed to the fact that, in these cases, the operating level of the space heating circuit played a significant role, the SFH45 house being supplied with a 35/30 °C heating system while the SFH100 was supplied with a 55/45 °C heating system.

  • 19.
    Thomas, Aronsson
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Econ, Umea, Sweden .
    Cialani, Catia
    Umea Univ, Dept Econ, Umea, Sweden .
    Löfgren, Karl-Gustaf
    Umea Univ, Dept Econ, Umea, Sweden .
    Genuine saving and the social cost of taxation2012Ingår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 96, nr 1-2, s. 211-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. By presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, we also show that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

  • 20.
    Ulgiati, Sergio
    et al.
    Parthenope University of Naples.
    Cialani, Catia
    Environmental and Thermodynamic Indicators in Support of Fair and Sustainable Policy Making - Investigating Equitable Trade among Latvia, Denmark and Italy2006Ingår i: Sustainable Development in the Baltic and Beyond / [ed] Leal Filho, Walter / Ubelis, Arnolds / Berzina, Dina (eds.), Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2006Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical framework and a case study for equitable trade policies based on Emergy Synthesis (Odum, 1996,Brown and Ulgiati, 2004)) is presented in this paper, aimed at integrating monetary evaluation and measures in supportof more comprehensive trade balance between countries, for equity and international stability. The paper stems from therecognition that the economic growth of developed countries is very often based on the depletion of primary resourcestorages of developing countries, not adequately compensated in trade dynamics in terms of real wealth exchanged. Oneof the basic principles of the emergy systems perspective is that wealth relies on availability and good use of resources,not on money in itself. Evaluating international trade and net benefit from investments using only the inflows andoutflows of currency often shows a monetary balance of payments but disregards the inflows and outflows of resources.Since resources have different quality and therefore different ability to drive an economic process and providewealth, accounting for quality and ensuring a balanced resource exchange is very important for trade to be beneficial toboth partner countries. In this paper, the Authors investigate in emergy terms the economic performance of Latvia,Denmark and Italy, and then calculate the emergy exchange ratios associated to global trade as well as to selectedproducts traded among these countries. Results show that Denmark has the highest advantage from bilateral trade withLatvia and Italy, and Latvia the lowest. The reasons can be identified in the high emergy/GDP ratio of Latvia as well asin the fact that Latvian exports mainly rely on primary resources, while Italian and Danish exports basically consist ofmanufactured goods and commodities. The Authors underline the importance of good trade partnership and call forpolicy measures for implementation of equitable trade pattern.

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