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  • 1.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Messing, Jan
    Metallindustrin i Sverige 2007-20112013Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bjerre, Bo
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Selén, Jan
    Statistiska Centralbyrån.
    Positive health-care effects of an alcohol ignition interlock programme among driving while impaired (DWI) offenders2007In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 102, no 11, p. 1771-1781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To compare the costs of hospital care and sick leave/disability pensions between two groups of driving while impaired (DWI) offenders: participants in an alcohol ignition interlock programme (AIIP) and controls with revoked licences, but with no comparable opportunity to participate in an AIIP. Setting: As an alternative to licence revocation DWI offenders can participate in a voluntary 2-year AIIP permitting the offender to drive under strict regulations entailing regular medical check-ups. The participants are forced to alter their alcohol habits and those who cannot demonstrate sobriety are dismissed from the programme. Participants: are liable for all costs themselves. Design: Quasi-experimental, with a non-equivalent control group used for comparison; intent-to-treat design. Based on the number of occasions/days in hospital and on sick leave/disability pension, the health-care costs for public insurance have been calculated. Finding: Average total health-care costs were 25% lower among AIIP participants (1156 individuals) than among controls (815 individuals) during the 2-year treatment period. This corresponds to over €1000 (SEK9610) less annual costs per average participant. For those who complete the 2-year programme the cost reduction was more pronounced; 37% during the treatment and 20% during the post-treatment period. Conclusions: The positive health-care effects were due apparently to reduced alcohol consumption. The social benefit of being allowed to drive while in the AIIP may also have contributed. The reduction in health-care costs was significant only during the 2-year treatment period, but among those who completed the entire AIIP sustained effects were also observed in the post-treatment period. The effects were comparable to those of regular alcoholism treatment programmes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  • 3.
    Hassis, Linnea
    et al.
    Dalarnas Forskningsråd.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarnas Forskningsråd.
    Lärande för hållbar utveckling: ett skolutvecklingsprojekt med femton skolor från sju kommuner i Dalarna, slutrapport2010Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kostela, Johan
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Electrochemical Behavior of Redox Molecules in Michelles and in a Bicontinous Cubic Phase2003Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Utveckling av kontaktmannaskap: Utvärdering av ett utvecklingsprojekt inom Kompetensstegen i Bollnäs kommun2009Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Bjerre, Bo
    Trafikverket.
    Primary prevention of drink driving by the large-scale use of alcolocks in commercial vehicles2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 1294-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcolocks are commercial breath test devices that prevent a motor vehicle from starting when a driver's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is elevated. This report is an evaluation of the experiences and BAC data from the first use of alcolocks in commercial vehicles as a primary prevention strategy. In most applications, the alcolock is imposed only after an impaired driving conviction. This study, implemented in Sweden, estimates drink driving on a large scale in a variety of commercial vehicles.

    Officials from 118 companies were interviewed representing 3689 alcolock-equipped vehicles used by 9614 professional drivers, an 80% compliance rate. In a contrast group of 230 transport businesses without alcolocks the interview compliance rate was 57%. Survey results probed motivation for and experience with alcolocks. Analysis of BAC test patterns showed alcohol consumption among employees through prevalence estimates of drink-driving attempts at the rate of BAC ≥ the legal limit 0.020%.

    Before alcolock installation, 64% of the employers suspected alcohol problems among their employees and their motive for installing alcolocks (cost averaged 1700 €/vehicle) was to improve the transport quality. Several companies had technical problems with the alcolocks; but 98% recommended that other companies install alcolocks.

    Among 600, heavy vehicles, 0.19% of all starts were prevented by elevated BAC; most during weekends and mornings. Daytime Saturday and Sunday mornings 0.72% of the drivers had elevated BAC.

    Conclusions

    The prevalence of drink driving among professional drivers is probably similar to that among drivers in general. Alcolocks would improve the safety margin and reduce public risk. Provided that the entire fleet of trucks, buses, and taxis in Sweden had installed alcolocks that would correspond to about half a million drink driving trips being prevented every year.

  • 7.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Almgren, Mats
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Electrochemical properties and diffusion of a redox active surfactant incorporated in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phase2005In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 50, no 16-17, p. 3333-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to investigate the electrochemical behaviour of the divalent redox active surfactant, N-cetyl-N′-methylviologen (CMV), in bicontinuous cubic and lamellar phases. The liquid crystalline phases were prepared from the system glycerolmonooleate (GMO)–water (and brine)–cationic surfactant. A comparison of the phase behaviour of GMO with the monovalent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the divalent CMV surfactant showed that the surfactants gave about the same effect at the same surface charge density. The electrochemical measurements were made with a mixture of CTAB and CMV as the surfactant. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemistry of CMV incorporated in the cubic and lamellar phases that were spread on a gold electrode. The E0-values in the cubic samples were more negative (−0.55 V versus SCE) than in the lamellar samples (−0.53 V versus SCE). This can be explained by the higher charge density in the lamellar phase. The diffusion coefficients were also measured in the cubic phase. The mass transport is slowed down about fifty times in the cubic phase compared to in the pure electrolyte. The concentration dependence on the diffusion coefficient was also investigated. No electron hopping could be observed, which suggest that diffusional movement of the redox probe is the main source of charge transport. By placing the samples on a conducting glass slide, spectroelectrochemical investigations were performed. In the lamellar phase strong dimerization was detected at high concentration of viologen, but much less in the cubic phase.

  • 8.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hansson, Per
    Uppsala universitet.
    Almgren, Mats
    Uppsala universitet.
    Electrochemical properties of an amphiphilic viologen in differently charged micelles2002In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 0022-0728, E-ISSN 1873-2569, Vol. 536, no 1-2, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical properties of N-tetradecyl-N′-methylviologen (TMV) in differently charged micelles were studied with a glassy carbon electrode using electrochemical techniques. The redox potential varied depending on the charge of the surrounding surfactants. When the viologen was situated in cationic micelles the redox potential for the 2+/1+ reaction was more positive than when situated in negatively charged micelles. The non-ionic micelles destabilised the 2+-state most showing the highest redox potentials. From studies of several different cationic micelles it was concluded that the most important parameter for the redox potential was the surface charge density. A calculation based on a simple model confirmed this. Other interactions also influenced the stability of the redox states. Adsorption, desorption and reorganisation of the surfactants at the electrode surface caused capacitive currents. To control the nonfaradaic current, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used in addition to cyclic voltammetry.

  • 9.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Elmgren, Maja
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Kadi, Mari
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Almgren, Mats
    Redox activity and diffusion of hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic redox active molecules in a bicontinuous cubic phase2005In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B, ISSN 1520-6106, Vol. 109, no 11, p. 5073-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Tydén, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    FoU i kommuner, landsting och regioner: Delrapport tre från IKA-projektet2010Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Tydén, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Varför sjukskrivs det så olika? Sjukskrivningsmönster vid Dalarnas vårdcentraler.2006Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies. Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Welin, Bengt
    Konsekvensanalyser av service. Servicefrågan i den kommunala planeringsprocessen2011Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    McKee, Kevin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Stockholm University; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Five years from now: Correlates of older people’s expectation of future quality of life2014In: Age Well - Challenges for Individuals and Society: Program 22nd Nordic Congress of Gerontology Gothenburg 25-28 May, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have explored older people’s expected future quality of life (QoL), despite evidence that perceptions of one’s future influence healthy ageing. Research on this topic should embrace a range of potential influences, including perceptions of one’s neighbourhood and region. This study examined expected QoL in a random sample of the population of Dalarna, a Swedish region. A self-completion questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics, current neighbourhood and regional evaluations, self-evaluations, expectations for the future, and current and expected QoL.  In total, 786 people aged ≥ 65 years participated. Current QoL was favourably evaluated, and while expected QoL also received a positive assessment, the mean value for expected QoL was notably lower than that for current QoL (t(755)=24.06, p<.05). Indeed, only 3.6% (n=27) of participants rated their expected QoL higher than their current QoL. A sequential multiple regression model explained 44% of the variance in older people’s expected QoL. Nine IVs were significant (p<.05) in the final model of expected QoL: current QoL (1% unique variance explained), age (1%), education level (1%), Regional Development Beliefs (1%), Perceived Regional Status (2%), self-reported health (3%), social influence (1%), Expected Regional Opportunity (3%) and expected change in housing need (1%). Our findings establish the significance of an older person’s perception of their locality for their expected future QoL. Policies that focus only on individual and relational factors for the promotion of healthy ageing are overlooking the potential contribution of an older person’s connection to their neighbourhood and region.

  • 14.
    McKee, Kevin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Social Work. Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University.
    Five years from now: Correlates of older people’s expectation of future quality of life2015In: Research on Aging, ISSN 0164-0275, E-ISSN 1552-7573, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 18-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have explored older people’s expected future quality of life (QoL), despite evidence that perceptions of one’s future influence healthy ageing. Research on this topic should embrace a range of potential influences, including perceptions of one’s neighbourhood and region. This study examined expected QoL in a random sample of the population of Dalarna, a Swedish region. A self-completion questionnaire assessed demographic characteristics, current neighbourhood and regional evaluations, self-evaluations, expectations for the future, and current and expected QoL. In total, 786 people aged ≥ 65 years participated. A sequential multiple regression model explained 44% of the variance in older people’s expected QoL, with self-reported health (sr2=.03), Expected Regional Opportunity (sr2=.03), and Perceived Regional Status (sr2=.02) having the strongest associations with expected QoL. Research on the importance of one’s neighbourhood to QoL in older people should encompass people’s perceptions of their region, to better inform social policy for healthy ageing.

  • 15.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Dalarna University.
    Design Matters for the Role of the University in a Regional Innovation System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of a university in an innovation system can take on various forms. The design of that role depends on how the university enters into collaboration with other parties in the innovation system, and how they all contribute to this design. Here, we apply a social system’s design perspective, and point out some key issues and aspects that should be considered if the role of universities is to be purposefully designed, rather than formed ad hoc.

    The purpose of such a design would be to support a wide scope of mutual benefits for the university and its collaborators – a “maximum output” from the engagement. The aim here is to point out concrete matters for the system’s designer(s) to consider, in order to create a role for the university in the innovation system that embraces a range of the university’s assets and capacities. Therefore, we address a number of critical issues and aspects affecting the functioning of the university in regard to an associated regional innovation system. Why these factors are critical will also be discussed.

    The paper stems from a pilot-project, where 16 semi-structured interviews from four (4) different Swedish regions were analysed, including regional innovation system executives, university innovation officers and leaders, as well as university research group leaders. We have analysed the reason why certain issues are critical for success when designing a university’s role in a regional innovation system:

    First, a university's contribution to the support of an innovation system through expertise consultancy and resources require other factors than participation in the innovation process by knowledge involvement does. Second, within the university there is a tendency to make a distinction between the ideation part and the utilisation part of the innovation process: different units at the university tend to show more engagement in different aspects of the process. Third, research commission is at heart for both university researchers and external parties. Fourth, the university comprises multifaceted capacities and potentials to sustain core functions in the innovation processes: as a meeting place; as a strategic knowledge broker; or as a driving force. Fifth, a university’s various networks  is a resource that might be underestimated by external parties. Sixth, much of collaborative innovation is accomplished in smaller units within the university, far from centralised university administration. Centralisation supports the university’s relations to external parties, whereas de-centralised and independent involvement of university units supports direct and efficient collaboration.  

    To maximise the output from the university’s engagement in the innovation system, the university’s role must be designed to distinguish between involvement in, or support of, innovation processes, between internal and external context requirements, and between what functions are suitable for innovation collaboration for different units of the university.

  • 16.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Kostela, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies.
    Saveljeff, Sigrid
    Dalarna University.
    Disjunctive External and Internal Ideas on the University's Role in a Regional Innovation System2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional innovation systems are recurrently presented by model figures. The purpose of such figures is to monitor certain ideas regarding each presented system. The topic of this paper is the role of the University represented through such model figures, and what ideas such figures are created to promote. In analysing the models, a visual communication perspective is paired with network notions.

    The current objective is to discuss what politics can be found behind the idea promotion, when figures created within a university is compared to figures created outside of it. The aim is to clarify core differences between motives underlying the engagement of a university in its associated regional innovation system, by taking on the research question: How should we understand the disjunctions between model imagery on the University’s role in a regional innovation system used by people inside and outside of the University, respectively?

    The research method used in this pilot-project, focusing on the Dalarna region of Sweden, is an analysis of policy documents in combination with interviews. The policy documents come from universities, as well as from other institutions engaged in regional innovation systems. Primarily the model figure of the regional innovation system presented by Region Dalarna (http://www.regiondalarna.se/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Mobilisera-for-tillvaxt-Innovationsarbete-och-smart-specialisering.pdf [p.18]) is compared to Dalarna University’s model figure of its regional collaboration self-understanding (https://www.du.se/sv/Samverkan/Lägesrapport och slutrapport – Förstudie Högskolan Dalarnas roll i det regionala innovationssystemet.pdf [p.11]), and analysed in regard to policy documents on the Dalarna innovation system. Semi-structured interviews are also made with regional innovation system executives, university innovation officers and leaders, as well as university research group leaders, 14 interviews in total, spread across four (4) different Swedish regions.

    The results are several: there are commonalities in the understanding of the university’s role in the Dalarna innovation system, inside and outside of Dalarna University, but also several disjunctions:

    (1)   It is a common understanding that there could be cooperation between the university and others based on research, and/or through education.

    (2)   One disjunction regard whether the university should act as one centrally organized hub for such collaboration, or function through a more scattered and self-organized set of units, in accordance with specific knowledge areas, where collaboration takes place.

    (3)   Another disjunction appears concerning the university’s role in regard to innovation, whether it should be expected to be involved in the very innovation processes, or be an external part in support of innovation by providing resources and expertise for those that innovate.

    (4)   A third disjunction concerns the university’s regional engagement, whether its prime efforts should be focused inwards the region, or if it is more important to function as a network provider and facilitator towards other regions as well as globally.

    (5)   The fourth encountered disjunction regards weather the university should take on the intermediating role as a (strategic) knowledge broker that connects and encourages parties to innovation collaboration, or, yet again, the active role as the (leading) driving force in collective innovation processes, covering entire strategic areas of intervention.

    (6)   A more delicate disjunction, the fifth, is the different views on knowledge, where the external expectations on the university is to deliver configured pieces of knowledge, from research or education, ready to exploit into innovation and business, whereas the university’s internal understanding is that knowledge should be developed during the collaborative process, jointly with the external parties.

    The implications of these results are that (1) the common attitude of the possibility for the university to be involved in the regional innovation system which constitutes the vital starting point for such involvement to be achieved in a systematic and meaningful way. The disjunctions are in that sense topics for negotiation: (2) how much the university should centralize its innovation system involvement must be balanced against the benefits of free and active collaboration with external parties on the level of units and individuals within the organization; (3) to what degree supportive functions for an innovation system should be expected from a university, or from others, and what actual innovation activities the university should be involved in, or not; (4) weather the university should have a more operative engagement within the region, or rather emphasize its capacity as a bridge towards other regions and countries through its networks; (5) in what regards it is useful that the university has a more strategic or leading role in terms of broking knowledge, or driving innovation processes; and (6) what are the goals and terms of collaboration – exploitation of existing knowledge or mutual development of new knowledge?

    We see, as the main outcomes of this study, that the outset for a university to engage in the regional innovation system is affirmative, when involvement is recognized as possible in both research and education, from within as well as from outside the university. The existing disjunctions regarding a university’s role in the innovation system, though, present a challenge for negotiation, which, if not taken seriously, risks a collapse of collaborations and a failure of the involvement.

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