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  • 1.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Att dela barnens öde2011In: Utbildning som medborgerlig rättighet: Föräldrarätt eller barns rätt eller ...? / [ed] Tomas Englund, Göteborg: Daidalos , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Difficulties of the Will: Philosophy of education through children's literature2016In: Philosophy and Theory in Educational Research: Writing in the Margin / [ed] Amanda Fulford, Naomi Hodgson, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 74-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Dissonant Voices: Philosophy, Children's Literature, and Perfectionist Education2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissonant Voices has a twofold aspiration. First, it is a philosophical treatment of everyday pedagogical interactions between children and their elders, between teachers and pupils. More specifically it is an exploration of the possibilities to go on with dissonant voices that interrupt established practices – our attunement – in behaviour, practice and thinking. Voices that are incomprehensible or expressions that are unacceptable, morally or otherwise. The text works on a tension between two inclinations: an inclination to wave off, discourage, or change an expression that is unacceptable or unintelligible; and an inclination to be tolerant and accept the dissonant expression as doing something worthwhile, but different.

    The second aspiration is a philosophical engagement with children’s literature. Reading children’s literature becomes a form of philosophising, a way to explore the complexity of a range of philosophical issues. This turn to literature marks a dissatisfaction with what philosophy can accomplish through argumentation and what philosophy can do with a particular and limited set of concepts for a subject, such as ethics. It is a way to go beyond philosophising as the founding of theories that justify particular responses. The philosophy of dissonance and children’s literature becomes a way to destabilise justifications of our established practices and ways of interacting.

    The philosophical investigations of dissonance are meant to make manifest the possibilities and risks of engaging in interactions beyond established agreement or attunements. Thinking of the dissonant voice as an expression beyond established practices calls for improvisation. Such improvisations become a perfectionist education where both the child and the elder, the teacher and the student, search for as yet unattained forms of interaction and take responsibility for every word and action of the interaction.

    The investigation goes through a number of picture books and novels for children such as Harry Potter, Garmann’s Summer, and books by Shaun Tan, Astrid Lindgren and Dr. Seuss as well narratives by J.R.R. Tolkien, Henrik Ibsen, Jane Austen and Henry David Thoreau. These works of fiction are read in conversation with philosophical works of, and inspired by, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Stanley Cavell, their moral perfectionism and ordinary language philosophy.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Entangling Education: Messy Knowledge, Philosophical Perplexity, and Learning to Be in Early Childhood2016In: PESA CONFERENCE Conference Proceedings 8 Dec - 12 Dec 2016: Knowledge Ecologies, 2016, p. 121-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins by reading Gunilla Bergström’s picture book How far can Alfons Reach? Abouta child who is perplexed by the beginning and end of personhood. Alfons’ perplexities about hispersonhood leads him to a realization of his intimate entanglement with the world. This story is usedto explore perplexities and entanglements of pre-school children participating in a philosophicalresearch project. Reading Alfons provides ways to understand how these pre-school children’s playinvolves them with philosophical perplexities that shows how they are deeply entangled in the world,and how they use their immediate environment and local practices to philosophize. The children’splays and entanglements are further explored as forms of philosophical exercises that demonstrateddifferent versions of Plato’s cave metaphor. The paper problematizes Badiou’s hyper-translation ofcave metaphor by suggesting Ibsen’s play The Wild Duck as an alternative translation of themetaphor to demonstrate that philosophical perplexities of childhood can serve as both exercises insearch of truth as well as life-lies. The difficulties in children’s philosophizing these readings of thecave illustrate are dissolved in remarks from Wittgenstein where the cave metaphor’s clear cut truthsand falsities merge into a form of messy “knowledge” of ordinary life. Exploring children’sphilosophizing through Alfon’s perplexities, play, and the cave metaphor lead to a philosophicalpedagogy that messes with our understanding of ontology, epistemology and ethics. In our engagementwith these children ontology, epistemology, and ethics becomes an intimate entanglement with theworld, not as a doctrine or a theory, but as a practice of being in the world by turning to the ordinary.In such a practice ontology, epistemology, and ethics, merge into a form of being as acting entangledwith the world and others, a lived philosophy, a philosophical pedagogy that becomes a practice ofliving entangled with children.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Imaginative Learning: Play, Picture Books and Philosophy in Early Childhood2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper (or presentation) is centred on a project in Scandinavian pre-schools and studies ways in which young children brings philosophical themes from picture books into their own play. The paper explores three aspects of learning that goes on in these contexts: First, how children, like recent literary humanist (Harrison 2015, Gaskin 2014, Gibson 2007), can use fiction, as an extra- realistic space, to engage in philosophical investigations and create philosophical experiences about life. Second, the paper account for the role of the non-instrumental ways in which children’s play with themes from the picture books. Third, the paper accounts for ways in which the children in the project play with rather than discuss or systematically explore philosophical themes. This way of philosophizing by playing in fictitious spaces is related to Wittgenstein’s ways of “imagining possibilities” through fictitious examples as a method of making philosophy a form of grammatical investigations (Savickey 2011, 2015). The paper concludes in a discussion of what an epistemology of learning philosophy can consist in by sketching out an epistemology of play emerging in the encounter with children’s play with fictitious themes. Moreover, this epistemological sketch demonstrate how philosophy can inform pedagogical encounters with children’s play readings of literature at the same time as children play with philosophical themes in fictitious spaces transforms the same philosophical accounts. The paper shows how childhood speaks back to philosophy (Kohan 2014).

  • 6.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    ‘In Charge of the Truffula Seeds’: On Children’s Literature, Rationality and Children’s Voices in Philosophy2012In: Philosophy for Children in Transition: Problems and Prospects / [ed] Nancy Vansieleghem and David Kennedy, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell , 2012, p. 190-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    'In Charge of the Truffula Seeds': On Children's Literature, Rationality and Children's Voices in Philosophy2011In: Journal of Philosophy of Education, ISSN 0309-8249, E-ISSN 1467-9752, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I investigate how philosophy can speak for children and how children can have a voice in philosophy and speak for philosophy. I argue that we should understand children as responsible rational individuals who are involved in their own philosophical inquiries and who can be involved in our own philosophical investigations-not because of their rational abilities, but because we acknowledge them as conversational partners, acknowledge their reasons as reasons, and speak for them as well as let them speak for us and our rational community. In order to argue this I turn, first, to Gareth Matthews' philosophy of childhood and suggest a reconstruction of some of his concepts in line with the philosophy of Stanley Cavell. Second, in order to examine more closely our conceptions of rationality and our pictures of children, I consider the children's books, The Lorax and Where is My Sister? and Henrik Ibsen's play, The Wild Duck.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Örebro universitet.
    Killing the Buddha: Towards a heretical philosophy of learning2018In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 61-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how different philosophical models and pictures of learning can become dogmatic and disguise other conceptions of learning. With reference to a passage from St. Paul, I give a sense of the dogmatic teleology that underpins philosophical assumptions about learning. The Pauline assumption is exemplified through a variety of models of learning as conceptualised by Israel Scheffler. In order to show how the Paulinian dogmatism can give rise to radically different pictures of learning, the article turns to St. Augustine’s and Robert Brandom’s examples of language learning, and to general strands in scholarship on moral education. Dewey’s view of childhood immaturity and the problem of adult maturity are used as first attempt at a counter picture to the idea that learning must have an end. The article takes Dewey’s idea further by suggesting how the Zen-Buddhist idea of killing the Buddha and Wittgenstein’s method of destroying pictures work on the dogmatic focus on uses of ‘learning’ that assume ends. In conclusion, the article suggests three possible uses of ‘learning’—learning from wonder, intransitive learning and passionate learning—that do not assume that learning has or must have a teleological end.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    Passionate Immediacy: Wittgenstein and Cavell on Desire in Children’s Philosophizing and Early Childhood Education2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the philosophy of young children’s. How can philosophy happen

    in early childhood (education)? What can philosophy look like in early childhood

    education? What does it mean to hear philosophy in young children’s expression?

    What kind of listening does it require? In order to explore such questions I will turn

    to the ordinary language philosophy of Austin, Wittgenstein and Stanley Cavell. In

    Cavell’s discussion of Austin’s elaboration on the notion of performative utterances

    he suggest a passionate dimension of philosophizing that involves not just “the

    responsibility of implication”, as Cavell puts it, but also “the rights of desire”. I shall

    suggest that in order to see the philosophical aspects of children’s questions and

    expressions we need to look beyond mere words, look at how children’s expressions

    are used and the several uses they have, involving understanding the context, the

    place, and the body as expressions used for philosophical inquiry. Going on from

    Cavell, I will suggest that there are passionate dimensions of children’s philosophical

    expressions that call for improvisatory responses, a pedagogy of immediacy.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet.
    Perfectionist Philosophy as a (an Untaken) Way of Life2014In: The Journal of Aesthetic Education, ISSN 0021-8510, E-ISSN 1543-7809, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 58-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I am honored to respond to Paul Guyer’s elaboration on the role of examples of perfectionism in Cavell’s and Kant’s philosophies. Guyer’s appeal to Kant’s notion of freedom opens the way for suggestive readings of Cavell’s work on moral perfectionism but also, as I will show, for controversy.

    There are salient aspects of both Kant’s and Cavell’s philosophy that are crucial to understanding perfectionism and, let me call it, perfectionist education, that I wish to emphasize in response to Guyer. In responding to Guyer’s text, I shall do three things. First, I shall explain why I think it is misleading to speak of Cavell’s view that moral perfectionism is involved in a struggle to make oneself intelligible to oneself and others in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions for moral perfection. Rather, I will suggest that the constant work on oneself that is at the core of Cavell’s moral perfectionism is a constant work for intelligibility. Second, I shall recall a feature of Cavell’s perfectionism that Guyer does not explicitly speak of: the idea that perfectionism is a theme, “outlook or dimension of thought embodied and developed in a set of texts.” Or, as Cavell goes on to say, “there is a place in mind where good books are in conversation. … [W]hat they often talk about … is how they can be, or sound, so much better than the people that compose them.” This involves what I would call a perfectionist conception of the history of philosophy and the kinds of texts we take to belong to such history. Third, I shall sketch out how the struggle for intelligibility and a perfectionist view of engagement with texts and philosophy can lead to a view of philosophy as a form of education in itself.

    In concluding these three “criticisms,” I reach a position that I think is quite close to Guyer’s, but with a slightly shifted emphasis on what it means to read Kant and Cavell from a perfectionist point of view.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Perfectionist Philosophy as a (an Untaken) Way of Life: Response to Guyer’s “Examples of Perfectionism”2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet.
    Questions from the Rough Ground: Teaching, Autobiography and the Cosmopolitan ‘‘I’’2015In: Studies in Philosophy and Education, ISSN 0039-3746, E-ISSN 1573-191X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 441-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I explore how cosmopolitanism can be a challenge for ordinary language philosophy. I also explore cosmopolitan aspects of Stanley Cavell’s ordinary language philosophy. Beginning by considering the moral aspects of cosmopolitanism and some examples of discussions of cosmopolitanism in philosophy of education, I turn to the scene of instruction in Wittgenstein and to Stanley Cavell’s emphasis on the role of autobiography in philosophy. The turn to the autobiographical dimension of ordinary language philosophy, especially its use of “I” and “We”, becomes a way to work on the tension between the particular and the universal claims of cosmopolitanism. I show that the autobiographical aspects of philosophy and the philosophical significance of autobiographical writing in ordinary language philosophy can be seen as a test of representativeness—a test of the ground upon which one stands when saying “I”, “We” and “You.”

  • 13.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Something Animal: Reconsidering Education as Initiation into Practices2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Paul Smeyers and Nicholas Burbules’ article  “Education as Initiation into Practices” they develop a view of practices that is meant to balance a conservative and reproductive understanding of practices with an understanding of them as arbitrary and groundless and as such perpetually subject to radical changes. According to Smeyers and Burbules balancing these views of practices both depend on and lead to interesting views of education. In this paper I aim to complicate Smeyers and Burbules’ account by reworking their notion of practice. I will do so by turning to the early work of John Rawls and the late work of Ludwig Wittgenstein. The turn to Rawls will let me shed light on how certain pictures of practices and two-level structures of actions may be far too rigid to give a useful account of the role of practices in human life and education. The turn to Wittgenstein, and in particular his notion form of life, will emphasise that a view of practices to be useful as an account of education must take into account both social and conventional, as much as biological and animal aspects of human growth and education.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The Philosophy of Dissonant Children: Stanley Cavell's Wittgensteinian Philosophical Therapies as an Educational Conversation2010In: Educational Theory, ISSN 0013-2004, E-ISSN 1741-5446, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 469-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education is often understood as a process whereby children come to conform to the norms teachers believe should govern our practices. This picture problematically presumes that educators know in advance what it means for children to go on the way that is expected of them. In this essay Viktor Johansson suggests a revision of education, through the philosophy of Stanley Cavell, that can account for both the attunement in our practices and the possible dissonance that follows when the teacher and child do not go on together. There is an anxiety generated by the threat of disharmony in our educational undertakings that may drive teachers toward philosophy in educational contexts. Here Johansson offers a philosophical treatment of this intellectual anxiety that teachers may experience when they, upon meeting dissonant children, search for epistemic justifications of their practices—a treatment whereby dissonant children can support teachers in dissolving their intellectual frustrations.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    The State of the Learning Soul: An essay on Literature and Humanities in and as Educational Research2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work.
    The Weight of Dogmatism: Investigating "Learning" in Dewey's Pragmatism and Wittgenstein's Ordinary Language Philosophy2017In: A Companion to Wittgenstein and Education: Pedagogical Investigations / [ed] Michael A. Peters & Jeff Stickney, Singapore: Springer Singapore , 2017, p. 339-352Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is it to learn something? This essay is an attempt to give a treatment of our expectations and wants from an answer to that question by placing Dewey’s pragmatism and Wittgenstein’s ordinary language philosophy in conversation with each other. Both Dewey and Wittgenstein introduce philosophical visions and methods that are meant to avoid dogmatic responses to such questions. Dewey presents a vision of learning based on the view of the human organism transacting in its environment and in that way being involved with education without any other end than continual growth. By suggesting possible results of a Wittgensteinian investigation of our use of the word “learning ”, the essay also proposes a twist on Dewey’s theory of learning, which dissolves our need for a theory of learning as an answer to the question. This gives the child a voice in contexts where the word “learn” is used. An investigation of the use of “learn” becomes a method of releasing us from the dogmatic requirements that determine what learning is. Further, Dewey’s terminology comes to comprise examples of possible uses rather than being a statement as to what learning is.

  • 17.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Educational Work. Örebro universitet.
    Wildly wise in the terrible moment: Kant, Emerson, and Improvisatory Bildung in Early Childhood Education2017In: Educational Philosophy and Theory, ISSN 0013-1857, E-ISSN 1469-5812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to show how Emerson provides a reworking of Kantian understandings of moral education in young children’s Bildung. The article begins and ends by thinking of Emersonian self-cultivation as a form of improvisatory or wild Bildung. It explores the role of Bildung and selfcultivation in preschools through a philosophy that accounts for children’s ‘Wild wisdom’ by letting Emerson speak to Kant. The paper argues that Kant’s vision of Bildung essentially involves reason’s turn upon itself andthat Emerson, particularly in how he is taken up by Cavell, shows that such a turn is already present in the processes of children inheriting, learning, and improvising with language. This improvisatory outlook on moral education is contrasted with common goals of moral education prescribed in early childhood education where the Swedish Curriculum for the Preschool Lpfö 98 is used as an example.

  • 18.
    Peters, Michael
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, University of Waikato.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Historizing Subjectivity in Childhood Studies2012In: Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, ISSN 1841-2394, Vol. 11, p. 42-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Roth, Klas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    Åbo Akademi.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Stockholms universitet, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Introduction: Perfectionism and Education: Kant and Cavell on Ethics and Aesthetics in Society2014In: The Journal of Aesthetic Education, ISSN 0021-8510, E-ISSN 1543-7809, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
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