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  • 1.
    Gustafsson, Emil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Experimental study of forces and energies during shearing of steel sheet with angled tools2016In: International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, ISSN 2198-2791, Vol. 11, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shearing is a fast and inexpensive method to cut sheet metal that has been used since the beginning of the industrialism. Consequently, published experimental studies of shearing can be found from over a century back in time. Recent studies, however, are due to the availability of low cost digital computation power, mostly based on finite element simulations that guarantees quick results. Still, for validation of models and simulations, accurate experimental data is a requisite. When applicable, 2D models are in general desirable over 3D models because of advantages like low computation time and easy model formulation. Shearing of sheet metal with parallel tools is successfully modelled in 2D with a plane strain approximation, but with angled tools the approximation is less obvious. Therefore, plane strain approximations for shearing with angled tools were evaluated by shear experiments of high accuracy. Tool angle, tool clearance, and clamping of the sheet were varied in the experiments. The results showed that the measured forces in shearing with angled tools can be approximately calculated using force measurements from shearing with parallel tools. Shearing energy was introduced as a quantifiable measure of suitable tool clearance range. The effects of the shearing parameters on forces were in agreement with previous studies. Based on the agreement between calculations and experiments, analysis based on a plane strain assumption is considered applicable for angled tools with a small (up to 2 degrees) rake angle.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Emil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Experimental study of strain fields during shearing of medium and high-strength steel sheet2016In: International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, ISSN 2198-2791, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a shortage of experimentally determined strains during sheet metal shearing. These kinds of data are a requisite to validate shearing models and to simulate the shearing process. In this work, strain fields were continuously measured during shearing of a medium and a high strength steel sheet, using digital image correlation. Preliminary studies based on finite element simulations, suggested that the effective surface strains are a good approximation of the bulk strains below the surface. The experiments were performed in a symmetric set-up with large stiffness and stable tool clearances, using various combinations of tool clearance and clamping configuration. Due to large deformations, strains were measured from images captured in a series of steps from shearing start to final fracture. Both the Cauchy and Hencky strain measures were considered, but the difference between these were found negligible with the number of increments used (about 20 to 50). Force-displacement curves were also determined for the various experimental conditions. The measured strain fields displayed a thin band of large strain between the tool edges. Shearing with two clamps resulted in a symmetric strain band whereas there was an extended area with large strains around the tool at the unclamped side when shearing with one clamp. Furthermore, one or two cracks were visible on most of the samples close to the tool edges well before final fracture. The fracture strain was larger for the medium strength material compared with the high-strength material and increased with increasing clearance.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Emil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Marth, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Karlsson, Lars
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Strain and stress conditions at crack initiation during shearing of medium- and high-strength steel sheet2017In: International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, ISSN 2198-2791, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain and stress conditions in sheet metal shearing are of interest for calibration of various fracture criteria. Most fracture criterion are governed by effective strain and stress triaxiality. This work is an attempt to extend previous measurements of strain fields in shearing of steel sheets with the stress state calculated from the measured displacement fields. Results are presented in terms of von Mises stress and stress triaxiality fields, and a comparison was made with finite element simulations. Also an evaluation of the similarities of the stress conditions on the sheet surface and inside the bulk material were presented. Strains and von Mises stresses were similar on the surface and the bulk material, but the stress triaxiality was not comparable. There were large gradients in strain and stress around the curved tool profiles that made the results resolution dependent and comparisons of maximum strain and stress values difficult. The stress state on the sheet surface calculated from displacement field measurements is still useful for validation of a three dimensional finite element model.

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