du.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 32 of 32
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andersen, Martin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Solar Options for a Block Heating System2016In: Conference Proceedings: Eurosun 2016, Palma De Mallorca: International Solar Energy Society, 2016, , p. 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative small solar district heating system with one central heating plant and four solar substations has been built in Vallda Heberg, Sweden, to supply a new housing area with passive houses. The target solar fraction was 40% and the total system design, including heat distribution in the buildings, was based on previous experience and aimed to be simple and cost-effective. The main aim of this study was to determine whether the system can be designed in a more effective manner by change of distribution system and load density. TRNSYS models were calibrated against measured data and then used to predict the energy performance. Results indicate that lower distribution heat losses can be obtained by change to a distribution concept with lower operating temperatures, while potentially reducing cost. Changes in heat density cause reduced distribution losses and boiler supplied heat demand, with only minor effects on solar system yield.

  • 2.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Andersen, M.
    Bava, F.
    Louvet, Y.
    Peréz de la Mora, N.
    Sotnikov, A.
    Shantia, A.
    SHINE Doctoral School: Results from six PhD studies on large scale solar thermal2016In: 4th International Solar District Heating Conference, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Solar Heat Integration NEtwork (SHINE) is a European research school in which 13 PhD students in solar thermal technologies are funded by the EU Marie-Curie program. It has five PhD course modules as well as workshops and seminars dedicated to PhD students both within the project as well as outside of it. The SHINE research activities focus on large solar heating systems and new applications: on district heating, industrial processes and new storage systems. The scope of this paper is on systems for district heating for which there are six PhD students, five at universities and one at a company. The initial work concentrated on literature studies and on setting up initial models and measurement setups to be used for validation purposes. The measurements have been used for validating simulation models, including those used for extending the capabilities of the planning tool Polysun to simulate smaller district heating systems. Some results of these studies are presented in the paper. The PhD students will complete their studies in 2017-18.

  • 3.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Betak, Jan
    Broum, Michal
    Chèze, David
    Cuvillier, Guillaume
    Haberl, Robert
    Hafner, Bernd
    Haller, Michel
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Weidinger, Alexander
    Optimized solar and heat pump systems, components and dimensioning: Deliverable 7.3 - MacSheep - New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the optimised solar and heat pump systems developed in the MacSheepproject as well as the simulation results for these systems. Four systems have been developed by four different development groups, each with one private company participating. The development groups have chosen different types of systems as well as different target loads for their systems, which give a wide coverage of the potential markets. The aim of the project was to achieve a 25% performance increase compared to state of the art systems, while being cost-competitive compared to the state of the art.Two reference state of the art solar and heat pump systems have been defined, modelled,and simulated to derive benchmark electricity demands and SPF values for the boundary conditions that were defined for the MacSheep project. The reference systems usedtheground (boreholes) orair as a heat source for the heat pump. The chosen boundary conditions were the climates of Zurich and Carcassone, arealistic DHW load,and two buildings, one representing a modern low energy building (SFH45) and one representing an existing building (SFH100). These reference systems and boundary conditions were defined within the first year of the project, and are used throughout the project.New components were developed for the MacSheepsolar and heat pump systems and these developments are reported in the reportsof work packages 3 –6. Component models have been programmed and validated with laboratory measurements.In this report, simulation results for the four MacSheep systems arecompared to the relevant reference system in order to quantify the expected performance increase. These simulations include the component models with their validated parameters and performance obtained from phase 3 of the project.In addition, the costs of the systemswere estimated. The key performance indicator for the final system developments was defined as a figure for electric savings (25%) compared to the state of the art at competitive (i.e. comparable) cost. Therefore, cost-savings that were achieved for some of the components that were developed were allowed to be compensated by increased cost for other components or increased collector areasin order to show the project's achievements in the light of the defined key performance indicator.At present, the updated simulations show electric savings of 17%, 24%, 26%, and 30%, respectively, for the different developments and the different target heat loads.Threeof these systems will be built and tested during 2015,using the whole system test method that was further developed within the MacSheep project (see report D2.3 for more details). The results from these tests will give benchmark energy used of these systems both for the test sequence itself but also on an annual base. In addition, the simulation models described in this report will be verified against the measurements and then used for annual simulations for otherboundary conditionsthan the once that are represented in the test sequence.

  • 4.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Chiara, Dipasquale
    Roberto, Fedrizzi
    Alessandro, Bellini
    Matteo, D’Antoni
    Fabian, Ochs
    Georgios, Dermentzis
    Sarah, Birchall
    D2.1c Simulation Results of Reference Buildings2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the third part of the deliverable D2.1, where the other two parts report on the energy consumption in the building stock in Europe based on the available energy statistics (D2.1a) and the energy policies related to buildings (D2.1b).The aim of this report is to give complementary information about the heating and cooling demands of residential and office buildings based on simulations, so that the many gaps in the energy statistics can be filled and the statistics can be critically evaluated. The methodology results in a complete and consistent overview of the heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings for seven different climate regions covering the whole of the EU and six different periods of construction, covering pre-1945 to post 2000. In addition, the data for the residential building stock is split into single family houses, small and large multifamily houses, while for offices the results are given for low and high rise offices with 6 or 12 office units per floor.The simulation models have been benchmarked (calibrated) against the energy statistics for each of the seven climate regions based on the aggregated data for the whole residential building stock and then for the office building stock in that climate region (in D2.1a). The methodology derives the aggregated average using weighted averages of data split into periods of construction and typology for both energy statistics and simulation results. The weighting is done based on heated and cooled floor area. As nearly all of the energy statistics are given in terms of consumption, while simulation results were calculated as demand, the demand data were converted to consumption data. One fixed conversion factor was used for heating (average efficiency 0.8) and one for cooling (average EER 2.5). Since the calculated demands strongly depend on the imposed heating or cooling set temperatures, this simulation parameter was varied so that the aggregated simulation result was the same as that for the consumption derived from the energy statistics. The calibrated models were then used to derive the average heating and cooling consumptions of the building stock in the seven climate regions.The methodology has a number of uncertainties, both in terms of the energy statistics as well as in terms of the simplifications and assumptions in the simulation models. During the calibration process a number of inconsistencies have been detected for individual countries and climate regions between simulation results and energy use from statistic data. The mismatches are analytically assessed, showing improvements necessary both in terms of statistic data necessary for reliable energy estimations and data to be gathered in order to guarantee consistent simulations outcomes.Beside the building stock survey completion and statistic data quality assessment, the work is also the basis for the definition of suitable Energy Renovation Packages and Products within the iNSPiRe project. The simulation results will be used to identify which building typologies, periods of construction and climate region have the largest potential for impact on the European scenario. Such information will be used within the iNSPiRe project to define reference Target buildings, as virtual demonstration cases to prove the potential improvements and impacts following the renovation process of a given share of the European building stock.

  • 5.
    Bales, Chris
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lorenz, Klaus
    Application of Polysun in Teaching Courses in Sweden and in the PhD Program SHINE2016In: SIGES Internationale Konferenz zur Simulation gebäudetechnischer Energiesysteme, 2016, p. 90-95Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Blackman, Corey
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Techno-economic evaluation of solar-assisted heating and cooling systems with sorption module integrated solar collectors2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 70, p. 409-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently the use of solar energy for heating and cooling isn't widespread. In order to reduce primary energy consumption in the built environment along with improving the thermal performance of the current building stock, retrofit solutions are required to utilise renewable energy. Using solar energy to reduce primary energy consumption is seen as a possible solution. With the precipitous fall in the prices of crystalline solar photovoltaic modules, utilising this technology to reduce electrical energy consumption for cooling is an attractive solution. Recently, a sorption module integrated collector has been developed in order to improve cost-effectiveness and simplify solar thermal heating and cooling systems. A techno-economic analysis has been performed to evaluate solar photovoltaic cooling and solar thermal cooling systems for residential renewable energy retrofit. The analysis is based on potential energy and cost savings according to simulated heating and cooling loads under climatic conditions of Madrid, Spain. Simplified models were used to determine heating and cooling demands and the solar energy contribution to heating and cooling loads. Additionally, given the sorption collector's unique capacity to store solar energy thermally and provide cooling at night an analysis has been carried out to identify the combined benefit of solar-assisted heating and cooling via photovoltaics during the day and solar sorption at night. For system sizes between 5m(2) and 20m(2) solar fractions between 16% and 64% could be achieved which translated to annual energy cost savings between (sic)153 to (sic)615. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7. Chèze, David
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Betak, Jan
    Broum, Michal
    Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Franz, Hengel
    Hamp, Quirin
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Final report on Control strategies, fault detection and on-line diagnosis in WP6 - Deliverable 6.4: MacSheep -New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this work package was to investigate generic control strategies, generic fault-detection and on-line diagnosis algorithms that may apply to the developed prototypes of solar and heatpump systems within MacSheep. The results should lead toimproved reliability and/orincreased energy savings for the end-userthrough new controller features. The use of DHW consumption forecast was identified as a promising control strategy and a simple yet reasonably effective algorithm to get the water tapping behaviourof the userwas developed. Viessmannimplemented the ideas of this approach in an ICT solution for their controller to provide statistical tapping informationto the user who can then set the period when hot waterthatis expected to be used. The operationalstrategy based on DHW consumptionforecast for one hour was not implemented since the potential gains are small (~2%) and there is ahigh user discomfort risk in the case of an inaccurate forecastPrevious studies have shown that solar overheating of the building led to gas savings with solar gas combisystems. Using a similar strategy on the MacSheep reference system did not lead to significant savings, due to strong interactions between space and DHW heating and a higher share of HP operation time for DHW charging of the store, which has a lower efficiency.Another smart control strategy was investigated forvariable electricity pricesusing overheating of the building and/or the DHW volume of the store.The main conclusion of the study is that the combination of the two algorithms led to cost savings for the Austria (Graz) and France (Chambery) with both theSFH45 and SFH100 buildings.Since only the share related to user consumption varies during the day while the grid and transmission costs are usually constant, thecost savings were small, far below 1%.Among the proposed fault detection algorithms for solar and heat pump systems, detection of wrongly connected tubes in the solar collector loop was found interesting by Viesmmann and Regulus. It was implemented and tested in their respective prototype controller. Regulus also implemented the detection of wrong order phase connections in its heat pump prototype as well as threshold tests on abnormal temperature and pressure evolution.

  • 8. Dermentzis, G.
    et al.
    Ochs, F.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Calabrese, T.
    Siegele, D.
    Feist, W.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    A comprehensive evaluation of a monthly-based energy auditing tool through dynamic simulations, and monitoring in a renovation case study2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 183, p. 713-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy auditing tool (PHPP) was evaluated against a dynamic simulation tool (TRNSYS) and used for the assessment of energy conservation measures in a demo case study. The comprehensive comparison of useful heating and cooling demands and loads included three building types (single-, multi-family house, and office), three building energy levels (before renovation and after renovation with a heating demand of 45 and 25 kWh/(m²·a)) and seven European climates. Dynamic simulation results proved PHPP (monthly energy balance) to be able to calculate heating demand and energy savings with good precision and cooling demand with acceptable precision compared to detailed numerical models (TRNSYS). The average deviation between the tools was 8% for heating and 15% for cooling (considering climates with a relevant cooling load only). The higher the thermal envelope quality was, i.e. in case of good energy standards and in cold climates, the better was the agreement. Furthermore, it was confirmed that PHPP slightly overestimates the heating and cooling loads by intention for system design. The renovation design of a real multi-family house was executed using PHPP as energy auditing tool. Several calculation stages were performed for (a) baseline, (b) design phase, and (c) verification with monitoring in order to calculate the corresponding heating demand. The PHPP model was calibrated twice, before and after the renovation. The necessity for tool calibration, especially for the baseline, was highlighted increasing the confidence with respect to a number of boundary conditions. In this study, PHPP was tested as an energy auditing tool aiming to be a versatile and less error-prone alternative to more complex simulation tools, which require much more expert knowledge and training. 

  • 9. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3a Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Method2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy efficiencies.To this purpose, we have produced three databases that provide valuable information about the energy performance of a variety of buildings in different climates, based on different energy requirements. These are the results of a three stage process:1. Collection of energy use data (statistics) for the whole of EU 27, the structuring of a building stock database and the definition of reference buildings that represent the most typical buildings of the building stock. Data for six different age categories were derived, including typical construction information and insulation standards for these periods. Seven climatic regions were also defined to cover the EU 27. The structured data are available in the Building Stock Statistics database.2. Derivation of a complete and consistent database of heating and cooling demands in residential and office buildings covering the whole of the EU 27 based on the simulation of the defined reference buildings in seven climatic regions. The simulations were calibrated against the energy use statistics, and are thus consistent with these, but offer the full range of heating and cooling demands for all climates and building types for six different age categories. The results are available in the Reference Building Simulation database.3. Definition of a range of retrofit measures for the reference buildings including climatic shell, HVAC system and heating/cooling distribution. The matrix of these measures was then simulated for all building types for the seven different climatic regions to provide data for the third database, the Systemic Renovation Packages database.

  • 10. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3b Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Single Family Houses2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of the iNSPiRe project was to develop a tool that predicts the energy and cost saving impacts of various systemic retrofit interventions. This tool is now available for all those involved in the renovation of older buildings (from consulting offices, moving through construction companies and to decision makers) to use as a means of selecting which retrofit package will deliver the greatest costs savings and most improved energy performance.The whole set of Renovation Packages in the published database includes results for a range of SFH typologies, from detached to row houses, with different external surface over building volume ratio.In order to compare the same Envelope Renovation when applied to different SFH typologies and climates, we adopted the detached constructions as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures that match the heating demand standards sought (15, 25, 40, 70 kWh/m2y). Since the solutions found are the most conservative, lower heating demands are obtained for semi-detached and row houses.The solutions elaborated in terms of window features, and walls/roof cross sections and materials, are reported in Deliverable 6.3a for the whole range of buildings and the 7 climates analysed.In this document we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built 1945-1970, renovated with four generation systems (AWHP, GWHP, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and three distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils). In order to limit the number of solutions discussed, here we report results only for the detached SFHs. The full range of solutions is published on the iNSPiRe website.The generation plants are hybrid solutions designed to combine heat pumps or boilers with solar thermal and/or PV technologies. These combinations integrate multiple renewable energy sources, thus allowing to reach in the best cases the 50 kWh/m2y primary energy consumption limit that is the objective of the retrofit packages devised.

  • 11. Fedrizzi, Roberto
    et al.
    Dipasquale, Chiara
    Bellini, Alessandro
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Nouvel, Romain
    Cotrado, Mariela
    D6.3c Performance of the Studied Systemic Renovation Packages - Multi-Family Houses2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we comment the results relative to the reference buildings built within the first age (1945-1970), and renovated with 4 generation systems (air to water heat pump, ground water heat pump, gas boiler and biomass boiler) and 3 distribution systems (radiant ceilings, radiators and fan coils).According to the buildings classification (see D2.1a and D2.1c), two different Multi Family Houses typologies are identified, small Multi Family House (s-MFH) and large Multi Family House (l-MFH). In the published database, only s-MFHs are included, varying the number of floors (3, 5 and 7 floors) and, consequently, the surface over volume (S/V) ratio.As well as for the SFHs, we adopted a reference S/V ratio as the basis to define insulation, windows and mechanical ventilation measures to match the sought heating demand targets (15, 25, 45, 70 kWh/m²y), that is 5 floors and 10 apartments.

  • 12.
    Fiedler, Frank
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Persson, Jannika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Gustavsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE.
    Hemlin, Olleper
    RISE.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE.
    Thuvander, Liane
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Femenías, Paula
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lundin, Michelle
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskolan.
    Larsson, David
    Solkompaniet.
    Miljontak Delprojekt 2: Sammanfattning av litteratursammanställning2018Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Techno-economic analysis of three HVAC retrofitting options2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for around 40% of the total final energy consumption, the building stock is an important area of focus on the way to reaching the energy goals set for the European Union. The relatively small share of new buildings makes renovation of existing buildings possibly the most feasible way of improving the overall energy performance of the building stock. This of course involves improvements on the climate shell, for example by additional insulation or change of window glazing, but also installation of new heating systems, to increase the energy efficiency and to fit the new heat load after renovation. In the choice of systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), it is important to consider their performance for space heating as well as for domestic hot water (DHW), especially for a renovated house where the DHW share of the total heating consumption is larger.

    The present study treats the retrofitting of a generic single family house, which was defined as a reference building in a European energy renovation project. Three HVAC retrofitting options were compared from a techno-economic point of view: A) Air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR), B) Exhaust air heat pump (EAHP) with low-temperature ventilation radiators, and C) Gas boiler and ventilation with MVHR. The systems were simulated for houses with two levels of heating demand and four different locations: Stockholm, Gdansk, Stuttgart and London. They were then evaluated by means of life cycle cost (LCC) and primary energy consumption. Dynamic simulations were done in TRNSYS 17.

    In most cases, system C with gas boiler and MVHR was found to be the cheapest retrofitting option from a life cycle perspective. The advantage over the heat pump systems was particularly clear for a house in Germany, due to the large discrepancy between national prices of natural gas and electricity. In Sweden, where the price difference is much smaller, the heat pump systems had almost as low or even lower life cycle costs than the gas boiler system. Considering the limited availability of natural gas in Sweden, systems A and B would be the better options. From a primary energy point of view system A was the best option throughout, while system B often had the highest primary energy consumption. The limited capacity of the EAHP forced it to use more auxiliary heating than the other systems did, which lowered its COP. The AWHP managed the DHW load better due to a higher capacity, but had a lower COP than the EAHP in space heating mode. Systems A and C were notably favoured by the air heat recovery, which significantly reduced the heating demand.

    It was also seen that the DHW share of the total heating consumption was, as expected, larger for the house with the lower space heating demand. This confirms the supposition that it is important to include DHW in the study of HVAC systems for retrofitting.

  • 14.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Energy performance comparison of three innovative HVAC systems for renovation through dynamic simulation2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, p. 512-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic simulation was used to compare the energy performance of three innovativeHVAC systems: (A) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and micro heat pump, (B) exhaustventilation with exhaust air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, and (C) exhaust ventilationwith air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, to a reference system: (D) exhaust ventilation withair-to-water heat pump and panel radiators. System A was modelled in MATLAB Simulink and systems Band C in TRNSYS 17. The reference system was modelled in both tools, for comparison between the two.All systems were tested with a model of a renovated single family house for varying U-values, climates,infiltration and ventilation rates.It was found that A was the best system for lower heating demand, while for higher heating demandsystem B would be preferable. System C was better than the reference system, but not as good as A or B.The difference in energy consumption of the reference system was less than 2 kWh/(m2a) betweenSimulink and TRNSYS. This could be explained by the different ways of handling solar gains, but also bythe fact that the TRNSYS systems supplied slightly more than the ideal heating demand.

  • 15.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Dipasquale, C.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bellini, A.
    Fedrizzi, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Ochs, F.
    Sié, M.
    Holmberg, S.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation packages for European office buildings2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 148, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the buildings in Europe are old and in need of renovation, both in terms of functional repairs and energy efficiency. While many studies have addressed energy renovation of buildings, they rarely combine economic and environmental life cycle analyses, particularly for office buildings. The present paper investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of energy renovation packages for European office buildings. The renovation packages, including windows, envelope insulation, heating, cooling and ventilation systems and solar photovoltaics (PV), were evaluated in terms of life cycle cost (LCC) and life cycle assessment (LCA) through dynamic simulation for different European climates. Compared to a purely functional renovation, the studied renovation packages resulted in up to 77% lower energy costs, 19% lower total annualized costs, 79% lower climate change impact, 89% lower non-renewable energy use, 66% lower particulate matter formation and 76% lower freshwater eutrophication impact over a period of 30 years. The lowest total costs and environmental impact, in all of the studied climates, were seen for the buildings with the lowest heating demand. Solar PV panels covering part of the electricity demand could further reduce the environmental impact and, at least in southern Europe, even reduce the total costs. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Comparison of two HVAC renovation solutions: A case study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aging building stock of Europe, there is great potential of saving energy through renovation and upgrading to modern standards, and to thereby approach the internationally set goals of lower energy use. This paper concerns the planned renovation of the building envelope and HVAC systems in a multi-family house in Ludwigsburg, Germany. Five systemic HVAC solutions were compared, with special focus on two systems: A) Balanced ventilation with HRC + Micro heat pump, and B) Forced exhaust ventilation + Heat pump with exhaust air HRC + Ventilation radiators. Given the predicted heating demand and ventilation rate of the house after renovation, the performance of the two systems was compared, alongside three common systems for reference. Calculations were made using TMF Energi, a tool developed by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.

       Both systems A and B were found to have the lowest electrical energy use together with the ground source heat pump system for the assumed conditions. For other assumptions, including different climate and degree of insulation, some differences between these three systems were noted. Most significant is the increased electrical use of system B for higher heating loads due to limitations in the power available from the heat source, exhaust air, which is dependent on the ventilation rate.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact.

  • 18.
    Heinz, Andreas
    et al.
    Institute of Thermal Engineering Graz University of Technology.
    Hengel, Franz
    Institute of Thermal Engineering Graz University of Technology.
    Mojic, Igor
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Haller, Michel Y.
    Institut für Solartechnik SPF Hochschule für Technik HSR.
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Matuska, Tomas
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
    Sedlar, Jan
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
    Petrak, Jiri
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering.
    Final report on heat pump developments in WP 4 - MacSheep Deliverable 4.4: MacSheep -New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Kuhn, Tillmann
    et al.
    Fraunhofer ISE.
    Fath, Karoline
    Fraunhofer ISE.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Nouvel, Romain
    ZAFH.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    EURAC.
    D2.3 RES availability survey and boundary conditions for simulations2014Report (Other academic)
  • 20. Menegon, D.
    et al.
    Persson, Tomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Haberl, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Haller, M.
    Direct characterisation of the annual performance of solar thermal and heat pump systems using a six-day whole system test2020In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 146, p. 1337-1353Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nouvel, Romain
    et al.
    ZAFH.
    Cotrado, Mariela
    ZAFH.
    Bertesina, Diego
    Manens.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Birchal, Sarah
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    D4.2 Assessed Standardised Energy Generation and Energy Distribution Packages2016Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ochs, Fabian
    et al.
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Fedrizzi, Roberto
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    D6.7 Guidelines on Systemic Approach and Checklist2016Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Perez de la Mora, Nicolas
    et al.
    Universidad de las Islas Baleares.
    Bava, Federico
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Andersen, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Lennermo, Gunnar
    Mälardalens Hogskola.
    Nielsen, Christian
    PanEnergi.
    Furbo, Simon
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Martínes-Moll, Víctor
    Universidad de las Islas Baleares.
    Solar district heating and cooling: A review2017In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both district heating and solar collector systems have been known and imple- mented for many years. However, the combination of the two, with solar collec- tors supplying heat to the district heating network, is relatively new, and no comprehensive review of scientific publications on this topic could be found. Thus, this paper summarizes the literature available on solar district heating and presents the state of the art and real experiences in this field. Given the lack of a generally accepted convention on the classification of solar district heating systems, this paper distinguishes centralized and decentralized solar district heating as well as block heating. For the different technologies, the paper describes commonly adopted control strategies, system configurations, types of installation, and integration. Real‐world examples are also given to provide a more detailed insight into how solar thermal technology can be integrated with district heating. Solar thermal technology combined with thermally driven chillers to provide cooling for cooling networks is also included in this paper. In order for a technology to spread successfully, not only technical but also eco- nomic issues need to be tackled. Hence, the paper identifies and describes dif- ferent

  • 24.
    Persson, Tomas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Wiertzema, Holger
    Win, Kaung Myat
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Modelling of dynamics and stratification effects in pellet boilers2019In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 134, p. 769-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing solar and pellet heating systems can be performed by system simulations in TRNSYS. However; this requires detailed boiler models that can properly model the thermal behaviour of the boilers, such as stratification and thermal response. This study uses a combination of existing models for modelling of the pellet burner part (TRNSYS Type 210) and the water volume (TRNSYS Type 340). This approach addresses the thermal dynamics and internal stratification more accurately than other available models. The objectives of this work are to develop a method for parameter identification for the model and to validate this method and the model itself. Sets of parameters are identified for two pellet boilers and one pellet stove with a water jacket (extended room heater) and the model is validated with a realistic dynamic operation sequence. The results show that modelling of stratification is essential in order to model the true behaviour of residential boilers. The test sequences used were adequate to parameterise the models and to provide the desired accuracy, except regarding the heat losses to room air. The model shows good accuracy for a stove and one boiler, but slightly worse performance for the other boiler regarding dynamics and modelling of the stratification.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-01 15:49
  • 25.
    Poppi, Stefano
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Department of Energy Technology, KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Influence of hydraulics and control of thermal storage in solar assisted heat pump combisystems2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 48, p. 946-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the influence of hydraulics and control of thermal storage in systems combined with solar thermal and heat pump for the production of warm water and space heating in dwellings. A reference air source heat pump system with flat plate collectors connected to a combistore was defined and modeled together with the IEA SHC Task 44 / HPP Annex 38 (T44A38) “Solar and Heat Pump Systems” boundary conditions of Strasbourg climate and SFH45 building. Three and four pipe connections as well as use of internal and external heat exchangers for DHW preparation were investigated as well as sensor height for charging of the DHW zone in the store. The temperature in this zone was varied to ensure the same DHW comfort was achieved in all cases. The results show that the four pipe connection results in 9% improvement in SPF compared to three pipe and that the external heat exchanger for DHW preparation leads to a 2% improvement compared to the reference case. Additionally the sensor height for charging the DHW zone of the store should not be too low, otherwise system performance is adversely affected

  • 26.
    Poppi, Stefano
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. KTH.
    Sommerfeldt, N.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Madani, H.
    Lundqvist, P.
    Techno-economic review of solar heat pump systems for residential heating applications2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 81, p. 22-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar heat pump systems (SHPs) have been investigated for several decades and have been proven to increase the share of renewable energy and reduce electric energy demand in residential heating applications. Many review articles have been published on the subject, however literature discussing the techno-economics of different solar technologies (thermal, photovoltaic and hybrid thermal/photovoltaic) in combination with heat pumps is lacking, and thus to directly compare the merits of different SHPs is not an easy task. The objectives of this study are: a) review the different system boundaries and the main performance indicators used for assessing energetic and economic performances; b) review techno-economic studies in the literature and identify which studies give enough information and are compatible enough for making an economic inter-comparison; c) present an economic inter-comparison based on the identified systems. The results show that there is a lack of studies including an economic assessment of solar photovoltaic and heat pump systems. Additionally, there are no consistent boundaries or approaches to the study structures, making comparisons between systems difficult. In conclusion, a standardized or broadly accepted definition of technical and economic performance for SHPs is needed. Despite this, the study has shown that there are clear trends for decreasing payback times for SHPs, both solar thermal (ST) and photovoltaic (PV), with decreasing heating degree-days and with increasing solar resource.

  • 27.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bee, E.
    Luthander, R.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Smart control strategy for PV and heat pump system utilizing thermal and electrical storage and forecast services2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Uppsala University.
    Bee, Elena
    University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala University.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Smart control strategy for PV and heat pump system utilizing thermal and electrical storage and forecast services2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a detailed model of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump, PV system and energy hub developed in the simulation software TRNSYS 17 is used to evaluate energy management algorithms that utilize weather and electricity price forecasts. A system with independent PV and heat pump is used as a base case. The proposed control strategy is applied to the base case to optimize the available PV electricity production using short-term weather and electricity price forecasts. The three smart and predictive control algorithms were developed with the scope to minimize final energy by the use of the thermal storage of the building, the hot water tank and electrical storage. The results show reduction of the final energy of 26.4%, increase of the self-consumption to 60% and decrease of the annual cost of 15% when using the forecast services in combination with thermal and electrical storage compared to the base case.

  • 29.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Uppsala University.
    Bee, Elena
    Widén, Joakim
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Techno-economic analysis of control algorithms for an exhaust air heat pump system for detached houses coupled to a photovoltaic system2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 249, p. 355-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational control strategies for the heating system and “smart” utilization of energy storage were developed and analyzed in a simulation based case study of a single-family house with exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system. Rule based control algorithms that can easily be implemented into modern heat pump controllers were developed with the aim to minimize final energy and maximize self-consumption by the use of the thermal storage of the building, the hot water tank and electrical storage. Short-term weather and electricity price forecasts are used in some of the algorithms. Heat supply from an exhaust air heat pump is limited by the ventilation flow rate fixed by building codes, and compact systems employ an electric heater as backup for both space heating and hot water. This heater plays an important role in the energy balance of the system. A typical system designed for new detached houses in Sweden was chosen for the study. This system, together with an independent photovoltaic system, was used as a base case and all results are compared to those for this base case system. TRNSYS 17 was used to model the building and system as well as the control algorithms, and special care was taken to model the use of the backup electric heater as this impacts significantly on final energy use. Results show that the developed algorithms can reduce final energy by 5–31% and the annual net cost for the end user by 3–26%, with the larger values being for systems with a battery storage. Moreover, the annual use of the backup electric heater can be decreased by 13–30% using the carefully designed algorithms.

  • 30.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Uppsala universitet.
    Leppin, Lorenz
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala universitet, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Control algorithms for PV and Heat Pump system using thermal and electrical storage2016In: Proceedings of the 11th ISES EuroSun 2016 International Conference on Solar Energy for Buildings and Industry, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, 11-14 October 2016, International Solar Energy Society , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a detailed model of a single-family house with an exhaust air heat pump and photovoltaic system is developed in the simulation software TRNSYS. The model is used to evaluate three control algorithms using thermal and electrical storage in terms of final energy, solar fraction, self-consumption and seasonal performance factor. The algorithms are tested and compared with respect to energetic improvement for 1) use of the heat pump plus storage tank for domestic hot water and space heating, 2) use of the electrical storage in batteries and 3) use of both electrical and thermal storage. Results show the highest increase of self-consumption to 50.5%, solar fraction to 40.6% and final energy decrease to 6923 kWh by implementing the third algorithm in a system with 9.36 kW PV capacity and battery storage of 10.8 kWh. The use of electrical energy storage has higher positive impact compared to the thermal storage with the settings and component sizes used. The combined use of thermal storage and batteries leads to final energy savings that are nearly the same as the combined savings of thermal storage and batteries separately, showing that they are mostly independent of one another for the settings of this study.

  • 31. Sotnikov, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, C. K.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Dalenbäck, J. -O
    Andersen, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Psimopoulos, Emmanouil
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Simulations of a Solar-Assisted Block Heating System2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Wallinder, Maria
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Perman, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Causse, Emmanuelle
    Schröpfer, Veronika
    Gyori, Gabriella
    Grauer, Marlene
    Mohammadi, Max
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Report on Non-Technical Barriers to the market placement2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The iNSPiRe project addresses the need for energy efficiency measures by focussing on making so called deep renovations using multifunctional, industrialised kits in order to speed up the on-site installation process and reduce costs. Energy renovation investment is a multi-factor decision and many of these factors are not technical, which is why this report analyses the non-technical barriers to this investment decision. The study focusses on the kits developed within the iNSPiRe project, but many of the findings are relevant for other single stage deep renovation projects. Both the planning and implementation phases are considered. The aim was to develop suggestions for overcoming these non-technical barriers so that the iNSPiRe kits can more easily be deployed in the market.

    The report is based on a study of policy documents, the experiences of European umbrella organisations for architects, property owners and local governments as well as on a large number of in-depth interviews with relevant stakeholders. Many of the 60 participants were made in conjunction with stakeholder workshops that were organised for specific focus groups such as architects, private property owners, public procurers and the stakeholders of the European Housing Forum. The non-technical barriers have been split into economic, political and social barriers, with most interviewed stakeholders emphasising the economic aspects.

    Subsidies are considered by most as essential for property owners to take the decision to make a deep renovation, but stability of the subsidy programs is essential to have a good impact. Low-interest loans are not as favoured. Other key economic issues are the increase in the asset value of the property after such a renovation and the green value of the resulting low energy building. These are both difficult to quantify, partly due to the fact that such renovated buildings are not as yet so common, and vary in the different property markets.

    The EU has many policies on energy efficiency that are relevant for renovation of buildings, with the 2010 Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD recast) and the 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) being the most important. Many member states were late in implementing these and most have problems with forcing compliance with them. National tenancy laws can also make energy renovations difficult by restricting the possibility of raising rents for. For the iNSPiRe kits, regulations and standards are seen as a barrier in the short term as the kits combine several different functions into one product that are covered by several different regulations and/or standards.

    The social barriers are mostly concerned with the tenants, while architectural considerations are also important. In buildings with owner-occupied flats, the decision process for renovation is difficult and even more so when deep renovation is to be considered. In rental properties the owners and tenants have different interests and incentives, leading to possible conflicts. All have uncertainties about the use of multifunctional kits and how well they will perform technically as well as about how much they will save economically.

    The report makes a number of suggestions for overcoming these barriers. Especially important for the iNSPiRe kits is training of relevant installers and planners and use of Life Cycle Cost calculations to show the expected benefits over the lifetime of the products.

    In each section of the report, in addition to the analysis of the specific barrier, there are sections with specific comments from the interviewed stakeholders.

1 - 32 of 32
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • chicago-author-date
  • chicago-note-bibliography
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf