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  • 1.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Light quality and intensity of light-emitting diodes during pre-cultivation of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings - impact on growth performance, seedling quality and energy consumption2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 159-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different LED lamps with continuous spectra were compared against commonly used fluorescent lights. The lamps were characterized by light output, energy consumption and spectral quality for plant growth. The biological effects of light quality were compared by pre-cultivating seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. under each spectrum for 35 days in a growth chamber with controlled temperature, humidity and photoperiod. The seedlings were then transplanted and cultivated for one vegetation period at the nursery, then planted outdoors on a forest field trial and followed for three years. The seedlings showed similar growth performance for all spectra tested. LED lamps have several advantages to fluorescent light such as energy consumption, longer life span and adjustable light intensity. Regarding light intensity the effects on growth performance were studied for both species using the most promising LED spectra. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was maintained at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Unlike energy consumption, seedling development did not display a linear relationship to light intensity. Instead, the results show an optimum light level between 100 and 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the shade tolerant Picea abies seedlings and a level of around 200 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for the more shade intolerant Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

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  • 2.
    Hernandez Velasco, Marco
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology. Uppsala Universitet.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Light shock stress after outdoor sunlight exposure in seedlings of picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. pre-cultivated under LEDs-possible mitigation treatments and their energy consumption2020In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Year-round cultivation under light emitting diodes (LEDs) has gained interest in boreal forest regions like Fenno-Scandinavia. This concept offers forest nurseries an option to increase seedling production normally restricted by the short vegetation period and the climate conditions. In contrast to some horticultural crops which can be cultivated entirely under LEDs without sunlight, forest seedlings need to be transplanted outdoors in the nursery at a very young age before being outplanted in the field. Juvenile plants are less efficient using absorbed light and dissipating excess energy making them prone to photoinhibition at conditions that usually do not harm mature plants. The outdoor transfer can cause stress in the seedlings due to high sunlight intensity and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation not typically present in the spectra of LED lamps. This study tested possible treatments for mitigating light shock stress in seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. transplanted from indoor cultivation under LEDs to outdoor sunlight exposure. Three sowings were carried out in 2014 (May and June) and 2015 (May) cultivating the seedlings during five weeks under LED lights only. Afterwards, higher light intensity or UV radiation treatments were applied during one week in order to adapt the seedlings to natural outdoor conditions. After transplanting a transition phase was introduced using shading cloths for one or three weeks as outdoor treatments for light shock mitigation. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) levels and CO2 assimilation rates were measured before transplanting and followed outdoors during 5 weeks. The ChlF results revealed stress symptoms in the photoreceptors during the first days after transplanting. After five weeks outdoors the ChlF levels had recovered and the light saturation points had shifted, allowing higher CO2 assimilation rates. By the end of the vegetation period the morphological attributes showed no major differences between treatments. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 3.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology.
    Reforestation challenges in Scandinavia2016In: Reforesta, ISSN 2466-4367, no 1, p. 67-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the keynote, major reforestation challenges in Scandinavia will be highlighted. The following countries make up Scandinavia: Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. For Iceland, with only a forest cover of 2%, a major reforestation challenge is the deforestation and overgrazing in combination with land degradation and extensive soil erosion. The challenges include the conflicts with livestock farmers. For centuries the commons were used for sheep and horse grazing. However, more and more of farmer grazing land have been fenced up, allowing the regeneration of birch and plantations of other species to increase. With a forest cover of 37% and 69% respectively, for decades a major reforestation challenge in Norway and Sweden has been the risk of seedling damages from the pine weevil. Unprotected seedlings can have a survival rate of less than 25% after being planted. Pine weevils feed on the bark of planted young seedlings at regeneration sites. If the seedling is girdled, it will not survive. In Sweden, and soon in Norway, pesticides have been forbidden. In the keynote, new methods and technology will be presented based on non-chemical protection. In Finland, with a forest cover of 75%, a major reforestation challenge is linked to the forest structure. The structure of Finnish forestry includes many private forests in combination with small regeneration sites. This implies a situation where logistics and methods for lifting and field storage provide a major challenge in order to preserve seedling quality until the planting date. Due to this situation, new logistic systems and technologies are being developed in Finland, including new seedling cultivation programs (including cultivation under Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)) to match the access of fresh planting stock to different planting dates. In Denmark, with a forest cover of 13%, a major reforestation challenge is the possibility of future plantations based on a wide range of relevant species. For this to become a realistic option, new methods and technology have to be developed in reforestation activities that support this possibility. These methods and technology should make it possible to not be limited to certain species due to problems and restrictions during field establishment. This due to the prospect of establishing stable, healthy, and productive stands of various forest species that can be adapted to future climate change.

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