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  • 1.
    Bergman, Mats A
    et al.
    Södertörn University .
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Squeezing the last drop out of your suppliers: An empirical study of market-based purchasing policies for generic pharmaceuticals2017In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 969-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of the degree of exclusivity for the lowest bidder on the average price of generic pharmaceuticals in the short and long terms. Our results indicate that a 1-percentage-point gain in market share of the lowest bidder reduces average costs by 0.2% in the short term and 0.8% in the long term, but also reduces the number of firms by 1%. We find that reducing the number of firms has a strong positive (and hence counteracting) effect on average prices, a 1% reduction raising prices by approximately 1%.

  • 2.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Employment protection legislation and firm growth: Evidence from a natural experiment2017In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 169-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish reform in 2001 made it possible for firms with less than 11 employees to exclude two from the last-in-first-out principle in case of layoffs. The reform increased employment growth with over 4000 additional jobs per year among firms with five to nine employees. Firms with 10 employees became 3.4 percentage points less likely to increase their workforce, indicating that the introduced threshold kept them from growing. Thus, employment protection legislation seems to act as a growth barrier for small firms.

  • 3.
    Bornhäll, Anders
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Sleeping gazelles: High profits but no growth2014In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, ISSN 0740-7416, Vol. 34, no 17, p. 1-16, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among 104,231 limited liability firms in Sweden with at least two employees during 1997- 2010, almost 10% did not hire new employees in any given 3-year period despite having high profits. Nearly half of these firms continued to have high or medium profits in the next threeyear period, but still no growth. Regression analysis indicates that these firms were not randomly distributed; rather they were small and young, did not belong to an enterprise group, and operated in local markets with high profit-opportunities. We conclude that it might be more beneficial to focus policy towards these firms instead of towards a few high-growth firms that, having just grown exponentially, may not be best positioned to grow further.

  • 4.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Meng, Xiangli
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    The effect on CO2 emissions of taxing truck distance in retail transports2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 97, p. 47-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To finance transportation infrastructure and to address social and environmental negative externalities of road transports, several countries have recently introduced or consider a distance based tax on trucks. In competitive retail and transportation markets, such tax can be expected to lower the demand and thereby reduce CO2 emissions of road transports. However, as we show in this paper, such tax might also slow down the transition towards e-tailing. Considering that previous research indicates that a consumer switching from brick-and-mortar shopping to e-tailing reduces her CO2 emissions substantially, the direction and magnitude of the environmental net effect of the tax is unclear. In this paper, we assess the net effect in a Swedish regional retail market where the tax not yet is in place. We predict the net effect on CO2 emissions to be positive, but off-set by about 50% because of a slower transition to e-tailing.

  • 5.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Grek, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Betydelsen av internt genererat kapital för en långsiktigt hållbar företagstillväxt2017In: Perspektiv på kapitalförsörjning – en antologi om företagens finansiering och statens roll / [ed] Jörgen Lithander, Stockholm: Tillväxtanalys , 2017, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett företags expansion kan finansieras med internt genererat kapital eller med hjälp av extern finansiering. Vi undersöker här hur omsättningstillväxten och överlevnadssannolikheten påverkas av företagets internt uppbyggda kapital. Undersökningen baseras på data över alla Sveriges aktiebolag under perioden 1997–2010.

    Våra resultat indikerar att den initiala tillgången på internt uppbyggt kapital generellt sett inte är förknippad med en högre omsättningstillväxt eller ökade möjligheter att överleva på marknaden. Vi finner däremot att de företag som bygger upp interna medel innan de växer är mer sannolika att uppnå en långsiktigt hållbar tillväxt än de företag som växer innan de byggt upp ett internt kapital.

    Resultaten indikerar också att företag som har varit med om uppköp eller sammanslagningar har både högre tillväxt och bättre chanser att överleva på marknaden.

    Vi kan samtidigt konstatera att de skattade sambanden ofta är svaga trots det omfattande datamaterialet. Det tyder på att företagstillväxt i huvudsak är slumpmässig eller kan förklaras av variabler som är svåra att mäta och inkludera i kvantitativ analys. Detta bekräftas också av tidigare studier.

    Våra resultat implicerar att framtida studier bör fokusera mer på hur företagen växer än på vad som kan förklara hur mycket de växer vid en viss tidpunkt.

  • 6.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Grek, Åsa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hur kapitalstrukturen påverkar den långsiktigt hållbara företagstillväxten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det antas ofta att det finns ett ”kapitalförsörjningsgap” i ekonomin på grund av asymmetrisk information, vilket leder till att efterfrågan på externt kapital är större än utbudet. De politiska beslutsfattarna vill därför ofta öka tillgången på externt riskkapital genom olika selektiva statliga stödinsatser för att få fler växande företag.

    Klassiska teorier om företagstillväxt implicerar dock att det snarare är uppbyggnaden av företagets interna resurser som är av betydelse för att förklara företagens tillväxt och möjligheter att överleva på marknaden. Många företagare vill dessutom behålla kontrollen över sitt företag och kan därmed välja att inte växa med externt kapital, trots att de har tillväxtambitioner. Om detta stämmer är politiska beslut som ökar tillgången till internt kapital av större betydelse för företagens utveckling än politiska beslut som avser att öka tillgången på externt kapital.

    I denna rapport vill vi studera hur betydelsefullt det internt uppbyggda kapitalet har varit för tillväxt och överlevnad hos aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010. Våra resultat indikerar att:

    • Tillgången till internt kapital kan inte förklara den observerade företagstillväxten bland aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010.

    • Det interna kapitalet är inte relaterat till överlevnadssannolikheten för aktiebolag i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010.

    • Företag som växer efter att de har byggt upp internt kapital har större möjligheter att i framtiden kombinera hög tillväxt med hög lönsamhet jämfört med de företag som växer innan de har byggt upp internt kapital.

    Resultaten är delvis motstridiga. De företag som bygger upp ett internt kapital och sedan väljer att expandera har en högre sannolikhet att nå en långsiktigt hållbar position för tillväxt än de företag som växer innan de har byggt upp internt kapital. Detta talar för att uppbyggnaden av internt kapital är av betydelse. Våra regressionsresultat indikerar dock att det inte finns något starkt positivt samband mellan internt uppbyggt kapital och företagens framtida omsättningstillväxt eller möjligheter att överlevna på marknaden.

    Det finns ett antal möjliga förklaringar till våra resultat. Den första förklaringen är helt enkelt att det interna kapitalet inte är av betydelse för företagens framtida tillväxt och överlevnad. Den troliga förklaringen till detta är att vid jämvikt kommer företagarna att värdesätta en expansion med internt eller externt kapital på liknande sätt. Detta implicerar att det snarare är den totala mängden riskkapital som påverkar företagens tillväxt och överlevnad, och inte huruvida kapitalet genereras internt eller externt.

    En annan tolkning är att företagarna fortfarande föredrar att växa med internt uppbyggt kapital eftersom resultaten visar effekten på företagstillväxten och överlevnadssannolikheten, givet den initiala uppbyggnaden av internt kapital i företagen. Den initiala nivån av internt kapital har således ingen effekt på företagsutvecklingen, men en ökning av det interna kapitalet i förhållande till tillgången på externt kapital kan fortfarande leda till att fler företag vill expandera sin verksamhet.

    Många företagare i Sverige väljer också att inte växa trots att de har relativt god lönsamhetsutveckling. Detta kan betyda att vi inte observerar några samband mellan det internt uppbyggda kapitalet och företagens utveckling eftersom många företagare inte vill växa under de rådande institutionella förutsättningarna. Det finns med andra ord utelämnande variabler, till exempel olika tillväxtbarriärer (regelkrångel, strikt anställningsskydd, matchningsproblem, etc.), som kan förklara varför det interna kapitalet inte har någon observerad betydelse för tillväxten och företagens överlevnad i vår studie.

    Slutligen kan en möjlig förklaring vara att företagens tillväxt och överlevnad i mycket hög utsträckning är slumpmässig. Detta innebär att det blir svårt att förklara vad det är som påverkar företagens utveckling, vilket också implicerar att selektiva stödåtgärder för att få fler växande företag är dömda att misslyckas.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan vi konstatera att våra resultat inte ger något stöd för hypotesen att företag med tillgång till internt kapital växer snabbare och har en högre överlevnadssannolikhet än de företag som har tillgång till mindre internt uppbyggt kapital. Resultaten bygger på de rådande institutionella förutsättningarna i Sverige under perioden 1997–2010 och är avgränsade till att studera effekten av det initialt uppbyggda kapitalet i bolagen. Vi undersöker inte företagarnas preferenser, det vill säga om de föredrar mer internt kapital framför externt kapital när de ska expandera verksamheten, eller om en ökning av det internt uppbyggda kapitalet har en större tillväxteffekt än mer externt kapital.

  • 7.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Stockholm.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Nilsson, Helena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    What happens when IKEA comes to town?2017In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 313-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a new IKEA store on retail revenues, employment and inflow of purchasing power in the entry municipalities as well as in neighbouring municipalities were investigated using data from 2000–11. A propensity score-matching method was used to find non-IKEA entry municipalities that were as similar as possible to the entry municipalities based on the situation before entry. The results indicate that IKEA entry increased entry municipality durable goods revenues by about 20% and employment by about 17%. Only small and, in most cases, statistically insignificant effects were found in neighbouring municipalities.

  • 8.
    Han, Mengjie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Sweden.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research, Sweden.
    Comparison and one-stop shopping after big-box retail entry: a spatial difference-in-difference analysis2018In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 40, p. 175-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically measures the potential spillover effects of big-box retail entry on the productivity of incumbent retailers in the entry regions, and investigates whether the effects differ depending on 1) if the entry is in a rural or urban area, and 2) if the incumbent retailers are within retail industries selling substitute or complement goods to those found in IKEA. To identify the IKEA-entry effect, a difference-in-difference model is suitable, but traditionally such estimators neglect the possibility that firms’ sales are determined by a process with spatially interactive responses. If ignored, these responses may cause biased estimates of the IKEA entry effect due to spatial heterogeneity of the treatment effect. One objective of this paper is thus to propose a spatial difference-in-difference estimator accounting for possible spatial spillover effects of IKEA entry. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of a suitable weight matrix accounting for the spatial links between firms, where we allow for local spatial interactions such that the outcome of observed units depends both on their own treatment as well as on the treatment of their neighbors. Our results show that for complementary goods retailers (or one-stop shopping retailers) in Haparanda and Kalmar, productivity increased by 35% and 18%, respectively, due to IKEA entry. No statistically significant effects were found for the entries in Karlstad and Gothenburg, indicating that it is mainly incumbents in smaller entry regions that benefit from IKEA entry. Also, for incumbent retailers selling substitute (or comparison shopping) goods no significant effects were found in any of the entry regions, indicating that it is mainly retailers selling complementary goods that benefit from IKEA entry. Finally, our results also show that ignoring the possibility of spatially correlated treatment effects in the regression models reduces the estimated impact of the IKEA entries in Haparanda and Kalmar on productivity in one-stop shopping retail firms with 3% and 0.1% points, respectively. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 9.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Does voluntary audit increase small firm growth?: Evidence from a natural experiment2017In: EAA 2017 Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many European countries have abolished mandatory audits for small firms, but we still lack knowledge on whether this affects small firm growth. A Swedish reform in 2010 made audits voluntary for small firms fulfilling certain requirements, while firms that did not meet these requirements still had mandatory audits. We argue that this regulatory change created an almost perfect natural experiment, which can be exploited to evaluate the effects of the reform on employment growth using a difference-in-difference estimator. Our results show that firms who fulfil the requirements for voluntary auditing, as compared to a control group of firms that does not, increased their employment growth rates by on average 0.39%, corresponding to 5 500 jobs being created in the three years following the reform. It thus seems that voluntary audits are reducing the regulatory burden for small firms, making resources available that can be used to increase the number of employees. The current threshold levels for mandatory audits are still significantly lower in Sweden than in most other European countries, which implies that the policymakers in Sweden could create more jobs in small and medium-sized firms if they increased the size threshold levels for mandatory audits.

  • 10.
    Huq, Asif
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Hartwig, Fredrik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    The effect of audit reform on the employment growth of small Swedish limited companies: A natural experiment2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the regulatory burden for firms will free resources that can be used for productive investments. In this paper, we investigate the effect of a change in regulations, in effect abolishing statutory audits for Swedish micro firms in November 2010, on employment growth in the affected micro firms. The changes in regulations created what we argue is an almost perfect natural experiment that can be exploited to evaluate the effects of the reform on employment growth using a difference-in-difference estimator. Our results show that employment growth is higher in firms which fulfil the requirements for voluntary auditing as compared to a control group of firms of similar sizes that does not, and the positive treatment effect is found for micro firms in all Swedish counties and in all types of industries. We estimate that the reform created 1276 jobs in the three years following the reform. We thus suggest that the current threshold for statutory audits should be increased in Sweden, whose threshold levels for statutory audits are significantly lower than in most other European countries even after the 2010 changes in regulations. Such a regulatory change would, in all likelihood, lead to employment growth in the affected firms. 

  • 11.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector2013In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402, Vol. 23, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the determinants of firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector using a unique dataset covering over 10,000 Swedish wholesale trade firms during the years 2000 to 2004. The results indicate that there are negative correlations between profits, firm age, and firm size and the probability of firm migration. There is a positive correlation between firm growth in the previous year and firm migration, indicating that growth opportunities that cannot be realized at the present location are an important motivation for migration.

  • 12.
    Håkansson, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Information Systems. Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Macuchova, Zuzana
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Predicting entry of Swedish wholesale firms into local markets2014In: International Review of Retail Distribution & Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, E-ISSN 1466-4402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying microeconomic theory, we develop a forecasting model for firm entry into local markets and test this model using data from the Swedish wholesale industry. The empirical analysis is based on directly estimating the profit function of wholesale firms. Profits are assumed to depend on firm- and location-specific factors, and the profit equation is estimated using panel data econometric techniques. Using the residuals from the profit equation estimations, we identify local markets in Sweden where firm profits are abnormally high given the level of all independent variables included in the profit function. From microeconomic theory, we then know that these local markets should have higher net entry than other markets, all else being equal, and we investigate this in a second step, also using a panel data econometric model. The results of estimating the net-entry equation indicate that 19 out of 30 estimated models have more net entry in high-return municipalities, but the estimated parameter is only statistically significant at conventional levels in one of our estimated models, and then with an unexpected negative sign.

  • 13.
    Li, Yujiao
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Håkansson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    HUI Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Agglomeration economies in urban retailing: Are there productivity spillovers when big-box retailers enter urban markets?2019In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that big-box retail entry does not affect the productivity of incumbent retailers when entry occurs in urban areas. In this paper, we show that there are positive spillover effects of big-box retail entry to incumbent retailers in urban areas as well, but that these are limited to relatively small retailers, making the effects difficult to detect using traditional econometric methods, such as difference-in-difference estimation on the full sample of firms. In a two-step procedure, we first use panel smooth transition regression to determine size thresholds that delimit incumbent retail firms by their possible reactions to the new big-box entry. We then use difference-in-difference estimations on these subgroups of firms to determine, within each group, the direction and magnitude of the effects of big-box entry on their productivity. For the group of small incumbent retailers, we find positive spillover effects on productivity of approximately 9%.

  • 14.
    Mihaescu, Oana
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography. HUI Research.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics.
    Defining relevant markets for pharmacuticals2017In: Bulletin of Economic Research, ISSN 0307-3378, E-ISSN 1467-8586, Vol. 69, no 4, p. E126-E149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold of own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down to products included in the same class on the four-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system as defined by the World Health Organization. The spatial regression model further indicates that increases in the price of a product significantly lower quantity sold of that product and in the same time increase the quantity sold of competing products. For close substitutes (products belonging to the same class on the seven-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), as well as for products that, without being close substitutes, belong to the same therapeutic/pharmacological/chemical subgroup (the same class on the five-digit level of the Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical system), increased competition is also visible after 1 July 2009 when the latest policy changes with regards to pharmaceuticals have been implemented in Sweden.

  • 15.
    Rudholm, Niklas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics. HUI Research.
    Li, Yujiao
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach. How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using  data  from  2001–2012,  the  effects  of  IKEA  entry  in  four  Swedish  municipalities,   2004–2007,   on   labor   productivity   in   durable   goods   retailing   is   investigated  using  synthetic  control  methods.  We contribute  to  the  literature  on  synthetic   control   methods   by considering   parametric   specifications   of   the   intervention effect, which in our case arguably improves the likelihood of identifying the intervention effect of IKEA entry on labor productivity. As inference relies on a single  treated  observational  unit  (i.e.,  a  single  IKEA-entry  municipality),  statistical  testing  is  a  challenge,  and  randomization  and  replication  for  inference  is  done  with  regard to the pool of control municipalities. Our results indicate that in three out of four  entry  municipalities,  labor  productivity  increased  more  than  in  their  synthetic  counterparts after IKEA entry, and that the size of the positive effect is related to the size of the new IKEA relative to the size of the existing durable goods retail sector in the entry municipalities, with larger positive effects found in municipalities where the new IKEA was large relative to the existing durable goods retail market.

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