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  • 1. Chèze, David
    et al.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Betak, Jan
    Broum, Michal
    Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Franz, Hengel
    Hamp, Quirin
    Poppi, Stefano
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Final report on Control strategies, fault detection and on-line diagnosis in WP6 - Deliverable 6.4: MacSheep -New Materials and Control for a next generation of compact combined Solar and heat pump systems with boosted energetic and exergetic performance2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this work package was to investigate generic control strategies, generic fault-detection and on-line diagnosis algorithms that may apply to the developed prototypes of solar and heatpump systems within MacSheep. The results should lead toimproved reliability and/orincreased energy savings for the end-userthrough new controller features. The use of DHW consumption forecast was identified as a promising control strategy and a simple yet reasonably effective algorithm to get the water tapping behaviourof the userwas developed. Viessmannimplemented the ideas of this approach in an ICT solution for their controller to provide statistical tapping informationto the user who can then set the period when hot waterthatis expected to be used. The operationalstrategy based on DHW consumptionforecast for one hour was not implemented since the potential gains are small (~2%) and there is ahigh user discomfort risk in the case of an inaccurate forecastPrevious studies have shown that solar overheating of the building led to gas savings with solar gas combisystems. Using a similar strategy on the MacSheep reference system did not lead to significant savings, due to strong interactions between space and DHW heating and a higher share of HP operation time for DHW charging of the store, which has a lower efficiency.Another smart control strategy was investigated forvariable electricity pricesusing overheating of the building and/or the DHW volume of the store.The main conclusion of the study is that the combination of the two algorithms led to cost savings for the Austria (Graz) and France (Chambery) with both theSFH45 and SFH100 buildings.Since only the share related to user consumption varies during the day while the grid and transmission costs are usually constant, thecost savings were small, far below 1%.Among the proposed fault detection algorithms for solar and heat pump systems, detection of wrongly connected tubes in the solar collector loop was found interesting by Viesmmann and Regulus. It was implemented and tested in their respective prototype controller. Regulus also implemented the detection of wrong order phase connections in its heat pump prototype as well as threshold tests on abnormal temperature and pressure evolution.

  • 2.
    Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Energirenovering av småhus - en förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building stock in Sweden is in great need of renovation, not least our single family houses. The need for renovation does not only consist of maintenance of the buildings, but also increased energy efficiency in order to reach set targets. It is not enough to only make changes to the heating systems, something that is especially common among single family houses in the form of switching to a heat pump, but improvements to the building envelope are also required. Extensive and a broad range of activities have been made for multifamily buildings but for single family houses only smaller, more directed activities have been made. This can partly be due to the difficulty of reaching out to the approximately two million single family house owners in the country who form a much diversified group, with different motivations and wishes (even within the same household), economic conditions and interest for energy renovation.

     Dalarna University has previously performed a number of studies on energy renovation of single family houses from various perspectives, but no holistic study. This study aims to do a review of the knowledge in the field and also engage in a dialogue with chosen actors during seminars and workshops, in order to investigate how the development of energy renovation for single family houses can be moved forward on a national level.

     The study shows that there is a large potential for energy renovation in the single family house stock, but also many barriers that must be overcome. These barriers are to a smaller degree technical, but instead other problem areas dominate such as financing, lack of suitable policy instruments, lack of knowledge among involved actors, regulations etc.. The study has not been able to identify good examples of frameworks covering all the necessary aspects in order to encourage single family house owners to perform energy renovations of sufficient scale. Additionally, the large number of actors required to undertake an extensive energy renovation means that a high level of knowledge, a wide network of contacts and a large commitment are required; something found in few single family house owners. There is also no clear stakeholder willing to engage in this type of turnkey design and building contracting for single family houses.

     The overall assessment of the key actors involved in this pre study is that a broad commitment is required in order for the single family house sector significantly contributing to set targets for improved energy efficiency in buildings. The commitment must be long term as well as including multi- and interdisciplinary research and business development in order to lay the foundations for relevant and effective policy instruments and awareness increasing knowledge interventions.

  • 3.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Börjesson, Petter
    Energiexpertis.
    Paketrenovering i småhus med BELOK Totalmetodik: Resultat som beslutsunderlag vid finansiering med energilån?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att illustrera en metod för att hjälpa ägare av mindre fastigheter att nå en högre energieffektiviseringsgrad vid renovering genom paketering av åtgärder. Metoden som används, BELOK Totalprojekt, utvecklades ursprungligen för användning ilokaler och kommersiella byggnader, men vår ambition i Dalarna är att visa metodens tillämpning även för mindre fastigheter som småhus. Det som avgör fastighetsägarensbeslut om åtgärdspaket är ofta dels osäkerheten kring vad som är rätt åtgärder men också kring kostnaden och lönsamheten med investerat kapital. Metoden som visas i denna rapport kan avsevärt minska dessa osäkerheter och på så vis även underlätta vid kreditgivares bedömning när eventuella lån ska beviljas.

    I den här studien har fyra typiska småhus av olika ålderskategori genomgått en energianalys för att identifiera tekniskt möjliga åtgärder för att minska energianvändningen. Dessa åtgärder har sedan satts samman till ett antal åtgärdspaket för att slutligen lönsamhetsberäknas med hjälp av BELOK Totalverktyg. Resultaten presenteras i form av internräntediagram, vilket ger ett mått på paketets lönsamhet, årsbehov av köpt energi och primärenergi före och efter åtgärderna samt slutligen årlig energikostnad för varje paket.

    Resultatet visar att det går att göra lönsamma åtgärdspaket som når en halvering av energianvändningen (både köpt energi och primärenergi) i 2 av 4 studerade hus. De två hus som klarar av att lönsamt halvera energianvändningen är båda uppvärmda med el utan värmepump eller energiåtervinning på ventilationen. Det ena huset där en lönsam halvering inte är möjlig är uppvärmt med fjärrvärme och det andra är ett nyare hus som är utrustat med värmeåtervinning på ventilationsluften. Om man har ett relativt billigt uppvärmningssätt (fjärrvärme kontra el) eller om byggnaden redan har en låg energianvändning är det svårt att nå en lönsam halvering. Det går dock att hitta mindre åtgärdspaket som är lönsamma och samtidigt innebär en betydande energieffektivisering.

    En annan slutsats från resultaten är att det är relativt enkelt att göra stora besparingar i både köpt energi och primärenergi i ett eluppvärmt hus genom att installera någon form av värmepump. Att installera en värmepump i ett hus uppvärmt med fjärrvärme kan ge en stor besparing i köpt energi, men ger enbart en måttlig besparing i primärenergi. Att byta från el till förnyelsebar energikälla (pellets i detta fall) ger i ett av exemplen en nästan oförändrad användning av köpt energi medan man når en halvering av primärenergianvändningen. Det är alltså viktigt att poängtera att en kostnadseffektivisering med de metoder som används i rapporten inte nödvändigtvis leder till en energieffektivisering i ett större sammanhang, där primärenergi vägs in.

    Denna rapport är resultatet från Lågan-projektet 2014:12 ”BELOK S – exempel påtillämpning i befintliga småhus”. Projektet är finansierat av Lågan (och därmed indirekt av Energimyndigheten), ByggDialog Dalarna samt Högskolan Dalarna genom Energi- och miljökompetenscentrum, EMC. Även tre banker har bidragit med egen tid i form av deltagande i intervjuer samt synpunkter och dessa är Swedbank Falun, Länsförsäkringar bank Dalarna samt Leksands sparbank.

  • 4.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Heier, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    The perception of Swedish housing owner’s on the strategies to increase the rate of energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings2018In: Intelligent Buildings International, ISSN 1750-8975, E-ISSN 1756-6932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the energy performance of existing buildings is crucial for reaching both EU and national climate and energy targets. The main objective of this study was to map challenges that Swedish housing owners perceive when making energy-efficiency refurbishments. A secondary objective was to compare how well these challenges relate to national strategies. The study applied a combined methods approach with audience response meters and in-depth qualitative semi-structured interviews. The housing owners express the view that they have sufficient knowledge of national ambitions to improve the energy performance of buildings and welcome the new building regulations. Despite this supposed knowledge and the current economic situation with beneficial loans, the refurbishment rate still remains low. The housing owners explain that they are concerned about the ‘performance gap’ and request more accurate energy performance predictions. They are also waiting for proof that all sustainability goals can be reached in reality. Probably, too few projects fulfilling ambitions in all categories: economically, socially and energy-wise have been followed up and demonstrated nationally. The new national information centre on refurbishment of buildings may help to spread information about such projects, raise awareness and thus increase the refurbishment rate.

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