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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalens högskola, Inbyggda system.
    Videography as Design Nexus: Critical Inquires into the Affordances and Efficacies of Live-action Video Instructions2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about live-action instructional videos (LAVs). By addressing design problems with respect to the how-to video genre, the thesis asks fundamental questions about mediated instructional communication efficacies and the factors that either obstruct or augment them. 

    The analysis presented in this thesis is based on the notion that videography is a design nexus and key focal point of the connections that make live-action video instructional efforts possible. This Design Nexus is explored by defining and illuminating key ontological dimensions, medium specificities and the video users’ cognitive capacities. This is to acknowledge that the users of instructions in this thesis are center stage, both as biological and cultural beings.

    The methods used in this thesis and its associated papers are eye-tracking, video observations, questionnaires, self-reports, focus group interviews and YouTube analytics. Hence, both numerical data and non-numerical data are analyzed in this study.

    The results of the analyses indicate that pre-production planning is key in live-action video instructional endeavors, but not at the expense of the videographer’s status as designer. Moreover, the analyses show that users’ cognitive processing and visual decoding depend on the power of the live-action format to show actual human behavior and action. Other presented evidence seems to infer that LAV-instructions are a little less demanding if users apply a focused decoding style when interacting with them. Nevertheless, physiological engagement of this kind is likely not to fully compensate for users’ psychological engagement.

    This thesis contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of humans’ abilities to interpret the actions of others via medial means. By relating this to video medium-specific affordances, this thesis also furthers important efficacy distinctions and boundary conditions. This understanding is considered important for live-action video makers and designers of visual instructions as well as scholars who need to develop better methods to assess users’ behavioral engagement when they interact with digital instructional media.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Live-action communication design: a technical how-to video case study2019In: Technical Communication Quarterly, ISSN 1057-2252, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 69-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study is based on a research through design project (RTD) thatfocuses on a technical communication video of the live-action format. Itinvestigates the usability and design-implications of a live-action how-tovideo, by means of analyzing user-centered data such as YouTube analyticsdata, usability, and comprehension assessments. In the study, four key liveactionvideo affordances are identified: verifiability, comparability, recordability,and visibility. The identification of these affordances when related tothe users’ assessments resulted in several design implementations thatwould warrant sought-for communication efficacies. Findings show thatsome assumed efficacies appear to be mitigated by the complexity andthe density of the video information. One implication of this is that theimplementation of conventional video editing techniques and the additionof on-screen text that serve to make content briefer and more concise intoinstructional live-action videos requires the technical communicator’s carefulconsideration.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production. Mälardalen University.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency2014In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014 / [ed] Mirko Meboldt, Sven Matthiesen, Petra Badke-Schaub, Quentin Lohmeyer, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    How gaze time on screen impacts the efficacy of visual instructions2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 6, article id e00660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores whether GTS (gaze time on screen) can be useful as an engagement measure in the screen mediated learning context. Research that exemplifies ways of measuring engagement in the on-line education context usually does not address engagement metrics and engagement evaluation methods that are unique to the diverse contemporary instructional media landscape. Nevertheless, unambiguous construct definitions of engagement and standardized engagement evaluation methods are needed to leverage instructional media's efficacy. By analyzing the results from a mixed methods eye-tracking study of fifty-seven participants evaluating their visual and assembly performance levels in relation to three visual, procedural instructions that are versions of the same procedural instruction, we found that the mean GTS-values in each group were rather similar. However, the original GTS-values outputted from the ET-computer were not entirely correct and needed to be manually checked and cross validated. Thus, GTS appears not to be a reliable, universally applicable automatic engagement measure in screen-based instructional efforts. Still, we could establish that the overall performance of learners was somewhat negatively impacted by lower than mean GTS-scores, when checking the performance levels of the entire group (N = 57). When checking the stimuli groups individually (N = 17, 20, 20), the structural diagram group's assembly time durations were positively influenced by higher than mean GTS-scores.

  • 5.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Effects of continuity or discontinuity in actual film editing2018In: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A film editor’s refining of film edits at a frame-by-frame matching is an effort of perceptual precision. This paper investigates whether a failure of a few frames would jeopardize the perceived continuity of the film. 33 Swedish students, 17 female, average age 26, were eye tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence, where one version was completed to satisfaction by a film editor, and the other version had its edits altered 4-6 frames against the film editor’s intentions.

    The analysis scrutinized gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest (AoI:s) appointed by the film editor, as well as saccade frequency and pupil dilation after edit points. No significant difference was found for gaze hits in AoI:s, whereas saccade frequency increased 120-400 ms after edit points by  29.4%, and pupil sizes increased by 28% relative size, 200-500 ms after edits, both in the altered version of the film sequence.

    These results indicates that the altered film sequence constrained viewers, with possible cognitive effects, which implies that the frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

  • 6.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Moving Image Production.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens Högskola / IPR.
    Workflow management: design management support in professional audiovisual production2012In: SDPS-2012: PROCEEDINGS OF The Fifteenth International Conference on Technology of Complex Systems / [ed] Dr. Sang Suh, Dr. Wolfgang Reisig, Texas, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 144-151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the need for design management support within the Audiovisual Industry, due to the increasing variety of video file formats and codecs available to professionals. The amount of video file formats and codecs are referred to as ‘the file format jungle’ by moving image professionals, and needs to be navigated by managerial staff that are not electronic engineers or technicians, but responsible for audio-visual design work within film and TV production.

    We have evaluated a prototype for a design management support tool that compares file formats and codecs for different production tools, with the help of Swedish moving image industry producers. The core principals of the support tool prototype are found to cohere with the needs for design management support within film and TV production, and the tool is therefore an option for commercial development.

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