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  • 1.
    Gyhlesten Back, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. Luleå tekniska universitet, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Modelling and Characterisation of the Martensite Formation in Low Alloyed Carbon Steels2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work contains experimental and theoretical work about the formation of martensite from the austenitic state of the steel Hardox 450. Simulation of rolling and subsequent quenching of martensitic steel plates requires a model that can account for previous deformation, current stresses and the temperature history, therefore dilatometry experiments were performed, with and without deformation. Two austenitization schedules were used and in the standard dilatometry the cooling rates varied between 5-100 °C/s, in order to find the minimum cooling rate that gives a fully martensitic microstructure. Cooling rates larger than 40°C/s gave a fully martensitic microstructure. The cooling rate of 100 °C/s was used in the deformation dilatometry tests where the uniaxial deformation varied from 5-50 %. The theoretical work involved modelling of the martensite formation and the thermal/transformation strains they cause in the steel. Characterizations were done using light optical microscopy, hardness tests and electron backscatter diffraction technique. The parent austenite grains of the martensitic structure were reconstructed using the orientation relationship between the parent austenite and the martensite. Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationships have previously been proven to work well for low-carbon steels and was therefore selected.

    The standard implementation of the Koistinen-Marburger equation for martensite formation and a more convenient approach were compared. The latter approach does not require the storage of initial austenite fraction at start of martensite formation. The comparison shows that the latter model works equally well for the martensite formation. The results showed that the use of martensite start and finish temperatures calibrated versus experiments for Hardox 450 works better when computing thermal expansion than use of general relations based on the chemistry of the steel.

    The results from deformation dilatometry showed that deformation by compressive uniaxial stresses impedes the martensite transformation. The simplified incremental model works well for deformation with 5 % and 10 %. However, the waviness in the experimental curve for deformation 50 % does not fit the model due vi to large barrelling effect and the large relative expansion for the material that the sample holders are made of.

    Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grains were performed on a hot-rolled as-received reference sample and dilatometry samples cooled with 60 °C/s and 100 °C/s. The misorientation results showed that the samples match with the Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship in both hot rolled product and dilatometry samples. When misorientation between adjacent pixels are between 15° and 48°, then the boundary between them was considered as a parent austenite grain. The austenitic grain boundaries of the sample cooled at 100 °C/s is in general identical with the hot rolled sample when considering high angle boundaries (15°-48°). The results from the hardness tests showed that the rolled product exhibits higher hardness as compared to samples cooled by 100 °C/s and 60 °C/s. This can be attributed to the formation of transition-iron-carbides in the hot rolled product due to longer exposure of coiling temperature.

  • 2.
    Gyhlesten Back, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Simplified Implementation of the Koistinen-Marburger Model for Use in Finite Element Simulations2016In: Proceedings of the 11th international congress on thermal stresses, Severino: Edizioni Paguro , 2016, p. 107-110Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gyhlesten Back, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology. Research and Development, SSAB Europe, Borlänge.
    Engberg, Göran
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Investigation of parent austenite grains from martensite structure using EBSD in a wear resistant steel2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 5, article id 453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystallographic reconstruction of parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensitic microstructure in a wear resistant steel was carried out using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The present study mainly aims to investigate the parent austenite grains from the martensitic structure in an as-rolled (reference) steel sample and samples obtained by quenching at different cooling rates with corresponding dilatometry. Subsequently, this study is to correlate the nearest cooling rate by the dilatometer which yields a similar orientation relationship and substructure as the reference sample. The Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship was used to reconstruct the parent austenite grain boundaries from the martensite boundaries in both reference and dilatometric samples using EBSD crystallographic data. The parent austenite grain boundaries were successfully evaluated from the EBSD data and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. The parent austenite grain boundaries of the reference sample match the sample quenched at 100 °C/s (CR100). Also the martensite substructures and crystallographic textures are similar in these two samples. The results from hardness measurements show that the reference sample exhibits higher hardness than the CR100 sample due to the presence of carbides in the reference sample.

  • 4.
    Gyhlesten Back, Jessica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Lindgren, Lars-Erik
    Luleås tekniska universitet.
    Modelling of the influence of prior deformation of austenite on the martensite formation in a low-alloyed carbon steel2018In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 941, p. 95-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work aims at developing models supporting design of the rolling and quenching processes. This requires a martensite formation model that can account for effect of previous plastic deformation as well as evolution of stress and temperature during the quenching step. The effect of deformation prior to the cooling on the transformation is evaluated. The experimental result shows that prior deformation impedes the martensite transformation due to the mechanical stabilisation of the austenite phase. Larger deformation above 30% reduces the effect of the mechanical stabilisation due to increase in martensite nucleation sites. The computed transformation curves, based on an extended version of the Koistinen-Marburger equation, agree well with experimental results for pre-straining less than 30 %. 

  • 5. Lindgren, L. -E
    et al.
    Gyhlesten Back, Jessica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Materials Technology.
    Elastic properties of ferrite and austenite in low alloy steels versus temperature and alloying2019In: Materialia, ISSN 2589-1529, Vol. 5, article id 100193Article in journal (Refereed)
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