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  • 1.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Bastu i vått och torrt2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-cultural analysis of Finnish vs. Japanese politeness strategies2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-Cultural Analysis of Swedish vs. Japanese Politeness Strategies2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. However, the attitude surveys I conducted over the past eight years indicate that Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or unintentionally, Swedish students often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies as Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, with the elimination of the second person plural form ni to indicate a higher level of politeness reflecting this change. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and the culture they find themselves in.

    Cross-cultural data on polite discourse shows that the politeness strategies differ considerably across cultures. While politeness, respect, and formality are closely associated in Japanese (e.g., Ide 1989, 2006; Matsumoto 1988, 1989, 1993) Swedish speakers perceive respect and politeness as separate matters (Björk 2014; Brumark 2006; Utrzén 2011; Norrbom 2006). Studies have also found that while Japanese speakers are inclined to use verbal politeness strategies, Swedish speakers tend to express respect through non-verbal actions or behaviors (Norrbom 2006; Pizziconi 2008; Utrzén 2011).

    Language and identity are closely related, and language use is based on culture and society. Understanding both one’s own politeness strategies as well as foreign norms can help learners realize how culture, language, and their own identity are intertwined. Learners of Japanese should therefore consider polite discourse as part of the rules of the language rather than as something that can be modified based on one’s opinion.

    Based on an analysis of cross-cultural differences in politeness strategies between Japanese and Swedish seen from both cultural and linguistic viewpoints, this study investigates politeness strategies used by Swedish and Japanese speakers by conducting attitude surveys and by analyzing the types of pragmatic errors made by Swedish learners of Japanese along with possible reasons for such errors.

    Teaching communicative competence is extremely important in language instruction. Speakers can avoid embarrassing situations and conflicts caused by misunderstandings if they are aware of differences in inter-cultural pragmatics. Studies have shown that pragmatics can be taught effectively by using appropriate methods and tools (Cohen & Ishihara 2005, Bardovi-Harlig & Mahan-Taylor 2003). By demonstrating the use of the Japanese honorific system more systematically and contrasting it with Swedish politeness strategies, I aim to motivate students to learn honorific expressions, thus enabling them to communicate more successfully in Japanese.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan and Sweden suggested by previous studies and discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish speakers’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from the surveys and error analyses I conducted. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be discussed.

     

  • 4.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Cross-cultural pragmatics: Challenges and implications of teaching Japanese politeness strategies to learners of L2 Japanese2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Japanese politeness discourse varies in complexity according to social distance, relative power between speakers, and social situations. Yet Swedish learners of Japanese often do not see the necessity of learning polite discourse and often view such forms negatively. Intentionally or otherwise, Swedish learners often fail to use appropriate politeness strategies in large part because Sweden is one of the most egalitarian societies in the world. However, it is important to point out to foreign language learners that cultural and social norms are not cross-culturally interchangeable and that speakers must often adapt to the language they are learning and to the culture they find themselves in.

    In this presentation, I will first offer various definitions and views of politeness in Japan, Sweden, and the US as well as other English-speaking countries as suggested by previous studies, and I will discuss the reasons why these came to be viewed as they are today. Second, Swedish learners’ attitudes toward the use of Japanese polite forms will be examined using data from surveys and error analyses. Finally, various methods for overcoming cross-cultural miscommunication caused by differences in politeness strategies will be proposed, which may be applied to learners of other languages.

  • 5.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Finrando to nihon no tango būmu kara kaimamiru ryōkoku kyōtsū no rekishiteki, shakaiteki haikei2019In: Nihon to finrando no deai to tsunagari: / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Ojiro Suzuki, Okayama: Daigaku Kyoiku Shuppan , 2019, p. 197-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Tangon huumaa: Musiikki ja tanssi mielenmaisemien siltana2019In: Suomi ja Japani: Kaukaiset mutta läheiset / [ed] Juha Saunavaara, Laura Ipatti, Helsinki: Edita Publishing Oy, 2019, p. 190-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    The Development of Identity and Intercultural Communicative Competence in NNS-NNS Online Interaction2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As demonstrated in recent studies of Computer-assisted language learning (CALL), authentic intercultural contexts can be created by using online exchanges to enhance students’ foreign language learning and identity. While research on telecollaboration and identity has mainly focused on NS-NNS interactions, this study examines NNS-NNS telecollaborative interactions.

    The study examines two sets of NNSs with different L1 backgrounds, namely NNSs of Japanese from universities in the US and Sweden. The project combines telecollaborative activities consisting of both asynchronous written (blogs) and synchronous verbal (online discussions).

    The Intercultural Dialogue (ID) model (Houghton, 2012) was used to evaluate the outcome. The model consists of five stages: 1) Analysis of Self; 2) Analysis of Other; 3) Critical analysis of value similarities (or differences) between Self and Other; 4) Critical evaluation of the values of Self and Other relative to a standard; and 5) Identity development.

    Results indicate that through their written and oral discussions, the students’ choice of words constructed images of the person they are or wished to be perceived as while building an understanding of their own identities. This shows that language use does not necessarily reflect who one is but is used to contribute to the construction of one’s identities. We also observed that there exists a stage prior to the first stage in the ID-model, namely a “no-awareness” stage. Furthermore, our findings indicate that Stage 1 “Awareness of Self” occurs as two sub-stages: 1-a) Awareness of single identity; and 1-b) Awareness of having multiple identities. Our data also suggest that at one point, several students were offering different critical evaluations of Self and Other as a result of their own and the Japanese cultural standard not fitting the standard identity development model, suggesting that the multicultural nature of NNS-NNS interactions involving different L1 backgrounds can accelerate identity development.

  • 8.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Yuge no nakae, hi-nichijō no sekai e (Into the steam, into the dream): Tsūka girei to shite no finrando no sauna to nihon no furo (The Finnish sauna and the Japanese furo as rite of passage)2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [ja]

    湯気の中へ、非日常の世界へ:

    通過儀礼としてのフィンランドのサウナと日本の風呂

     

    遠く離れた北欧フィンランドと極東日本。気候もそこに暮らす人々も一見全く異なるこのふたつの国に共通する熱い湯気の文化がある。フィンランド人が長い歴史の中で大切にしてきた「サウナ」、そして多くの日本人にとって欠かせない「風呂」。どちらも身体を清潔にする場所というだけではなく、宗教的・文化的意味合いや、癒し、儀礼とも深く関係していると考えられている。1998年にはフィンランドのユヴァスキュラで風呂とサウナに関するエキシビションも催されている。

    本発表では、フィンランドと日本での過去20年間のフィールドワークの結果をもとに、サウナと風呂が、それぞれどのようにそこに暮らす人々の人生や日々の生活の節目に行われる通過儀礼(van Gennep 1909)として機能しているのかを明らかにし、サウナと風呂文化に共通して見られるリミナリティー (Turner 1974)を「マクロモデルとマイクロモデル」(Niendorf 2000)を用いて文化人類学的観点から検証する。

  • 9.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Identity (re)construction and improvement in intercultural competence through synchronous and asynchronous telecollaboration: Connecting Japanese language learners in the United States and Sweden2019In: Technology-supported Learning In and Out of the Japanese Language Classroom: Advances in Pedagogy, Teaching and Research / [ed] E. Zimmerman & A. McMeekin, Multilingual Matters, 2019, p. 111-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Takamiya, Yumi
    et al.
    University of Alabama at Birmingham.
    Aida Niendorf, Mariya
    Dalarna University, School of Humanities and Media Studies, Japanese.
    Beikoku to suweeden no nihongo gakushuusha o tsunaida jissen  : Aidenthithi o teema ni shita torikumi [Connecting US-Swedish Japanese language learners: Identity as a main theme]2017In: Soosharu nettowaakingu apuroochi to nihongo kyoiku kenkyu happyokai houkoku ronshu [Selected conference proceeding: Social networking approach and Japanese language education 2016] / [ed] H. Shimizu, Tokyo: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science , 2017, p. 111-120Conference paper (Refereed)
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