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  • 1.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The role of workforce and labour in Nordic tourism strategies2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute (MTI), University of Lapland.
    Authenticity as a compromise: a critical discourse analysis of Sámi tourism websites2019In: Journal of Heritage Tourism, ISSN 1743-873X, E-ISSN 1747-6631, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 249-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity is considered a very important means to attract tourists. Different enterprises and destinations compete for visitors and authenticity is an important factor for visitors’ travel decisions. Within the context of indigenous and cultural tourism, several studies have criticized the way in which indigenous and local populations are portrayed in order to attract tourists, since they often involve colonial images and descriptions that are no longer corresponding to the contemporary situation. This study presents an alternative perspective on the discussion on tourism marketing in relation to authenticity. Through critical discourse analysis and retroduction, this study has analysed the websites of Sámi tourism companies from Sweden. The discussion put forward in this study is not a generalizing picture of how the Sámi peoples choose to market themselves, but it problematizes how these particular enterprises relate to issues of authenticity in the representation of cultural heritage. This paper also presents a new approach to authenticity seen as a compromise. The results of this study present one side of a multifaceted discussion on the struggle between different discourses on representations and authenticity that are often the main channel to reach and attract potential visitors.

  • 3.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Collaboration and social capital in rural areas: Tourism as driving force for resilience2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Destination competitiveness, the environment and sustainability challenges and cases2017In: Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1303-2917, E-ISSN 2156-6909, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 296-298Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    New approaches to heritage tourism research: a review of two recent volumes2019In: Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, ISSN 1476-6825, E-ISSN 1747-7654, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 239-245Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 6.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Reflections on the hegemonic exclusion of critical realism from academic settings: alone in a room full of people2018In: Journal of Critical Realism, ISSN 1476-7430, E-ISSN 1572-5138, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 374-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I discuss my personal experience of the issues that can arise when adopting critical realism in academic contexts dominated by irrealist (positivist, phenomenological and post-structuralist) methodological approaches. I draw inspiration for my analysis from the concept of Gramscian hegemony and the concept of ‘authenticity’. These concepts are related because hegemonic processes prevent individuals from freely expressing themselves. In my case, academic hegemony has resulted in social pressure to sacrifice my authentic critical realist self in order to achieve academic success. I also discuss groupthink dynamics, suggesting that they are a mechanism by which hegemony–and denial of individual authenticity–can be achieved. This paper is meant to be a theoretical and reflexive discussion, which could be the starting point for empirical studies investigating the situation of a critical realist in a hegemonic academic context. 

  • 7.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Sámi Indigenous Tourism Empowerment in the Nordic Countries through Labelling Systems: Strengthening Ethnic Enterprises and Activities2017In: Tourism and Ethnodevelopment: Inclusion, Empowerment and Self-determination / [ed] Ismar Borges de Lima, Victor T. King, Routledge, 2017, p. 200-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    The authentic tourism academic, a compromise?2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute, University of Lapland.
    "The question of authenticity in Sámi tourism: the role(s) of labels"2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Authenticity is discussed and considered relevant in a number of different tourism enterprises. Authenticity has had a strong, but debated conceptual role in tourism, while from a heritage management perspective it has been conceptualised according to more practical implications. In this paper, authenticity is mainly related to the information advertised in marketing and to the potential role of a new authenticity conceptualisation based on compromise. The discussion also considers the possible effects on Sámi tourism and Sámi heritage. Sámi tourism companies are involved in issues concerning authenticity, but from a slightly different perspective than the ones usually advanced in research. Sámi cultural heritage has been a relevant attraction for several decades and many issues have been identified with the use of Sámi culture in Nordic tourism. One of the biggest problems is the fact that the Sámi are an indigenous population composed of different groups with different languages and cultural aspects. The Sámi have to balance their culture’s connection to the past and the lively contemporary cultural manifestations in a way that is attractive to the tourists. In this regard, it is relevant to discuss the role of labels and certification in Sámi tourism enterprises and the potential upsides and downsides of adopting labelling schemes to different aspects of Sámi cultural heritage.  

     

    This paper is concerned with one aspect of a doctoral project and it focuses on the potential role of authenticity and labels. This study will present some of the labels that are in use in the context of Sámi tourism. Furthermore, the paper focuses on a cultural label created by Sámi entrepreneurs in Sweden, which will now be taken into consideration in a newly financed European NPA (Northern Periphery and Arctic programme) called ARCTISEN. Cultural labels are conceptualised as a potential way to sustain, promote and protect cultures such as Sámi culture, which have been subjected to the negative sides of tourism promotion and visitation. The paper will also outline current movements from Sámi institutions to promote the growth of different kinds of labels. The main goal is to present how authenticity and labels have a strong potential for different aspects of Sámi heritage involved in the tourism industry.

  • 10.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies. Multidimensional Tourism Institute - University of Lapland.
    Tourism, Public Transport and Sustainable Mobility2018In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, ISSN 1447-6770, Vol. 36, p. 119-120Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Tourism Studies.
    Pashkevich, Albina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Human Geography.
    Representations and National Marketing: the Case of Indigenous Peoples in Nordic and Russian DMOs’ webpages2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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