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  • 1.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    The Impact of Immigrant Entrepreneurship on Regional Development in Western Sweden2018In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 18-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how immigrant entrepreneurship impacts regional development. Three towns in Western Sweden are analysed,using unique data on company start-ups at a local level. The findings suggest that immigrant entrepreneurs are overrepresented in the start-ups of labour intensive and low productive businessesin the service sector. Such entrepreneurship does not promoteregional development, but it may get the entrepreneur out of thereliance onwelfare schemes and meet theirbills. Resultantly, the region appears to be caught in a vicious circle of underdevelopment, whereincompanies started by immigrant entrepreneurs experience a limited market expansion, and this leads to low savings,low consumption, reduced stock of capital in the economy,and low income.

    Thispaper offers important insights on how theory and results that stem from an aggregate national level may differ when entrepreneurship is analysed at a local level. It concludes that what works well and promotes regional development in metropolitan areas may lead to completely different outcomes in smaller towns in decaying industrial regions.

  • 2.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    A ‘bottom-up’ place marketing initiative: Destination Lund Sweden2018In: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the International Place Branding Association (IPBA), Hosted by the Destination Branding & Marketing Group (DBM-VI) / [ed] Leonardo Dioko, Macao SAR, China: Institute for Tourism Studies, Macao , 2018, p. 132-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. While New York Times and Vogue described Lund and the southernmost region in Sweden as an undiscovered pearl waiting to be explored, the local tourism office of Lund asked tourists to go to visit places outside Lund. This is not due to a huge and steady flow of tourists visiting the city of Lund. Lund is one of the oldest town in Scandinavia, with a rich and fascinating history.

    Aim. This paper aims at discussing the citizen initiative to place market the city of Lund.

    Main approach. Destination Lund can be seen as a ‘bottom-up’ response by residents in 2016 to the politically controlled local tourism office’s attempts to involve residents in ‘top-down’ activities and dismantling of the city brand. A unique material has been collected through participating observation.

    Key arguments/findings. By using smart tourism technologies and the fact that many of the members are experienced travellers, a set of downloadable material for smart phones and tablets in several languages have been developed: maps, guides, films and useful links. All material is free of charge on the Facebook page and at the blog. The local tourism office run by the municipality oppose – and even combat – these efforts, as they want the tourists to come to their office and buy their printed products; their focus is on the surrounding countryside.

    The digital map of sights and attractions, practical information (ATMs, toilets, bike stations etc.) has been a virtual success. The biking tour around the battlefield of the Battle of Lund has been highlighted by the Swedish Tourism Association. Moreover, some busloads of tourists have arrived to Lund.

    Conclusion. Several lessons can be learned from Lund. The locals are the best ambassadors for a place; Kotler is right indeed. Know-how and enthusiasm can achieve more in place marketing than the official tourism office with a budget. Moreover, the third sector can play an important role in place marketing activities. A key to successful place marketing lays in a good product and to master marketing through social media.

  • 3.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Nilson, Henrietta
    Högskolan Halmstad.
    Wine Tourism and Family Enterprises in Southern Sweden: Problems, Challenges and Potentials2019In: 4th Annual Conference of the International Place Branding Association, Volos, Greece, 27-29 November 2019, 2019, p. 83-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting in 1999, Sweden officially entered the EU wine sector with a quota of 250,000 litres p.a. Since then, the Swedish wine sector, predominantly located in southern Sweden, has commercialised and become a market in the agricultural area. As in other wine producing countries, the Swedish wine sector is dominated by family-owned businesses. It is established in gastronomy tourism research that e.g. wine tourism promote the regional image and attract new tourists to the region. About 50 wineries produce wine in southernmost Swedish region Scania (in Swedish: ‘Skåne’). Some of them have been commercially successful in linking wine production with tourism. Still, the sector appears to be unable to take-off.

    Aim. This paper aims at discussing the wine tourism in southern Sweden and its reliance on family business development. Three research questions are proposed to be answered: (1) is there a potential for wine tourism in southern Sweden? (2) What structural problems challenge the development of the Swedish wine tourism? (3) What is the impact of family businesses on wine tourism?

    Main approach. This is a market analysis based on secondary data. The discussion focuses on structural challenges, the marketing environment, to identify the key elements for family enterprises in entering a new market. 

    Key arguments/findings. Factors such as grapes, climate or technical issues regarding wine production cause little problems. The challenges to overcome lay in structural problems, e.g. a monopoly market due to the government alcohol monopoly, legal constraints, lack of marketing and promotion, lack of viticulture knowledge, networking and cooperation with local enterprise, and, hence, a relatively limited demand for Swedish wine.

    For family enterprises, wine tourism appears the most suitable opportunity to run a profitable business in the wine sector, and, hence, the family enterprises are, as in all wine producing countries, a key factor for wine production development.

    Conclusion. Most wine producers in southern Sweden have a profound interest and competence in wine producing from a technical side. At the same time, the lack of viticulture knowledge, marketing and promotion, networking and cooperating with local enterprise may partly explain why the Swedish wine sector does not take-off. The Swedish government alcohol monopoly rather represents a challenge than an insurmountable obstacle; the small local Swedish producers of e.g. vodka, gin, brandy and whiskey have successfully managed to deal with these legal constraints. As soon as the family owned Swedish wine sector understands how to attract new target groups with an unexpected, exotic and unique product, the Swedish wine tourism will take-off.

  • 4.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    How to measure the impact of place-marketing activities2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explicate and integrate the main methods of measuring the effects of place marketing. Rather than favouring one method over another a priori, we seek to understand each model on its own terms in order to illuminate key assumptions and hypotheses. Only after each method has been considered separately do we compare and contrast the different methods to provide a sound basis for evaluating the models measuring the effects of place marketing activities empirically.

    Generally, the methods hitherto developed to measure the effect of place marketing activities posit causal mechanisms in line with the ‘quasi-experimental’ evaluation model or are simple ex ante/ex post comparisons. This finding has implications for the formulation of place marketing activities. Depending on what method is used under what circumstances, the effects of place marketing activities will differ. The paper suggests a model for evaluating the impact of place marketing activities.

  • 5.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University of Eastern Finland.
    How to measure the impact of place-marketing activities2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to explicate and integrate the main methods of measuring the effects of place marketing. Rather than favouring one method over another a priori, we seek to understand each model on its own terms in order to illuminate key assumptions and hypotheses. Only after each method has been considered separately do we compare and contrast the different methods to provide a sound basis for evaluating the models measuring the effects of place marketing activities empirically.

    Generally, the methods hitherto developed to measure the effect of place marketing activities posit causal mechanisms in line with the ‘quasi-experimental’ evaluation model or are simple ex ante/ex post comparisons. This finding has implications for the formulation of place marketing activities. Depending on what method is used under what circumstances, the effects of place marketing activities will differ. The paper suggests a model for evaluating the impact of place marketing activities.

  • 6.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Literary Tourism in Sweden: Examples of Failure and Success2019In: 6th Corfu Symposium on Managing and Marketing Places / [ed] Heather Skinner, 2019, p. 161-164Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics (MESI).
    Rauhut, Daniel
    Högskolan Väst.
    Place Marketing and Rural Municipalities in Northern Sweden: A Content Analysis of Municipal Homepages2013In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The place marketing concept is one of the most popular concepts used in the analysis and promotion of countries, regions, cities and towns. The intensification of competition for investment, tourism and human resources among European cities and towns has increased the importance of being unique. Most studies on place marketing focus on unique selling points and thus on brands of already extensively ‘marketed’ countries, national capitals and other large metropolitan areas, while the rural towns that need more marketing attention, given their need to overcome their lack of material and non-material resources, are often ignored. This is based on the idea of the promotion to target markets of the unique selling points of the town in question.This paper aims to discuss the extent to which the place marketing concept can be viewed as an essential tool in the effective promotion of 75 rural towns in the seven northernmost regions of Sweden. The paper outlines the reasons why rural towns in Northern Sweden should use place marketing. The article also highlights the basic features of the place marketing concept and its key elements for rural towns as well as describing the target audience for rural towns while identifying their specific needs and wants.

  • 8.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Business Administration and Management.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University of Eastern Finland.
    The Place Marketing Concept of Rural Towns in Northern Sweden: What is the Unique Selling Point?2013In: 53rd Congress of the European Regional Science Association: "Regional Integration: Europe, the Mediterraneanand the World Economy": 27-31 August 2013, Palermo, Italy, European Regional ScienceAssociation (ERSA), Louvain-la-Neuve, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The place marketing concept is one of the popular concepts to analyze and promote countries, regions, cities and towns. The intensification of competition for investment, tourism and human resources among European cities and towns has increased the importance of being unique. Most of studies on place marketing however focus on the unique selling points and brands of countries, the capitals and the big cities, while rural towns need more marketing attention due to overcoming the lack of material and non-material resources in the towns. This is based on the idea of promotion to target markets of unique selling point of the town.This paper aims to discuss to what extent the place marketing concept as a necessary condition for an effective promotion of 75 rural towns in the seven northernmost regions in Sweden. The paper presents reasons for using the place marketing concept by rural towns in Northern Sweden. Also it contains features of the place marketing concept and its key elements for rural towns, describes the target audience for rural towns with their specific needs and wants.

  • 9.
    Rauhut Kompaniets, Olga
    et al.
    Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Rauhut, Daniel
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu.
    Why Urban and Rural Place Marketing Strategies Differ: A Theoretical Discussion2016In: Romanian Journal of Regional Science, ISSN 1843-8520, E-ISSN 1843-8520, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 23-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper promotes a theoretical discussion on the applicability of city marketing techniques when place marketing a rural area. The discussion focuses on the preconditions for successful place marketing in both cities and rural areas, illustrating how place marketing needs to be applied to be successful.The findings suggest that rural areas differ from cities and metropolitan areas –in terms of e.g. population, resources, vulnerability and resilience –thus making it difficult to essentially ‘copy-paste’ city marketing strategies and techniques onto rural areas. Place marketing has however become a lucrative area for private sector consultants uninterested in the time-consuming gathering of empirical evidence because their business model is based on reusing the same product.This paper offers important insights on the importance of theory when conducting place marketing; theorising successes and failures in place marketing could actually increase the efficiency of place marketing activities. For rural areas this could stimulate regional development. 

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