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  • 1. Bai, W.
    et al.
    Johanson, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Uppsala University.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. Center for International Business Studies, Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brazil.
    Ratajczak-Mrozek, M.
    Francioni, B.
    Where business networks and institutions meet: Internationalization decision-making under uncertainty2022Inngår i: Journal of International Management, ISSN 1075-4253, E-ISSN 1873-0620, Vol. 28, nr 1, artikkel-id 100904Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Both business networks and institutional forces are relevant to firm internationalization but they have seldom been studied together. We investigate under what circumstances firms are more likely to adopt non-predictive strategy in light of the influence of the business networks, the institutional forces, and the home market background affecting their internationalization. Based on survey data from 758 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from Brazil, China, Poland, Italy, and Sweden, our results support the effects of formal institutional distance and cultural differences on the use of non-predictive strategies by SMEs in internationalization decisions, as well as the contingency effects of business network stability and of having an emerging market background. We integrate research on the liability of foreignness and the liability of outsidership and find that business network stability is critical. It does not moderate the relation between cultural difference and NPS adoption but attenuates the negative relation between institutional distance and NPS adoption, indicating that the liabilities of foreignness and outsidership play different roles in internationalization. © 2021 The Author(s)

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  • 2.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China; Uppsala University.
    Hilmersson, M.
    Johanson, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Uppsala University.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    SMEs' regional diversification: dynamic patterns and home market institutional determinants2023Inngår i: International Marketing Review, ISSN 0265-1335, E-ISSN 1758-6763Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The authors seek to advance the understanding of small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) internationalization at the regional level and examine the role of home market institutions in this process. Design/methodology/approach: The authors analyze hypotheses with data from SMEs in five country markets and from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. A cluster analysis establishes the regional diversification patterns (based on regional diversification scope, speed and rhythm) and a multinomial regression tests the effect of home market institutions on their adoption. Findings: The results offer a refined picture of SME regional diversification by revealing three patterns: intra-regionally focused firms, late inter-region diversifiers and early inter-region diversifiers. They also suggest that the adoption of these patterns is determined by SMEs' home market institutions. Originality/value: The authors develop a nuanced understanding of SME internationalization by building upon and expanding the regionalization rationale in the internationalization patterns literature. Additionally, the authors address the acknowledged, yet rarely investigated, country-level determinants of internationalization patterns. © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 3.
    Bai, Wensong
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Zhejiang University of Technology, China; Uppsala University.
    Johanson, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Uppsala University; University of Huddersfield, UK.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. Center for International Business Studies, Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brazil.
    Ratajczak-Mrozek, Milena
    Poznan University.
    The Role of Business and Social Networks in the Effectual Internationalization: Insights from Emerging Market SMEs2021Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 129, s. 96-109Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the performance implications of the distinct mechanisms represented by business and social networks in the effectual internationalization. Our hypotheses consider the influence of both network types on firms’ decision-making during internationalization, including the use of effectuation’s overarching principle of non-predictive strategy and the analysis of affordable losses as preferred criterion for selecting between action paths. We test our structural model on a sample of 469 SMEs from Brazil, China, and Poland. The analysis demonstrates that the knowledge circulating in the firms’ business networks negatively moderates the relationship between non-predictive strategy and affordable losses, while social networking mediates the relationships between both non-predictive strategy and affordable losses, on the one hand, and international performance, on the other.

  • 4. Fjellström, D.
    et al.
    Bai, W.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Fang, T.
    Springboard internationalisation in times of geopolitical tensions2023Inngår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 32, nr 6, artikkel-id 102144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Geopolitical tensions and a world where state interventions are driven by national security and ideology present novel challenges for emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs). Often, individual companies are targeted, and their corporate growth gets curbed. These phenomena are derived from non-market factors, which are generally absent in the springboard view of the international business discourse that explains the foreign expansion of EMNEs by viewing these firms as ambidextrous organisations capable of handling conflicting requirements. This research aims to understand the international expansion of EMNEs under geopolitical tensions by incorporating non-market factors into the ambidexterity model to enrich the springboard view. A case study of Huawei and its exclusion from the telecommunications industry in Sweden forms the empirical base of this research. The contributions are twofold. First, within the springboard view, the ambidexterity model can be upgraded by incorporating non-market factors that better explain the international expansion of EMNEs in changing geopolitical and business contexts. Second, the research highlights the management of EMNEs' subsidiaries while considering geopolitical tensions. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd

  • 5.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    The performance of decision-making strategies in SME internationalizationManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the relevance of non-predictive strategies for the international expansion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been increasingly discussed, available studies tend to ignore the possibility of synergistic effects between predictive and non-predictive approaches in such a context. This paper contrasts the effects of both strategies on SMEs’ international market performance, considering that their combination can make room for synergistic effects. The analysis combines primary survey data from 851 SMEs in Brazil, China, Italy, Poland, and Sweden with secondary data retrieved from the World Bank. Besides supporting both independent and synergistic performance effects of predictive and non-predictive strategies, the results indicate that foreign market institutions affect each of these effects differently and suggest firm size effects worth consideration. Contributions include the test of the consensus that has been formed around the superiority of non-predictive strategies and the contextualization of SMEs’ decision-making strategies in both external and internal organizational terms.

  • 6.
    Johanson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Uppsala Univ, Dept Business Studies, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. Fdn Getulio Vargas, Ctr Int Business Studies, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    The Performance of Decision-Making Strategies in SME Internationalization: The Role of Host Market's Institutional Development2024Inngår i: MIR: Management International Review, ISSN 0938-8249, E-ISSN 1861-8901, Vol. 64, s. 303-335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) mix and match prediction and non-prediction while making decisions during internationalization remains a highly unaddressed scenario. The rare studies considering it do not go beyond domestic effects when contextualizing the decisions that guide SMEs' foreign expansion. This study links SMEs' decision-making strategies to performance and suggests that such a relationship is moderated by the host market's institutional development and the associated institutional voids. The analysis combines primary survey data from 851 SMEs in Brazil, China, Italy, Poland, and Sweden with secondary data retrieved from the World Bank. Besides supporting both independent and synergistic performance effects of predictive and non-predictive strategies, the results indicate that foreign market institutions affect these effects differently and suggest firm size effects worth consideration. Contributions include the expansion of the debate on the relationship between prediction and non-prediction beyond the either-or reasoning that prevails in existing research and the contextualization of SMEs' decision-making strategies in terms of the institutional dynamics that SMEs encounter abroad.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 7.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Mikrodataanalys.
    Decision-making in SME internationalization: The role and use of Control in decisions made under the uncertainties of foreign market expansion2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) make the backbone of virtually all economies but most of them are only marginally engaged with global markets, particularly those from developing countries. Our ability to advise these firms is currently limited for two major reasons: on the one hand, conventional International Business literature treats the firm as a black box and does not advance in decision-making dynamics that are critical to SMEs' foreign expansion; on the other, recent SME internationalization studies have achieved important progress but seem dependent on the use of Effectuation theory to represent the decisions that guide SME internationalization. This thesis focuses on closing this gap, developing a treatment of SME internationalization that focuses specifically on characterising internationalization-related decisions as being based on firms’ control of their own means, which allow them to proactively create opportunities and take advantage of contingencies (that is, the control principle). Empirically, this thesis builds on a quantitative research design based on survey data collected from 851 SMEs distributed in Brazil, China, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. Analyses of these data were performed with multiple regression equations and structural equation modelling using partial least squares. Results show that SMEs seem more inclined to adopt control-based decisions during internationalization when under uncertainties related to their business networks and when they come from emerging markets. They also reveal that the paths toward the realization of international market performance with control-based decisions seem to involve both firm-level and individual-level dynamics, with social networking playing a critical role. Finally, the findings collectively make it possible to draw a picture that clarifies the conceptualization of the control principle and hints on the multi-level nature of control-based internationalization. Despite limitations, such findings contribute to both International Business and International Entrepreneurship literatures while advancing extant understanding of the nature of the control principle and its role in SME internationalization.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Oliveira, Luis
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Decision-making strategies of internationalization under challenging times: Lessons from SMEs2023Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly important actors of the global market and are particularly exposed to be affected in a scenario marked by an ongoing process of deglobalization and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Both of these phenomena potentialize the liabilities that firms experience abroad, namely foreignness and outsidership. Despite extant progress in understanding the challenging aspects of operating in international markets, there is not much knowledge about how firms’ decision logic frames their international behavior as these firms interact with the various liabilities of firm internationalization. In the same spirit of research that have leveraged the study of SMEs’ international trajectories to unveil new aspects of firm internationalization as a phenomenon, the general purpose of this thesis is: To explore what lessons from SME foreign market expansion can help to understand internationalization decision-making under challenging circumstances. Such a purpose makes room for research questions that call for the use of microdata to solve problems with broad implications for a population of firms. Empirically, this thesis builds on a quantitative research design based on survey data collected from 885 SMEs distributed in Brazil, China, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. Analyses of these data were performed with multiple regression equations, structural equation modelling using partial least squares, and multinomial logistic regression. Results help to understand how the liabilities of foreignness and outsidership can be associated with uncertainties that, together with the resources available to be used by the firms, can lead SMEs to adopt non-predictive strategies to operate abroad. In addition to that, they also indicate how elements of those liabilities can be perceived in dynamics that moderate outcomes of the strategies selected by the SMEs. Such findings provide a platform to extrapolate insights and propositions to advance the discussion of internationalization decision-making under modern challenges such as deglobalization and the COVID-19 pandemic. Theoretical implications of this thesis hold potential to touch the more general research on firm internationalization, whereas its practical implications may help in evolving the support tools available for assisting internationalization decision-making.

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  • 9.
    Oliveira, Luis
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Fleury, A.
    Fleury, M. T.
    Digital power: Value chain upgrading in an age of digitization2021Inngår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 30, nr 6, artikkel-id 101850Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Oliveira, Luis
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys.
    Fleury, Afonso
    Johanson, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi.
    Home country effects on SME’s non-predictive internationalizationManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to establish the effects that home country institutions may have on the internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as it progresses guided by non-predictive strategy, a decision-making approach that focuses on what can be done with the resources at hand instead of spending efforts on goals and plans. Such effects are missing in extant literature comparing SME internationalization with entrepreneurship efforts and are particularly problematic for SMEs, which rely heavily on home government support to internationalize and own few physical assets abroad. We compile our hypotheses in a structural model tested on a sample of 851 SMEs split between selected emerging and developed countries. Our results show that these groups of firms seem to differ in how effectively they can use internationalization knowledge, but no such differences seem to affect the use of upstream value chain knowledge. Downstream value chain knowledge seems to be the least relevant knowledge type. Our study highlights the need to account for home-country effects in SME internationalization and adds to a knowledge-based view of this process.

  • 11.
    Oliveira, Luis
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för information och teknik, Mikrodataanalys. Center for International Business Studies, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Johanson, Martin
    Högskolan Dalarna, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Företagsekonomi. University of Huddersfield, UK; Uppsala University.
    Trust and Firm Internationalization: Dark-side Effects for Internationalization Speed and how to Alleviate them2021Inngår i: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 133, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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