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  • 1. Arya, N.
    et al.
    Chandran, Y.
    Luhar, B.
    Kajal, P.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Balakrishnan, V.
    Porosity-Engineered CNT-MoS2 Hybrid Nanostructures for Bipolar Supercapacitor Applications2023In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 15, no 29, p. 34818-34828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bipolar supercapacitors that can store many fold higher capacitance in negative voltage compared to positive voltage are of great importance if they can be engineered for practical applications. The electrode material encompassing high surface area, better electrochemical stability, high conductivity, moderate distribution of pore size, and their interaction with suitable electrolytes is imperative to enable bipolar supercapacitor performance. Apropos of the aforementioned aspects, the intent of this work is to ascertain the effect of ionic properties of different electrolytes on the electrochemical properties and performance of a porous CNT-MoS2 hybrid microstructure toward bipolar supercapacitor applications. The electrochemical assessment reveals that the CNT-MoS2 hybrid electrode exhibited a two- to threefold higher areal capacitance value of 122.3 mF cm-2 at 100 μA cm-2 in 1 M aqueous Na2SO4 and 42.13 mF cm-2 at 0.30 mA cm-2 in PVA-Na2SO4 gel electrolyte in the negative potential window in comparison to the positive potential window. The CNT-MoS2 hybrid demonstrates a splendid Coulombic efficiency of ∼102.5% and outstanding stability with capacitance retention showing a change from 100% to ∼180% over 7000 repeated charging-discharging cycles. © 2023 American Chemical Society.

  • 2. Attri, Shubham Dutt
    et al.
    Singh, Shweta
    Dhar, Atul
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Multi-attribute sustainability assessment of wastewater treatment technologies using combined fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making techniques2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 357, article id 131849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water, which is predicted to be one of the most critical resources for the near future, also plays a vital role in society's sustainable development. Wastewater treatment is a critical part of the circular water management system and offers various technological alternatives. Taking appropriate decision for the technology selection is, therefore, essential for a long-term perspective. A complex yet imperative process is the sustainable selection of the wastewater treatment process. This paper presents the use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) in the sustainability assessment of wastewater treatment technologies that may be very relevant to the growing sector with many emerging options. A comparison of six wastewater treatment technologies based on four sustainability parameters using three MCDM techniques, namely FSWARA, FMOORA and FTOPSIS is presented in detail. FSWARA is used for weighting criteria and the other two for technology ranking. The detailed step-by-step comparison study is presented and the results were somewhat predictable for the study, and this confirms the reliability of the methodology. This paper's primary objective is to propose a well-defined increscent practice for making sustainable wastewater treatment decisions among state-of-the-art technologies.

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  • 3. Barthwal, M.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, India.
    Effect of Nanomaterial Inclusion in Phase Change Materials for Improving the Thermal Performance of Heat Storage: A Review2021In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 7462-7480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersion of nanoparticles is one of the potential solutions to improve the thermophysical properties of phase change (or transition) materials (PCMs) and enhance the performance of latent thermal energy storage (LTES) systems. The PCM ought to have a high latent heat of fusion, and zero or negligible coefficient of thermal expansion. A good PCM should have melting and solidification compatibility with negligible or zero subcooling, and it should not react with the common chemical reagents. The present known PCMs possess low thermal conductivity that results into a longer solidification and melting time of PCMs. In the past two decades, researchers have reported improved thermal conductivity and heat-storing capacity of PCMs employing graphite nanoparticles/fibers, carbon nanotubes/fibers, metal, and metal oxide nanoparticles. This work reviews the reported experimental and numerical studies describing the consequences of nanoparticle inclusions of various shapes and sizes on the thermal properties of the PCMs. This review attempts to make a consolidated database of the studies related to nanoadditive inclusion into PCMs for various applications. Graphene dispersed into PCM has resulted into 14 times thermal conductivity enhancement. As far as metal oxide nanoparticles are concerned, TiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles outperformed others. The compatibility between the nanoadditive and PCM is necessary to tailor favorable thermal properties. This work reviews numerous studies of different nanoparticle-PCM duos. © 2021 American Chemical Society.

  • 4. Barthwal, M.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005, India.
    The techno-economic and environmental analysis of genetic algorithm (GA) optimized cold thermal energy storage (CTES) for air-conditioning applications2021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 283, article id 116253Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Bonthu, D.
    et al.
    Mahesh, V.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Doddamani, M.
    3D printed functionally graded foams response under transverse load2023In: Results in Materials, ISSN 2590-048X, Vol. 19, article id 100410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The applications of 3D printing are rapidly increasing in aerospace and naval applications. Nonetheless, 3D printing (3DP) of graded foams exhibiting property variation along the thickness direction is yet to be explored. In the current work, the different volume fractions of hollow glass micro balloon (GMB) reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite based graded foams are 3D printed using the fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique. The bonding between successive layers and porosity distribution of these graded configurations are studied using micro-CT scan. Further, the 3D Printed functionally graded foams (FGFs) are tested for flexural response, and results are compared with numerical values. The micro-CT results showed delamination absence between the layers. In neat HDPE layers, porosity is not evident, while minor porosity creeps in the layers having the highest GMB content. Experimental results of the flexural test showed that the graded sandwiches exhibited better strength than the graded core alone. Compared to neat HDPE, the modulus of FGF-2 (H20–H40–H60) increased by 33.83%, implying better mechanical stiffness. Among all the FGFs, FGF-2 exhibited a better specific modulus. A comparative study of experimental and numerical results showed a slight deviation due to neglecting the induced porosity. © 2023 The Authors

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  • 6. Dhar, A.
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Thakur, H.
    System for waste water treatment2020Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7. Duhan, V.
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Jain, T.
    Solar Powered Sensor Node for Wireless sensing network2017Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Duryodhana, D.
    et al.
    Waddar, S.
    Bonthu, D.
    Pitchaimani, J.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Doddamani, M.
    Buckling and free vibrations behaviour through differential quadrature method for foamed composites2023In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 17, article id 100894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work focuses on predicting the buckling and free vibration frequencies (fn) of cenosphere reinforced epoxy based syntactic foam beam under varying loads. Critical buckling loads (Ncr) and fn are predicted using the differential quadrature method (DQM). Ncr and fn have been calculated for beams of varying cenosphere volume fractions subjected to axial load under clamped-clamped (CC), clamped-simply (CS), simply-simply (SS), and clamped-free (CF) boundary conditions (BC′s). Upon increasing the cenosphere volume fraction, Ncr and fn of syntactic foam composites increases. These numerical outcomes are compared with the theoretical values evaluated through the Euler-Bernoulli hypothesis and further compared with experimental outcomes. Results are observed to be in precise agreement. The results of the DQM numerical analysis are given out for the different BC′s, aspect ratios, cenosphere volume fractions, and varying loads. It is perceived that depending on the BC′s, the type of axial varying loads and aspect ratios has a substantial effect on the Ncr and fn behaviour of the syntactic foam beams. A comparative study of the obtained results showed that the beam subjected to parabolic load under CC boundary conditions exhibited a higher buckling load. © 2023 The Authors

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  • 9. Kajal, Priyanka
    et al.
    Ghosh, Kunal
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi.
    Manufacturing Techniques of Perovskite Solar Cells2018In: Applications of Solar Energy / [ed] Himanshu Tyagi, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Prodyut Ranjan Chakraborty and Satvasheel Powar, Springer, 2018, 1, , p. 364p. 341-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Kajal, Priyanka
    et al.
    Indian Inst Technol Mandi, Sch Engn, Mandi 175005, Himachal Prades, India..
    Verma, Bhupesh
    Ctr Study Sci Technol & Policy, Bangalore 560094, Karnataka, India..
    Vadaga, Satya Gangadhara Rao
    Ananyavijaya Consultancy LLP, Bangalore 562107, Karnataka, India..
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Inst Technol Mandi, Sch Engn, Mandi 175005, Himachal Prades, India.
    Costing Analysis of Scalable Carbon-Based Perovskite Modules Using Bottom Up Technique2022In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 2100070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have achieved a remarkable power conversion efficiency of 25.5%, indicating that they are a promising alternative to dominant Si photovoltaic (PV) technology. This technology is expected to solve the world's energy demand with minimal investment and very low CO2 emissions. The market has shown a lot of interest in PSCs technology. A technoeconomic analysis is a useful tool for tracking manufacturing costs and forecasting whether technology will eventually achieve market-driven prices. A technoeconomic analysis of a 100 MW carbon-based perovskite solar module (CPSM) factory located in India is presented in this paper. Two CPSMs architectures-high-temperature processed CPSMs (Module A) and low-temperature processed CPSM's (Module B)-are expected to offer minimum sustainable prices (MSPs) of $ 0.21 W-1 and $ 0.15 W-1. On the basis of MSP, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is calculated to be 3.40 (sic) kWh(-1) for module A and 3.02 (sic) kWh(-1) for module B, with a 10-year module lifetime assumption. The same modules with a 25-year lifespan have LCOEs of 1.66 and 1.47 (sic) kWh(-1), respectively. These estimates are comparable to market dominant crystalline silicon solar modules, and they are also favorable for utilizing perovskite solar cell technology.

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  • 11. Kaundal, Ankur
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Dhar, Atul
    Numerical investigation of the effect of air supply on cook stove performance.2021In: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 193-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In a domestic biomass cook stove, the air supply plays a significant role in improving the overall combustion characteristics. The present research aims to numerically investigate the effect of air supply, division of air intake into primary and secondary air, and its optimization. > In a domestic biomass cook stove, the air supply plays a significant role in improving the overall combustion characteristics. The present research aims to numerically investigate the effect of air supply, division of air intake into primary and secondary air, and its optimization. Methods: The geometries of cook stove combustion chamber were prepared and simulated using species transport model with eddy-dissipation turbulent mixing. The stoichiometric amount of air was split into different ratios varying from 50:50 to 10:90 and simulations were carried out for each case. The computational model was validated and the concentration of CO2, H2O, O2, wood volatile and resultant temperature were compared and analyzed. Results: Species transport in the form of conservation of mass along with momentum conservation and energy conservation gave the spatial distribution of resultant species and spatial temperature distribution. The computational domain with feedstock inlet corresponding to the pyrolysis regime has yielded good results compared to that in the front. In this domain, the primary to secondary air ratio of 50:50 showed the best results due to the dominance of primary air utilization and, thus, less secondary air use even at higher elevations. With the maximum temperature near 1300 K, maximum relative CO2 production, and maximum feedstock utilization, the primary to secondary air ratio of 50:50 observed to be optimum. Conclusions: Due to the adequate intermixing of reactant species and uniform diffusion of product species along the combustion chamber's height, the computational domain with feedstock inlet corresponding to the pyrolysis regime has shown realistic conditions. The temperature profile and mole fraction of various species, thus obtained, can be used to design an efficient cook stove as the cross-section and dimensions of the combustion chamber and chimney relates to approach the desired division of air.

  • 12. Kaundal, S.
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi.
    Dhar, A.
    Solar-Assisted Gasification Based Cook Stoves2018In: Coal and Biomass Gasification: Recent Advances and Future Challenges / [ed] Santanu De, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, V. S. Moholkar Bhaskar Thallada, Springer, 2018, 1, , p. 364p. 403-422Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13. Krishnamoorthy, T.
    et al.
    Kunwu, F.
    Boix, P. P.
    Li, H.
    Koh, T. M.
    Leong, W. L.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Energy Research Institute NTU (ERIN), Research Techno Plaza, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553, Singapore.
    Grimsdale, A.
    Grätzel, M.
    Mhaisalkar, S. G.
    A swivel-cruciform thiophene based hole-transporting material for efficient perovskite solar cells2014In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 2, no 18, p. 6305-6309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Kumar, M. H.
    et al.
    Mathews, N.
    Boix, P. P.
    Nonomura, K.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Energy Research Institute at NTU (ERIatN), 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553, Singapore.
    Ming, L. Y.
    Graetzel, M.
    Mhaisalkar, S. G.
    Decoupling light absorption and charge transport properties in near IR-sensitized Fe2O3 regenerative cells2013In: Energy and Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 3280-3285Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Kumar, S.
    et al.
    Ramesh, M. R.
    Jeyaraj, P.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Doddamani, M.
    Buckling behavior of non-uniformly heated 3D printed plain and functionally graded nanocomposites2023In: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 44, p. 5450-5463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (0.5–5 wt.%) are compounded with high density polyethylene (HDPE), and, subsequently, used for extruding nanocomposite filaments to fabricate nanocomposites (NCs) and functionally graded nanocomposites (FGNCs) through 3D printing. The 3D printed NCs are investigated for coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and buckling under different non-uniform temperature distributions (case-1: left edge heating, case-2: centre heating, and case-3: left and right edge heating). A significant reduction in CTE is observed with MWCNT addition and gradation. The highest reduction in CTE is observed for H5 (5 wt.% of MWCNT in HDPE) NC and H1 ⟶ H3 ⟶ H5 (FGNC-2) among the NCs and the FGNCs. It is noted that Tcr (critical buckling temperature) is highest for case-3 and lowest for case-2. The highest deflection is noticed in case-2, while no significant difference is observed in case-1 and case-3 heating conditions. It is also observed that Tcr increases with gradation and MWCNTs addition. The H5 NC and FGNC-2 exhibited the highest Tcr among the NCs and FGNCs, respectively. The maximum deflection is noticed for HDPE, whereas the minimum deflection is noticed for FGNC-2 and H-5 NC among the tested samples. The results also revealed that Tcr is very sensitive to type of heating. © 2023 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  • 16. Kumar, S.
    et al.
    Sharma, M.
    Kumar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India.
    Vaish, R.
    Rapid bacterial disinfection using low frequency piezocatalysis effect2019In: Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, ISSN 1226-086X, E-ISSN 1876-794X, Vol. 77, p. 355-364Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Kumar, S.
    et al.
    Sharma, M.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, H.P 175005, India.
    Kabachkov, E. N.
    Vaish, R.
    Impact of remnant surface polarization on photocatalytic and antibacterial performance of BaTiO 32019In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 2915-2922Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Kumar, S.
    et al.
    Vaish, R.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi, H.P., 175005, India.
    Surface-selective bactericidal effect of poled ferroelectric materials2018In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 124, no 1, article id 014901Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Mishra, A.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi.
    Solar Thermal Powered Bakery Oven2019In: Advances in Solar Energy Research / [ed] Himanshu Tyagi, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Prodyut R. Chakraborty, Satvasheel Powar, Springer, 2019, 1, , p. 592p. 577-592Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20. Neelam, R.
    et al.
    Kulkarni, S. A.
    Bharath, H. S.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Doddamani, M.
    Mechanical response of additively manufactured foam: A machine learning approach2022In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 16, article id 100801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses ensemble and automated machine learning algorithms to predict the mechanical properties (tensile and flexural strength) of a three-dimensionally printed (3DP) foamed structure. The closed cell foams were made from the most commonly used thermoplastic, High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE). The hollow glass microspheres are infused in HDPE at varying volume %. The available data on these foams' mechanical properties are used by the chosen machine learning (ML) algorithms to propose the best suited algorithm for such a three-phased microstructure as these closed cell foams exhibit. Finally, the strength predictions from the models were validated using experimental data. The models were trained with nozzle temperature, bed temperature, and force values as input parameters. The output parameters predicted were the tensile and flexural strength. LightGBM outperforms all other models in terms of performance among ensemble-based models, while H2OAutoML outperforms all other models. All the ML algorithms produced models with greater than 95% accuracy. Finally, memory and time consumption for each model are presented. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 21. Patil, B.
    et al.
    Bharath Kumar, B. R.
    Bontha, S.
    Balla, V. K.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh 175005, India.
    Hemanth Kumar, V.
    Suresha, S. N.
    Doddamani, M.
    Eco-friendly lightweight filament synthesis and mechanical characterization of additively manufactured closed cell foams2019In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 183, article id 107816Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Powar, A.
    et al.
    Gawade, D.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Prakash, D.
    A Solar Powered System for Displaying Information2018Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Monash University, Clayton, Australia; Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mand, India.
    Bhargava, R.
    Daeneke, T.
    Götz, G.
    Bäuerle, P.
    Geiger, T.
    Kuster, S.
    Nüesch, F. A.
    Spiccia, L.
    Bach, U.
    Thiolate/Disulfide Based Electrolytes for p-type and Tandem Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 182, p. 458-463Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Daeneke, T.
    Ma, M. T.
    Fu, D.
    Duffy, N. W.
    Götz, G.
    Weidelener, M.
    Mishra, A.
    Bäuerle, P.
    Spiccia, L.
    Bach, U.
    Highly efficient p-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on tris(1,2-diaminoethane)cobalt(II)/(III) electrolytes2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 602-605Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Kaundal, A.
    An apparatus for heating or cooking ingredients2019Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Kaundal, A.
    Cookstove design with top cover2021Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Kaundal, A.
    Cookstove design with top cover2021Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Kaundal, A.
    Space Heating fins2021Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Saini, P.
    Pandey, S.
    System for cooking eatables2020Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Gawade, D.
    Powar, A.
    Public Information Display system and method2018Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31. Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Kajal, P.
    Goswami, S.
    Method for Forming TiO2 paste at Ambient Temperature2020Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Wu, Q.
    Weidelener, M.
    Nattestad, A.
    Hu, Z.
    Mishra, A.
    Bäuerle, P.
    Spiccia, L.
    Cheng, Y. -B
    Bach, U.
    Improved photocurrents for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells using nano-structured nickel(ii) oxide microballs2012In: Energy and Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 8896-8900Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    et al.
    Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Research Techno Plaza, Singapore; Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.
    Xiong, D.
    Daeneke, T.
    Ma, M. T.
    Gupta, A.
    Lee, G.
    Makuta, S.
    Tachibana, Y.
    Chen, W.
    Bach, U.
    Improved photovoltages for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells using CuCrO2 nanoparticles2014In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 118, no 30, p. 16375-16379Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Saini, P.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, India.
    Performance enhancement of fin and tube heat exchanger employing curved delta winglet vortex generator with circular punched holes2023In: International Journal of Thermofluids, ISSN 2666-2027, Vol. 20, article id 100452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of vortices has recently gained attention as a potential passive technique for improving air-side heat transfer in a fin and tube heat exchanger. This study proposes novel configurations of a curved delta winglet vortex generator (CDWVG) with and without circular holes to improve heat transfer in FTHEs. The present study utilizes a three-dimensional numerical analysis to investigate the thermal-hydraulic performance analysis of fin and tube heat exchanger (FTHE) with curved delta winglet vortex generators (CDWVG) with or without circular holes, operating across a wide Reynolds number range (i.e., from 400 to 2000). In addition to being arranged in vertical and horizontal configurations, the CDWVGs are oriented in the same way as the flow direction. Therefore, the pressure distribution, temperature distribution, and flow structure distribution of an FTHE with a four-in-line circular tube configuration are analyzed and compared between FTHE without vortex generator (VG) and five different configurations of CDWVG (i.e., CDWVG without hole, CDWVG with 1 hole, CDWVG with 2 holes, CDWVG with 3 holes and CDWVG with 6 holes). The pressure drop (ΔP), London area goodness factor (LAGF) (j/f), Nusselt number (Nu), and Colburn factor (j) are also used to evaluate the thermo-hydraulic performance of FTHE. The FHTE performance with CDWVGs can be affected by the number of punched holes, which is evaluated using a dimensionless number including Performance Evaluation Criteria (PEC), Colburn factor, etc. The thermo-hydraulic efficiency of the FTHE is improved significantly by using CDWVGs with circular punched holes. Nusselt number decreases across all the VG configurations (i.e., CDWVG without hole, CDWVG with 1 hole, CDWVG with 2 holes, CDWVG with 3 holes, and CDWVG with 6 holes) due to the lower flow resistance. Compared to other CDWVG configurations, the 6-hole configuration of CDWVG is the most effective. The Nusselt number of CDWVG with 6 holes increases by 77.25% and 42.51% at Reynolds numbers of 400 and 2000, with respect to fin and tube heat exchangers without vortex generator, respectively. On the other hand, friction is decreased by 5.11%. Therefore, when considering the London area goodness factor, CDWVG with six holes is found to be superior to other CDWVG configurations. © 2023 The Authors

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  • 35. Saini, P.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India.
    Performance enhancement of fin and tube heat exchanger employing curved trapezoidal winglet vortex generator with circular punched holes2023In: International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, ISSN 0017-9310, E-ISSN 1879-2189, Vol. 209, article id 124142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vortex generation is a potential passive technology for increasing the heat transfer rate in the air side of fin and tube heat exchangers (FTHEs). This study proposes novel configurations of a curved trapezoidal winglet vortex generator (CTWVG) with and without circular holes to improve heat transfer in FTHEs. As per the literature, the streamlined form of the trapezoidal winglet demonstrates high heat transfer enhancement with low flow loss and pressure drop. But still, different design configurations are possible to augment the heat transfer characteristics of CTWVG further. The current study investigates the novel configurations of CTWVG (i.e., CTWVG without hole, CTWVG with 1 hole, CTWVG with 2 holes, CTWVG with 3 holes and CTWVG with 6 holes). A three-dimensional computational model is utilized to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic efficiency of FTHEs fitted with CTWVGs with or without circular holes for Reynolds numbers ranging from 400 to 2000. A common flow-down configuration of the CTWVG with circular tubes array is used to reduce the wake region. The thermo-hydraulic performance and flow structure of FTHE with four inline circular tube configurations are compared without VG and CTWVG with or without holes. Pressure drop (ΔP), Nusselt number (Nu), friction factor (f), Colburn factor (j), and London area goodness factor (j/f) are used for the thermal-hydraulic performance comparison. Results show that the number of punched holes has an impact on the FTHE performance, which is measured using a dimensionless number as performance evaluation criteria (i.e., (j/jo)/(f/fo)). CTWVGs with circular punched holes significantly increase the FTHE's thermo-hydraulic performance. The results indicate that the flow resistance is reduced in all cases (i.e., VG with no holes, VG with 6 holes, VG with 3 holes, VG with 2 holes, and VG with 1 hole) with a minor decrease in the Nusselt number. The CTWVG with six holes performs better than other CTWVG configurations. At Reynolds numbers 400 and 2000, the Nusselt number for CTWVG with six holes enhanced by 75.25% and 40.10%; pressure drop increased by 107.88% and 125.51%, respectively. On the other hand, friction is reduced by a factor of 8.1% in CTWVG with 6 holes compared to CTWVG without holes. The CTWVG with six holes performs better than other CTWVG configurations reported in the literature [48,54]. HTPF has increased by 30.96% (compared to rectangular winglet [48]) and 27.69% (compared to curved rectangular winglet [54]) with respect to values reported in the literature. The London area goodness factor (LAGF) has been increased by 275% compared to Modi et al. [48]. © 2023

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  • 36. Saini, P.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, India.
    Performance evaluation of a parabolic trough collector with a uniform helical wire coil flow insert2024In: Results in Engineering (RINENG), ISSN 2590-1230, Vol. 21, article id 101794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is an extremely useful and dependable renewable energy source for meeting our society's diverse energy demands. Solar concentrator-based energy systems are currently the most efficient methods of using solar energy. Among these technologies, the parabolic trough collector is a mature and effective concentrating solar power technology with a wide range of real-world applications using solar alone or in combination with other energy sources. Flow insert is a potential approach for improving parabolic trough solar collector performance through enhanced heat transfer and heat absorption. The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of using a uniform helical wire coil flow insert in the LS-2 parabolic trough solar collector module. A computational fluid dynamic model developed in Ansys 18.1 is used in the current investigation. A uniform helical wire coil flow insert is modeled and compared with the plain tube without any insert inside it. Flow analysis, overall efficiency, exergy efficiency, and thermal efficiency are compared in the evaluation process. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the parabolic trough collector are the most critical criteria in determining its performance. The parabolic trough collector is examined using a range of inlet fluid temperatures ranging from 303 K to 603 K and a volumetric flow rate of 50 L per minute to 250 L per minute. The pumping work is found to be the lowest, indicating that the increase in pressure drop has a negligible effect on the overall system performance. For the flow rate of 50 L per minute and inlet heat transfer fluid temperature of 303 K, the overall, exergy and thermal efficiency using a uniform helical wire coil flow insert are found to be 2.07 %, 2.1 %, and 2.2 %, respectively. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 37. Saini, P.
    et al.
    Dhar, A.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Doddamani, M.
    Cesaro fins parametric optimization for enhancement in the solidification performance of a latent heat storage system with combined fins, foam, and nanoparticle2023In: Energy Reports, E-ISSN 2352-4847, Vol. 9, p. 5670-5687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for latent thermal energy storage enhances the availability of solar energy. PCMs can store a large amount of energy in a small volume using almost entirely isothermal processes. Despite this, the poor thermal conductivity of PCMs is a significant disadvantage of current PCMs, severely limiting their energy storage capabilities. As a result, the solidification/melting rates are reduced to an unacceptable level, and the system reaction time is increased unreasonably. By combining the novel fin arrangement, nanoparticles, and metal foam, the current study improved the solidification rate of the PCM in the Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System (LHTESS). LHTESS was numerically evaluated in ANSYS Fluent 18.1 using a solidification and melting model. The addition of cesaro fins, nanoparticles, and metal foam significantly improved PCM solidification in the LHTESS. PCM solidification time was reduced by 42.42% and 39.39% in Type-3 and Type-5 fin configurations, respectively, when compared to Type-4 fin configuration. Furthermore, a temperature difference of 27 K between the Heat Thermal Fluid (HTF) and the PCM ensures the best solidification performance. By incorporating nanoparticles into PCM and metal foam, the solidification time is reduced by 73.68%. Depending on the foam structure and volume fraction of the nanoparticles, dispersing nanoparticles in PCM with metal foam saves up to 75% of the time. © 2023 The Author(s)

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  • 38. Saini, P.
    et al.
    Pandey, S.
    Goswami, S.
    Dhar, A.
    Mohamed, M. E.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Experimental and numerical investigation of a hybrid solar thermal-electric powered cooking oven2023In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 280, article id 128188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development in technology and changing food habits have drastically altered the cooking method in recent years. Electric ovens are dominating the cooking sector in bakeries, restaurants, and domestic cooking. India holds the second position in terms of revenue generated by the sales of cookers and ovens. The electrical energy requirements are also adding up with electricity-based cooking. In addition, solar energy-dependent solar cooking appliances are available in the market, but they come with their own set of merits and demerits. This paper discusses the new concept and development of an Electric-Solar hybrid cooking appliance. The implemented control mechanism in the fully-featured hybrid OTG (Oven, Toaster, & Griller) oven shows the simplicity and ease of using solar energy in conjunction with electrical energy. The experimental and numerical results show that the temperature distribution inside an electric-solar hybrid oven saves energy up to 51% and takes much less cooking time than electric ovens and solar cooking appliances when operating in hybrid mode. The STEPCO (Solar Thermal-Electric Powered Cooking Oven) oven has demonstrated potential for a relatively quick return on investment, with a payback period of around 2.3 years in hybrid mode and 3.7 years in solar mode. Experimental testing has shown that the hybrid mode of the STEPCO oven achieves an impressive efficiency of 63%, which is significantly higher than that of the electric and solar modes, which are only 35% and 4.0%, respectively. Additionally, the STEPCO oven has the environmental benefit of emitting very little CO2 during the cooking process when used in hybrid mode and zero CO2 emissions when used in solar mode. © 2023

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  • 39. Saini, P.
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dhar, A.
    System for drying articles2018Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40. Saini, Prashant
    et al.
    Dhar, Atul
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology.
    Parametric optimization of a cesaro fins employed latent heat storage system for melting performance enhancement2022In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 51, article id 104534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large-scale use of sustainable energy necessitates the use of latent heat storage (LHS). This study aims to increase the melting performance of an LHS system by designing and optimizing the cesaro fins. To examine the melting behaviours of PCM (i.e., RT-82) in a finned LHS system, a 2-D melting heat transfer model is developed and numerically solved. As per literature, there is very literature including the NC (Natural Convection) and represents the coordination in fins, nanoparticles and metal foam. So, the impacts of natural convection, fin arrangement, nanoparticles and metal foam are explored for the Fourier number variations from 0.014 to 0.158 at a constant Stefan number of 0.20. The dynamic temperature distribution, as well as the natural convection and fin arrangement, are investigated to determine how phase change material melts over time by considering the non-thermal equilibrium between metal foam and PCM/nanoPCM. The findings illustrate that natural convection has a significant effect on melting behaviours in the LHTES (Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage) system, with a 26.8% increase in melting/charging rate as compared to the situation without NC. The LHTES system with improved fin structure (i.e., Type-3) and increased number of fins (i.e., Type-5) configurations have more uniform temperature distribution and a higher melting rate by increasing the heat transfer cooperation between NC and thermal conduction. Low thermal conductivity causes poor performance in PCM (Phase Change Material) energy storage devices. The melting/charging of PCM in an LHTES system is greatly improved in this study by employing a porous metal foam (i.e., copper metal foam) or nanoparticle (i.e., Cu, CuO and Al2O3). The impact of nanoparticle volume fraction and metal foam porosity on the LHTES system's melting/charging performance is also investigated using the enthalpy-porosity technique. According to the results, PCM's melting/charging time is lowered by 63.4% when nanoparticles are mixed in and incorporated with metal foam for the Fourier number varies from 0.014 to 0.158 at a constant Stefan number of 0.20. PCM melting/charging time decreased when the metal foam porosity decreased or increased in the volume fraction of nanoparticles. High porosity metal foams with low volume fractions of nanoparticles can increase melting performance since it assures minimum PCM volume and increases natural convection.

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  • 41. Saini, Prashant
    et al.
    Patil, Dhiraj V.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi.
    Review on Integration of Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Energy Storage2018In: Applications of Solar Energy / [ed] Himanshu Tyagi, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Prodyut Ranjan Chakraborty and Satvasheel Powar, Springer, 2018, 1, , p. 364p. 163-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Saini, Prashant
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Singh, Shweta
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Kajal, Priyanka
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Dhar, Atul
    School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    Khot, Nikhil
    United Nations Industrial Development Organization, New Delhi, India.
    Mohamed, M E
    Chemistry Department, Alexandria University, Egypt; Alamein International University, Alamein City, Matrouh Governorate, Egypt.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    A review of the techno-economic potential and environmental impact analysis through life cycle assessment of parabolic trough collector towards the contribution of sustainable energy.2023In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e17626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parabolic trough collectors (P.T.Cs) are efficient solar energy harvesting devices utilized in various industries, for instance, space heating, solar cooling, solar drying, pasteurization, sterilization, electricity generation, process heat, solar cooking, and many other applications. However, their usage is limited as the high capital and operating costs; according to the International Renewable Energy Agency's 2020 report, the global weighted average levelized cost of electricity (L.C.O.E) for P.T.Cs was 0.185 $/kWh in 2018. This work analyses the economic, technical, and environmental potential of sustainable energy to increase the use of P.T.Cs in different sectors. To study how self-weight, heat loss, and wind velocity affect P.T.C performance, prototype testing, and wind flow analysis were used. Although P.T.Cs outperform in capacity factor, gross-to-net conversion, and annual energy production, improving their overall efficiency is crucial in reducing total energy production costs. Wire coils, discs, and twisted tape-type inserts can enhance their performance by increasing turbulence and heat transfer area. Improving the system's overall efficiency by enhancing the functioning and operation of individual components will also help decrease total energy production costs. The aim is to minimize the L.C.O.E associated with a P.T.C in order to enhance its economic viability for an extended period. When the nanofluid-oriented P.T.C was included in the conventional P.T.C workings, there was a decrease in the L.C.O.E by 1%. Of all the technologies available, ocean, geothermal, and C.S.P parabolic trough plants generate lower amounts of waste and harmful gases, with average emissions of 2.39%, 2.23%, and 2.16%, respectively, throughout their lifespan. For solar-only and non-hybrid thermal energy storage plants, the range of greenhouse gas emissions is between 20 and 34 kgCO2 equivalents per megawatt-hour. Coal, natural gas steam turbines, nuclear power plants, bioenergy, solar PV, geothermal, concentrated solar power, hydropower reservoir, hydropower river, ocean, and wind power plants all release greenhouse gases at rates of 1022, 587.5, 110.5, 633, 111, 48, 41, 82.5, 7.5, 12.5, and 41.5 gCO2-e/kWh, respectively. This information is useful to compare the environmental effect of various energy sources and help us to choose cleaner, more sustainable options for the production of electricity. The ongoing advancements and future scope of P.T.Cs could potentially make them more economically viable for domestic, commercial, and industrial applications.

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  • 43. Shukla, Sudhanshu
    et al.
    Krishna, Anurag
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology.
    Editorial: Eco-Friendly Chalcogenide and Perovskite Based Materials for Solar Energy Conversion2022In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 903776Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 44. Singh, A.
    et al.
    Fekete, M.
    Gengenbach, T.
    Simonov, A. N.
    Hocking, R. K.
    Chang, S. L. Y.
    Rothmann, M.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    School of Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Fu, D.
    Spiccia, L.
    Catalytic Activity and Impedance Behavior of Screen-Printed Nickel Oxide as Efficient Water Oxidation Catalysts2015In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 8, no 24, p. 4266-4274Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Singh, A.
    et al.
    Kaundal, A.
    Jha, R.K.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi.
    Dhar, A.
    Solar Assisted Gasification2019In: Advances in Solar Energy Research / [ed] Himanshu Tyagi, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, Prodyut R. Chakraborty, Satvasheel Powar, Springer, 2019, 1, , p. 592p. 551-576Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46. Singh, Anirudh
    et al.
    Dhar, Atul
    Kumar, Parmod
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Inst Technol Mandi, Sch Engn, India.
    Computational Study on Parametric Variation with Solar Heat Induction of an Entrained Flow Gasifier2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 3873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gasification has played an important role in the sustainable use of waste biomass, providing useful combustible gases in the process. Gasification has an important role in waste management and promotes energy independence for many oil-deficit countries. The gasification process has been studied by various researchers, and improvements have been achieved in its sub-processes such as devolatilization, feed input methods, and so on. We examined the influence of gasifier operation parameters, such as oxidizer content, moisture content in the feedstock, and solar flux input inside the gasifier, on the temperature distribution, velocity distribution, and product gas yields of the gasifier. The results indicate that inducing solar energy at different stages of the gasifier leads to different yields of product gas composition (CO and H-2).

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  • 47. Singh, S.
    et al.
    Doddamani, M.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Kamand, India.
    Multi-objective optimization of machining parameter in laser drilling of glass microballoon/epoxy syntactic foams2023In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 23, p. 3869-3879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of CO2 laser drilling on glass microballoon/epoxy syntactic foams are investigated in this study to optimize machining parameters to achieve a clean hole for various industrial applications. The epoxy matrix is reinforced with glass microballoons in concentrations of 0, 20 and 40 vol%. Cutting speed, laser power and additive percentage are input parameters for optimization. Kerf taper angle, surface roughness and ovality percentage are used as output responses to evaluate hole quality. For the optimization study, hybrid multi-criteria decision-making methods such as grey relational analysis and multi-objective optimization with ratio assessment methods are used, with equal weightage given to each output response. According to the study, low power and high speed produce better machining results such as a smaller kerf taper angle, lower surface roughness and a lower ovality percentage. Furthermore, a higher additive percentage is not appropriate for laser in epoxy/glass microballoon composite because it burns the area near the laser and increases surface roughness. © 2023 The Author(s)

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  • 48. Singh, S.
    et al.
    Kajal, P.
    Dhar, A.
    Mathews, N.
    Boix, P. P.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India .
    Reduced global warming potential in carbon-based perovskite solar modules: Cradle-to-gate life cycle analysis2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 426, article id 139136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the superior stability, technologically developed and cost effectiveness of carbon-based perovskite solar cells over conventional metallic electrode-based architectures, this work investigates the environmental performance of two industrial front-runners architectures i.e., high temperature processed carbon-based perovskite solar modules (CPSMs) and low temperature processed CPSMs using cradle-to-gate Life Cycle Assessment analysis assuming a manufacturing plant in India. According to the study, most of the impacts are due to energy consumption in the annealing and screen print paste process used in ETL, perovskite, HTL and cathode layer for both the architectures. Material selection for the perovskite and other layers has a significant environmental impact on both architectures. Compared to low temperature processed architecture, high temperature processed CPSMs have a greater environmental impact. For a five-year lifetime, the global warming potential (GWP) values for high temperature and low temperature processed CPSMs are 0.180 kg CO2-eq and 0.126 kg CO2-eq, respectively, which are marginally higher than those indicated for commercially available silicon solar cells. Thus, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the minimum lifetime required to compete with GWP values comparable to commercial PVs. High and low temperature processed CPSM needed 16 and 11 years of lifetime, respectively, to match silicon's 25 years of lifetime. On the other hand, the study finds the human toxicity contribution by mono-silicon is extremely high compared to the two CPSM architectures because of the contribution by electricity (44.01%) and use of heavy metals such as copper (16.83%) and steel (11.52%). © 2023 The Authors

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  • 49. Singh, S.
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Putting into practice a decision-making framework for a thorough performance and location evaluation of solar photovoltaic plants in India from distinctive climate zones2023In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 50, article id 101202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy utilization has evolved tremendously in many countries to compete with conventional energy sources due to abundant availability, ongoing module price declines, and efficiency gains. Besides these advantages, most solar power plants continue to underperform due to various technical and environmental factors. Some solar projects in India even failed to meet the generation targets. Hence, to achieve sustainable development goals and be future-ready, solar power plants must be sustainably developed for power generation. One should focus on every sustainable aspect before constructing a powerplant, i.e., proper location selection. This study focuses on this problem and considers seven solar photovoltaic plants from different climatic zones in India to compare their performance and location criteria using fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods. Fuzzy Stepwise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis is used to determine the criteria significance, while Fuzzy COmplex PRoportional ASsessment and Fuzzy ELimination Et Choix Traduisant la REalité (ELimination Et Choice Translating REality) are used to rank the seven solar photovoltaic plants. Given solar photovoltaic plants' high initial investment cost, economic criteria precede all other evaluation criteria in assessment, followed by technical, environmental, and connectivity criteria. The social criteria are neglected here because of the minor societal concerns about deploying solar photovoltaic plants. According to the results, the Unchahar solar photovoltaic plant (from the composite climatic zone) outperforms other selected photovoltaic plants and is determined to be the most appropriate plant. This is due to the lowest levelized cost of energy and lowest total cost for the Unchahar solar photovoltaic plant, as these criteria are the most significant per the study. This study's findings will be useful to energy decision-makers and may serve as a reference for constructing and developing future solar plants. Further, this study will make recommendations for future solar photovoltaic plant development. The study also includes sensitivity analysis to determine the data's robustness. This study is very robust, as the normalized alternative is constant for each criterion, and the ranking remains the same. © 2023 The Authors

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  • 50. Singh, S.
    et al.
    Powar, Satvasheel
    Dalarna University, School of Information and Engineering, Energy Technology. Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand, Himachal Pradesh, Mandi, India.
    Dhar, A.
    End of life management of crystalline silicon and cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules utilising life cycle assessment2023In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 197, article id 107097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid global adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules created the issue of recycling and disposal at their end of life. Several PV modules installed in the late 1980s or early 1990s have reached the end of their 30-year useful life and are now being removed as PV trash. This enormous amount of PV trash acknowledges recycling as a crucial and significant area in the value chain of PV industries. Hence, this study uses an end-of-life perspective to discuss the life cycle evaluation of two market-dominant PV technologies— c-Si and CdTe. This method examines recycling and avoided burden due to recovered material independently in order to determine the overall environmental benefit. The study concludes that recycling glass, metals like copper and aluminium, and semiconductor material from both c-Si and CdTe PV modules has a lower environmental effect than mining, providing, and refining the same components from original sources. © 2023 The Author(s)

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